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York County Place Names, 1896/1905

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York County Place Names, 1896/1905

William F. Ganong published a collection of monographs in 1896, one of which was a Monograph on the Place-Nomenclature of New Brunswick, or A Dictionary of the Place-Names of New Brunswick. The collection was not comprehensive and was a contribution toward ongoing work by others. In 1905 he published an Additions and Corrections to Monographs on the Place-Nomenclature, Cartography, [etc.] of New Brunswick which included additional information. Both of these works were in the Proceedings and Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada and neither is in copyright.

Place names from York County have been identified with the help of the Gazetteer of Canada and are reproduced in this blog post. Many of Ganong’s place names are no longer in the gazetteer. In other cases, place names occur several times in the province with no indication from Ganong as to which place name he was referring. This collection for York County is only for cases where there was no doubt.

Spelling is as found, and some common spellings have changed over the years. Ganong’s references are also as found and no effort has been made to expand upon the citations.

Mi’kmaq’, Maliseet and Passamaquoddy names have been transcribed as well as possible given the imperfections of the original volumes. These will include errors, and a knowledgeable reviewer might be able to suggest improvements. This would be welcomed.

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Aucpaque [from Ganong’s 1896 work] – Former Indian village at Springhill, near Fredericton. From the Maliseet Ek-pah’-halik = tide-head or tide-level, which is descriptive. Pote, 1745, has Apog and Apoge ; a treaty of before 1754 has Octpagh ; also as Ockpack, Ecoupay, Aux pacques. Oak Park, and many other forms; in Saint Valier, 1688, as Sainte Marie; later, Sainte Anne (see Hart’s Island).

Aucpac [from Ganong’s 1905 work] – A collection of the remarkably-diverse spellings of this word has been made by Raymond in his “St. John River” (page 142). Earlier uses are found in the census of 1733, having Ecoupay, in a document of 1735 in the Nova Scotia Archives (II, 98), naming Oepagne (misprint no doubt for Ocpaque), and in a treaty of 1721 given in Baxter’s “Pioneers of France in New England” (page 118) as Kouupahag.

Bright – Parish, 1869. In honour, no doubt, of John Bright, English statesman, then prominent.

Brockway – Settlement. For Artemas Brockway, grantee at this place.

Campbell (Southampton, York.) – Settlement  1856 (p. 208). Perhaps in memory of Sir Archibald Campbell, Lieut. Governor of N.B., 1831 -1837, died 1843.

Campbell or Campbelltown – (Stanley, York). One of the N.B. and N.S. Land Co. settlements (see p. 207). Perhaps in remembrance of Campbellton in Scotland.

Canterbury – Parish, 1855. No doubt named in honour of Hon. Manners-Sutton, in that year Governor of the Province, who himself became Lord Canterbury in 1869. The fact that this parish and Manners-Sutton were named in the same year is very strongly confirmatory of this explanation.

Cardigan – Settlement, 1819. No doubt by its settlers in remembrance of their home in Wales.

Carleton Lake in York County – Called in a grant to Francis Allen in 1827 Carlton Lake, and said to have been named for Governor Carleton.

Caverhill – On Baillie, 1832, I. So named for Dr. Caverhill, a leader among the first settlers.

Charlie Lake – Said locally to be for a hermit, Charlie Flemming, who lived there many years ago (see St. John Sun, Jan. 4, 1892).

Coac Stream – (York) Doubtless from the Maliseet Co-k = a pine tree (Co-k = a pine when at hand; Co-ak, when it is distant). In Munro, 1783, as Gowac; on D. Campbell, 1786, as Goack or Pine River. Extended to a group of islands and even to the main river, here called sometimes Coac Reach. Pr. loc. C-ak.

Crocks Point (above Keswick) – No doubt for an early Acadian resident, surnamed Croc (see Raymond, Canadian History Readings, 336). Confirmatory of this is the occurrence of the name Crock in the Madawaska census of 1820, and of a Crocks Island below the mouth of the St. Francis.

