New Brunswick History and Other Stuff

Table of Contents, Rev. May 16, 2018

leave a comment »

The blog posts follow this Table of Contents, in the sequence shown.

To access a particular post, copy and paste the title, or a sufficient part of the title, to the search box to the right.

  1. John Gyles, His Times and How he was Captured – May 16, 2018
  2. An Illustrated Description of the Building of Stanley, New Brunswick – May 9, 2018
  3. A Proposal to Buy Canada for $85.7-million, plus Other Considerations – May 2, 2018
  4. To Fredericton, Stanley and Woodstock, on my Way to the Tobique in 1851 – Apr. 25, 2018
  5. The Principal Hotels in the Maritime Provinces, 1905, With Photographs – Apr. 18, 2018
  6. Halifax From 1749 to 1800 — Minus the Wars and Politics – Apr. 11, 2018
  7. William Brydone Jack on the Future of University Education in New Brunswick – Apr. 4, 2018
  8. Saint John: From Nothing, to Become Canada’s Winter Port – Mar. 28, 2018
  9. Saint John, New Brunswick Churches in 1910 – Mar. 21, 2018
  10. Chief Making Among the Passamaquoddy Indians – Mar. 14, 2018
  11. Canoeing Down the Restigouche River in 1895 – Mar. 7, 2018
  12. Northern New Brunswick, Heaven on Earth – Feb. 28, 2018
  13. Indian Place Names From Around Passamaquoddy Bay – Feb. 21, 2018
  14. Alexander McNutt’s Accomplishments Went Well Beyond Maugerville – Feb. 14, 2018
  15. Albert County, New Brunswick, about 170 Years Ago – Feb. 7, 2018
  16. 1865: Rise in Support of this Mighty Project! The Confederation Debate – Jan. 31, 2018
  17. The Genesis of Prince Edward Island’s Distinctive Property Laws – Jan. 24, 2018
  18. Saint John’s ‘English Period’, 1758 to 1782 – Jan. 17, 2018
  19. Education in New Brunswick in 1837 – Jan. 10, 2018
  20. The Babcock Tragedy, a Story of Madness and Murder – Jan. 3, 2018
  21. Cape Breton, from about 1000 AD to the Mid-1600’s – Dec. 27, 2017
  22. Christmas as it was in Saint John, 1808 – Dec. 23, 2017
  23. The Saint John River, the Rhine of America – Dec. 20, 2017
  24. A Veiled Threat to Invade New Brunswick – Dec. 13, 2017
  25. A Few Weeks in 1755, the Expulsion of the Acadians Begins – Dec. 6, 2017
  26. The Magical Dancing Doll – Nov. 29, 2017
  27. Immigration to New Brunswick in 1832, and Lumber Mills – Nov. 22, 2017
  28. Harvey, New Brunswick, 1837 – Nov. 15, 2017
  29. On the Road to Responsible Government in New Brunswick – Nov. 8, 2017
  30. Through the Woods in the Dead of Winter; Fredericton to the Miramichi – Nov. 5, 2017
  31. Acadia in 1720, as Seen by Paul Mascerene – Oct. 25, 2017
  32. Nova Scotia’s Sham Government in 1720 – Oct. 18, 2017
  33. Three Short Wabanaki Thunder Stories – Oct. 11, 2017
  34. Stanley, N.B., Carved from the Wilderness – in a Hurry – Oct. 4, 2017
  35. Drunkenness Yearly More Common Amongst all Classes – Sept. 27, 2017
  36. John Cabot, London Superstar and Discoverer of Cape Breton – Sept. 20, 2017
  37. Nicolas Denys, the First Proprietor and Governor of all of the Gulf Coast of Acadia – Sept. 13, 2017
  38. Promoting New Brunswick in 1832 – Sept. 6, 2017
  39. A View of Acadian History, from 30,000 Feet – Aug. 30, 2017
  40. Nova Scotia During the Revolution, an American Perspective – Aug. 23, 2017
  41. The Many Trials of Richard Valpey of Yarmouth, and his Service to the American Cause During the Revolution – Aug. 16, 2017
  42. From Saint John to Annapolis Royal, Around the Bay of Fundy in 1787 – Aug. 9, 2017
  43. Nova Scotia in 1775: “Every Spot is Inhospitable and Frigid” – Aug. 2, 2017
  44. Notes About Edward Cornwallis, Who Has Been in the News Lately – July 26, 2017
  45. Starving, Fly-Bitten, and Lost in the Woods – July 19, 2017
  46. Saint John and Saint George, New Brunswick, in 1842 – July 12, 2017
  47. The Razing of Chignecto, and the Attack on Fort Nashwaak – July 5, 2017
  48. Captain Henry Mowat’s Account of the Battle on the Penobscot – June 28, 2017
  49. Voyage of the First Fleet of 1783, and the Settlement of Kingston by a Band of Loyalists – June 21, 2017
  50. 1,500 Dead in Saint John. The Cholera Epidemic of 1854 – June 14, 2017
  51. Fishing on the Nepisiquit River in the 1870’s – June 7, 2017
  52. The Clock at Fredericton City Hall – May 31, 2017