Curries (also Clarks) Mountain – In Maliseet Wee-jo-sis = little mountain. (Wee-jos = mountain.) Mr. Jack gives Po-te-wis-we-jo-sis = little council mountain.

Davidson Lake – Earlier on plans Prince William Lake.

Digdeguash Lakes – The nomenclature of these lakes is given in the Bull. N.H. Settlement. N.B., V, 47. Locally the name is shortened to Digity or Dikety Lakes.

Douglas – Parish, 1824. No doubt in honour of Sir Howard Douglas, then Lieut.-Governor of N. B.

Dumfries – Parish, 1833. Said to be in compliment to Captain Adam Allen, a loyalist and a native of this place in Scotland, who settled at the mouth of Pokiok (Raymond). Pr. loc. Dumfreece.

Eccles Island [aka Nevers Island, ed.] – (York, below Harts Island.) No doubt for Lieut. James Eccles, grantee in 1784. Called Cleoncore on pre-loyalist plans; this, no doubt (as suggested to me by Mr. Jack), is a corruption of Clignancourt, and probably marks the island which was the residence of Rene d’Amours, Sieur de Clignancourt. In the census of 1693(?) he is returned as living at Ekopag, i.e., near Springhill (see Aucpaque).

Eel River – (Carleton-York). Descriptive. On Morris, 1784, in the present form. In Maliseet Mad-a-wam-kee-took = with rapids at its mouth; descriptive, (it is not navigable below Benton.) Sometimes also Caut-a-wee-sce-boo-ok, translation of the English into Indian. In Munro as Madouankato, though of uncertain application. Also perhaps Sus-ko-wul-ko (Chamberlain), the Siscaralligoh of the Peachy map. On French maps of the last century and in other records, called Meductic (which see). The portage from Eel Lake to North Lake is in Allen, 1777, Metagmoughschosh (Kidder).

Erina, Lake Said to have been made up by Thomas Baillie, Surveyor-General, an Irishman, to recall Erin. He had a grant at its eastern end. On Lockwood, 1826; earlier, Yoho Lake (see Yoho). [Presently gazetted as Yoho Lake, ed.]

Fredericton – Named in 1785 by Governor Carleton in honour of Prince Frederick, Bishop of Osnaburg, second son of King George III. It occurs first in an order in council dated February 22, 1785, “a town at St. Anne’s Point, on the River St. John, to be called Frederick Town, after His Royal Highness the Bishop of Osnaburg.” In early days sometimes called Osnaburg (Raymond). It is nicknamed in the Province, the “Celestial City.” Pr. loc. often Fredicton. In Maliseet it is See-dahn-sis (or See-nan-sis), Little Saint Annes, the name apparently having applied originally to near where Government House stands. See-dahn is now Indian Village. By the French called Sainte Annes (which see).

French Village – (York) Descriptive of a former French settlement, founded perhaps by Louis Mercure, who was granted land hero before 1783, but afterwards removed to Madawaska.

Gardens Creek – (Kingsclear, York.) No doubt for William Garden, who was granted land upon it. In Allen, 1777, and on old plans, Pierre Paul Creek; In Gardens grant a few acres were reserved for Pierre Paul, no doubt an Indian.

Gardens Creek – (Prince William, York.) On D. Campbell, 1785, R. Goodywamkeck. By mistake Mr. Jack applies this to Jocelynes Brook.

Grand John Brook – Said to be named for an Indian of that name who used to hunt there.

Grand Lake – (York). Descriptive; probably not directly from the French, but applied by the English from analogy with other Grand Lakes. On a survey map of 1785 in British Museum. In Titcomb’s survey, 1798 (Maine Hist. Mag. vii. 154, viii. 164) Long Pond. In Passamaquoddy called Kee-ok-qu-sak or Kwee-ok-qu-sak-ik = where gulls raise young on rocks(?) (Kee-ok = a gull). It was first used on Bellin, 1744, in the form Kaouakousaki, and persists variously spelled on maps down to the present century. The recognition of the identity of this name disposes of the contention of some writers that the river flowing from it called St. Croix on Mitchell’s map was Magaguadavic (see Magazine of American History, xxvi, 261-205, also xxvii, 72). By Springer called Modongamook, but a mistake; the latter is the name of Grand Lake on the Penobscot (see Hubbard, p. 200).

Green Hill – The name in 1783 of the hill on which the Burton Court House now stands. (Coll. N. B. Hist. Soc, II, 296).

Hanwell [From Ganong’s 1896 work, ed.] – Settlement. Said to be for the suburb of London of that name. On Baillie I., 1832.

Hanwell [From Ganong’s 1905 work, ed.] – Used in the St. Andrews-Fredericton road survey of 1826-27, and said locally to have been named for an early family of residents of that name.

Harts Island – (York). Origin? Its aboriginal Maliseet name is uncertain. Mr. Jack has given me Wah-ca-loo-sen = fort, because once fortified by them, but this is doubtful. In a grant of 1763, and on several pre-loyalist maps it is called Sandon Id., which is no doubt the Maliseet pronunciation of Saint Anne. Fredericton was See-dan-sis = Little Sainte Anne; Aucpaque was probably Sainte Anne until the Indians removed to Indian Village in 1704; now that is Sainte Anne.

Harvey Settlement – Named in 1837, the year of its foundation, by Mr. Andrew Inches, in honour of Sir John Harvey, then Lieutenant-Governor of N. B.

Jocelyns Brook – [aka Joslin Creek, ed.] Maliseet, Good-e-wam-kik, given by Jack, applies really to Gardens Creek.

Kellys Creek – (York.) On D. Campbell map, 1785, Scudawapakacksis. See Longs Creek.

Keswick – [From Ganong’s 1896 work] From the Maliseet Noo-kam-keech-wuk, gravelly river, shortened and altered. On the Peachy map, 1783, it occurs as Nequomquiqwi and also Madam Kissway, as two streams. Morris, 1784, has Madamcajwick. Later it becomes familiarized to Madam Keswick, and occurs thus in many maps and documents of 1784 and later; next the Madam is dropped, the first occurrence without it being on Lockwood, l826. It has been claimed that the name is from Keswick, England, but there is no evidence for this. Pr. loc. Kesway or Kisway.

Keswick – [From Ganong’s 1905 work] As Madame Keswick on Sproule’s map of 1787 (later, Map No. 38). Compare Kedgwick. [Ganong presents the following for “Kedgwick River”, ed.:] – This name appears in the documents connected with the Boundary Surveys of 1818. Thus, C. Campbell in his Diary of that year has invariably Madam Kiswic or Grand Fourche, which strongly suggests that the name is fundamentally the same as that of the Keswick (which see); Tiarks has Memkeswic, while the Tiarks and Burnham map has Katawamkisiry. The Belle Kedgwick is, no doubt, properly Bell Kedgwick; the Final Report of the Graham Commission of 1842 shows that a Captain Bell surveyed the Green River in 1842, and crossed to this branch, and on Graham’s map of 1843 showing these surveys it is called, apparently for the first time, Bell Kedgwick.

Keswick Ridge – In Maliseet Ques-a-wed-nek = the end hill. (Ques-a-way = point; adn = hill; ek, locative.

Kingsclear – [From Ganong’s 1896 work] Parish, 1786. Locally, and no doubt correctly, said to be from Kings Clearing, the clearing made by its first settlers, the king’s troops. It is appropriate that Kingsclear and Queensbury stand side by side.

Kingsclear –  [From Ganong’s 1905 work] A local tradition asserts, as Dr. Raymond tells me, that this name originated from “King’s clearings”, applied in pre-Loyalist days to the open space left by the cutting of the King’s pine-trees (which there were abundant) for the Royal Navy.

La Coote, Lake and Stream, York – No doubt named for the Indian La Coote, who lived just above Vanceboro (see Historic Sites, 223, and Acadiensis, I, 195). On an old plan just at the outlet of this lake is placed Ticket Madeoukai, evidently an Indian word.

Little Digdeguash River and Lakes – (York). In Passamaquoddy the lakes are Quee-tol-a-quee-gun-ah-gum, which they say = dry meat there. They empty into Palfrey, but a slight alteration in level would send them into the Digdeguash, where perhaps, they once emptied. Their similarity in name in the face of this fact is very curious.

Longs Creek – (York). No doubt for Abraham Long, an early grantee. In Maliseet, Es-kool-a-wops-kek = the fire rock, i.e., the rock red as if red hot (Es-koot, fire, wops, rock, kek, locative). In l690, in description of de Bellefonds Seigniory, as Skoulieopskek (misprint, no doubt, for Skouteopskek); Munro, 1783, Scoodac.

Mactaquac – Mactaguack on Sproule’s map of 1786, and as Mactuquac in the Land Memorials of 1786.

Magaguadavic – This is the standard spelling of this word, though its pronunciation is invariably “Macadavy.” The retention of the longer spelling is no doubt connected with the constant official use of the longer form through the many documents and maps of the Boundary disputes, as shown in the Monograph on Boundaries, 277.

Magundy – I think, without doubt, of Maliseet Indian origin. Apparently an early Indian portage to the Magaguadavic Lakes passed by way of this stream (see later in these Addenda under “portages”). Very likely it is the same word as appears in Magundicook and possibly Mooselemeguntic in Maine, and, perhaps, related to Slugundy, which see. This origin is confirmed by the form Magundic Ridge, 1823, in the Land Memorials, and by the local tradition, which also makes it of Indian origin.

Maryland. – Settlement. Named probably by settlers of the Maryland regiment of loyalists in memory of their old home in that State. Mentioned in House of Assembly. Journal for 1817.

Maxwell – Former name of a settlement made on Eel River in 1842 (see Settlements Monograph). It was probably named for Lieut.-Col. A. M. Maxwell of the 36th Regiment, the commander of the N.B. soldiers in the “Aroostook War.” He returned to England in 1840 with the esteem of the people of New Brunswick.

McAdam – [From Ganong’s 1896 work, ed.] Of course from the Junction.

McAdam Junction – [From Ganong’s 1896 work, ed.] Named about 1869 in honour of Hon. John McAdam, of Saint Stephen, long a member of the Provincial Legislature.

McAdam – [From Ganong’s 1905 work] The present site of the Junction was about 1850 called City Camp, because of the large number of lumber camps then in the immediate vicinity, as I am told by Mr. A.M. Hill. When railway construction (i.e., the eastern extension between Vanceboro and St. John) began in 1869, the place bore this name for a time. But a watering station established two miles up the line on McAdam Brook (so named because lumbered by John McAdam) became known as McAdam, and the name gradually was transferred to the Junction, the watering place being later named Maudsley (for a British capitalist interested in the road). Thus the name gradually became applied to the junction and was afterwards extended to the parish. This is probably strictly correct, and it is wholly in conformity with the method by which place names arise.

Millville – (York). An N.B. and N.S. land company settlement (p. 207).

Monument Brook – [From Ganong’s 1896 work, ed.] – Descriptive. The monument marking the eastern end of the land boundary between Canada and the U.S. is placed at its head. In Passamaquoddy, perhaps, Chee-bee-ot-que-seep.

Monument Brook – [From Ganong’s 1905 work, ed.] In Maliseet Titiakmige, meaning low-ground throughout. (Gatschet, Eastport Sentinel, Sept. 15, 1897).

Moosehorn Brook – Descriptive. Probably a translation of the Maliseet Moose: sum-wee-see-book = moose’s horn brook (Raymond).

Nackawic – A branch of this river appears to bear the name, doubtless Indian, Naraguisis (see Select Committee Report of 1861, 17, 70). Possibly connected with Naraguagus (Naleguagus, which see).

Nashwaak River – From the Maliseet Nah-wij-e-wauk, of uncertain meaning; Trumbull gives a similar word as common in New England, Nashawake – land between a half-way place, but of course a different word. The same name applied to Hammond River, and is preserved in Nauwigewauk station (which see). Norrigowock in Maine is, perhaps the same. In the Seigniorial grant of 1676 to the Sieur de Soulanges, as Nahouac. Occurs frequently in early records, variously spelled.

Nashwaaksis – Maliseet = Little Nashwaak. In grant of 1765, as Natchouakchich or Nashwakchich. On maps like that of Peachey, Petite Riviere = Little River, probably its Acadian name. Pro. Loc., Nash-wa-sis.

New Maryland – Parish, 1850. No doubt for the Maryland settlement.

North Lake – (York). Descriptive. On the boundary map of 1798.

Palfrey Lake – Origin? On the boundary map of 1798, but apparently written in later by another hand. As Palphrey on a plan of 1835. On a Ms. map of about 1845PalfreyMountains are marked between North Lake and Pokiok. In Passamaquoddy, Um-quee-mink, probably = half ripe, referring to cranberries they used to gather and dry there. In Titcomb’s survey, 1796 (Maine Hist. Mag. vii, and viii, 164), as Omquememkeeg. Carleton’s map of Me., 1802, and others, have Umquemenkeeg.

Penniac Brook – From the Maliseet Pan-wee-ok = opening out of level land; (perhaps the opposite of Po-kee-ok ; see Pokiok). In Munro, 1783 as Pamouyack.

Phyllis Creek – A name of the last century for Hermitage, or Baillie’s Creek, Fredericton.

Pirate Brook Lake, York – On an old plan the lake is called Scooncygomskiktic, no doubt its Passamaquoddy name.

Pokiok River – (York). From the Maliseet Po-kee’-ok = a narrow place or gorge, which is descriptive (Pok = narrow, kee-ok = entrance?) It occurs five times in N. B., (1) in York, (2) on the Tobique, (3) three miles below Hartland, (4) on the north branch of the Becaguimec, (5) just above Indiantown. It is said that all are alike in having the gorge or narrows at the mouth. On Morris, 1784, as Pukuyaut. On a plan of 1785 as Poquiouk Creek.

Pocowogamis, Lake and Brook – From the Maliseet Po-co-wog’-a-mus or Poc-wah-gum-is  = shallow (or mud) pond, applied properly only to the lake. Occurs several times for small muddy lakes.

Prince William – Township 1783, Parish 1786. Named by the King’s American Dragoons, who settled here, in honour of their patron, Prince William, afterwards King William IV (Raymond).

Queensbury – Parish 1786. Settled by the Queen’s Rangers, a loyalist corps, whence, no doubt, its name.

Savage Island [From Ganong’s 1896 work, ed.] – Descriptive of the former residence here of the Indians. In Maliseet it is Con-nee-o-ta’-nek or Nea-ni-odan (Jack) =Old Town. Here was probably their principal village from very early times. On Morris, 1775, and others, Indian Island.

Savage Island [From Ganong’s 1905 work, ed.] – Called upon the early maps Indian Island. The persistence of the form Savage unquestionably is an inheritance from the French to whom, of course, it was Isle Sauvage. There is a Savage Island, having, no doubt, a similar origin on the St. John about 10 miles below the St. Francis.

Shin Creek – In this form in 1811 in the Land Memorials. Perhaps, for Shin River, in Scotland.

Shogomoc – The D. Campbell map of 1785 has Sehogomuck, or Snow Shoe River. It is called Little Eel River by Sproule, map of 1787.

Sisters Brooks – Called by the lumbermen Miss Nashwaak and Sister Ann.

Skiff Lake – Named, as I was told by Mr. John Stewart, by Hon. John McAdam because when he first cruised it for lumber, long prior to any settlement in the vicinity, he found there a skiff. This may have been a relic of the Titcomb survey of the lake in 1794.

Slugundy – A name, apparently Indian, which is in local use (though not on any maps) on the St. Croix between Grand and Chepedneck Lakes, on the Lepreau and on Tobique. It appears to apply to rapids or small falls. The same word appears on the Mattawamkeg, according to Springer, Forest Life and Forest Trees, 167, and, perhaps, occurs elsewhere on Penobscot waters. Possibly has some relation with Magundy, which see.

Stanley – Settlement about 1835, N.B. & N.S. Land Co. (p. 207); in honour of Lord Stanley, then Colonial Minister.

Stanley – Parish 1837; repealed 1838; reestablished, 1846. Of course from the settlement.

Southampton – Parish 1833. Probably suggested by its position relative to Northampton.

Spednic – Name of falls and also a lake on the east branch of the St. Croix; of course, a lumberman’s corruption and abbreviation of the Indian Chiputneticook.

Sugar Island – Probably descriptive of an abundance of sugar maples upon it. In Maliseet So-gle-a-men-iek = sugar island (soglea, from the French sucre = sugar, and meneek =Island), probably an Indian translation of an Acadian name for it, not aboriginal. See letter in Footprints, p. 59.

Taxes – Both the older and better form is Taxes, not Taxis, since it was named, no doubt, for the Indian Tax.

Taxis River – Doubtless for an Indian named Tax who once lived upon it; two Micmacs have told me so, and Cooney mentions an Indian of that name; a plan of 1809 has Tax’s River. On a plan of 1801 as Taxes. In Micmac, Wak-mutk = clear water, which it probably is (compare Rand, Middle River, Wakumutkook = pellucid water). In Maliseet I have Quec-le-guec and Teg-a-twa-getchk, but both are uncertain.

Tay Creek – On plan of 1787 as Macktuguack or Tay. Doubtless named by Dugald Campbell, surveyor, who lived at its mouth.

Tay Settlement – Founded 1819. No doubt named from the creek.

Temperance Vale – N.B. and N.S. Land Co. settlement (p. 207).

Toby Guzzle – Name of a small deadwater, and very crooked branch of the Digdeguash near McAdam, and also formerly a station or siding of the railroad here. A Guzzle is an English term for drain or ditch. The word is also used in the Field-book of the Surveyors of the Magaguadavic in 1797 for tiny streams emptying into a lake.

Wauklehegan – Name of a lake, no doubt Indian, near McAdam Junction; see Bull. N.H.S., V, 47.

Williamsburg – N.B. and N.S. Land Co. settlement (p. 207). Perhaps in honour of King William IV.

York, County – Certainly in honour of the Duke of York, for whom Fredericton was named (Coll. N.B. Hist. Soc, II, 60).

– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –

Others of Note:

Acadia – This name is more fully discussed in the New Brunswick Magazine, III, 153; in the Educational Review, XVI, 12; and in the Monograph on Boundaries, 161. The current explanation is given by Dawson, in his Acadian Geology, and also in the Canadian Antiquarian for Oct., 1876.

New Brunswick [From Ganong’s 1896 work, ed.] – Named when set off from Nova Scotia in 1784, no doubt in compliment to the reigning house of England. Earlier a part of Acadia and Nova Scotia. By Sir William Alexander, 1624, it was named New Alexandria and Nova Scotia was New Caledonia. Purdy in his maps of 1814 and later, makes it a part of Cabotia. There is evidence that at one time it was proposed to call it Pittsylvania, in compliment to William Pitt (Raymond, 62).

New Brunswick [From Ganong’s 1905 work, ed.] – The earliest use I have found of this name is of date May 29, 1784, a document in Archives Report for 1894, 419. On other proposed names see Raymond in N.B. Magazine, III, 44; Canadian History Readings, II, 52; Canadian Archives, 1894, 418; Winslow Papers, 174. In earlier records and maps it appears very frequently as New-Brunswick. A frequent local pronunciation is Noo-Brumsick.


Written by johnwood1946

February 8, 2012 at 2:59 PM

Posted in Uncategorized

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