  53. Prohibition in Saint John in the 1920’s, an Exposé – May 24, 2017
  54. Boss Gibson’s First Railroad – May 17, 2017
  55. The New Brunswick Postal Service in 1856 – May 10, 2017
  56. Defending the ‘Worthless, Unsteady and Villainous’ Cutters of Wood – May 3, 2017
  57. Tossed by the Sea Into a Frozen Wilderness-1788 – Apr. 26, 2017
  58. The King of France Cannot Have Given You Our Land, Because it Was Not His – Apr. 19, 2017
  59. Bureaucracy and the Expulsion of the Acadians – Apr. 12, 2017
  60. From Pictou, Nova Scotia to Saint John, New Brunswick via Charlottetown and Shediac in 1867 – Apr. 5, 2017
  61. A Sunday EXTRA: No Meeting of Minds Between the Acadians and the British in 1717 – Apr. 2, 2017
  62. Grand Falls, New Brunswick in 1844 – A Vast Ocean of Trees – Mar. 29, 2017
  63. Shabby Streets, Decaying Houses, and Steep Plank Sidewalks. Saint John in 1874 – Mar. 22, 2017
  64. In the Beginning – Wabanaki Creation Stories – Mar. 15, 2017
  65. Pride versus Rascals and Villains in Saint John in 1791 – Mar. 8, 2017
  66. The Trent Affair – Mar. 1, 2017
  67. A Shocking Description of Anti-Confederates in Rural Nova Scotia in 1867 – Feb. 22, 2017
  68. Surveying Through the Wilderness in 1844 – Feb. 15, 2017
  69. At the Bend of the Petitcodiac in 1844: Moncton – Feb. 8, 2017
  70. Maria Rye and Her British Home Children – Feb. 1, 2017
  71. New Brunswick’s East Coast in 1832, Following the Miramichi Fire – Jan. 25, 2017
  72. Slavery in the Loyalist Era – Jan. 18, 2017
  73. Weather and the Seasons in Micmac Mythology – Jan. 11, 2017
  74. New Brunswick’s Roads in 1832: ‘Many paths are misnamed roads’. Jan. 7, 2017
  75. Nova Scotia and New England During the Revolution – Dec. 28, 2016
  76. A Holiday Special: Christmas as it Was in Saint John in 1808 – Dec. 23, 2016
  77. Expressions from Cuffer Down plus Signs and Omens – Dec. 21, 2016
  78. From Passamaquoddy to the Petitcodiac: What it Was Like in 1832 – Dec. 14, 2016
  79. Raymond Writes About the Lives and Customs of the Mi’kmaq and Maliseet People – Dec. 7, 2016
  80. The Governor’s House was an Outrage to Good Taste – Fredericton in 1832 – Nov. 30, 2016
  81. An Unparalleled and Abominable Deception – Nov. 23, 2016
  82. Not a Metropolis, but the Largest Town in the Province – Saint John in 1832 – Nov. 16, 2016
  83. Lumber Camp Life, and Game-Wardens Poaching Moose – Nov. 9, 2016
  84. Louisbourg: It Didn’t Have to Happen. It Just Didn’t Have to Happen – Nov. 2, 2016
  85. Let Us Consider the Lowly Seagull – Oct. 26, 2016
  86. 5 – David Kennedy Completes His Travels of 1876 in Halifax – Oct. 19, 2016
  87. 4 – David Kennedy’s Tour of Nova Scotia in 1876 – Oct. 12, 2016
  88. 3 – David Kennedy’s Tour of Newcastle, Chatham and Bathurst in 1876 – Oct. 5, 2016
  89. 2 – David Kennedy’s Visit to Saint John, New Brunswick in 1876 – Sept. 28, 2016
  90. 1 – David Kennedy’s Travels from Quebec City to New Brunswick in 1876 – Sept. 21, 2016 (This blog posting was lost on Sept. 28th. I decided not to re-post, since it would clutter my subscribers’ screens.)
  91. A Short History of Early English Nova Scotia – Sept. 14, 2016
  92. Fish Wardens Described as Useless Political Appointments – Sept. 7, 2016
  93. With Indian Guides in the Wilds of New Brunswick, 1862 – Aug. 31, 2016
  94. Blog past #300: Port Royal from 1604 to 1613. Of Heritage Value to all North Americans – Aug. 24, 2016
  95. Hunting Down the Last of the Old Growth Pine – Aug. 17, 2016
  96. Dr. James Robb – Aug. 10, 2016
  97. Peace Negotiations With Pierre Tomah on the Saint John River – Aug. 3, 2016
  98. Business Opportunities on Campobello Island – July 27, 2016
  99. A Pompous Captain on the Evils of Logging – July 20, 2016
  100. The Too-Easy Life of Nova Scotians Disproved – July 13, 2016
  101. Why Not to Marry a Nova Scotia Woman, and How to Make Maple Sugar – July 6, 2016
  102. The Bloody Assault on Fort Louisbourg in 1758 – June 29, 2016
  103. The Medical Men of Saint John in its First Half Century – June 22, 2016
  104. Henry Ketchum and the Chignecto Marine Transport Railway – June 15, 2016
  105. A War Journal from Majabidwaduce on the Penobscot – June 8, 2016
  106. Mi’kmaq Magic and Medicine – June 1, 2016
  107. Thomas Wood, and His Visit to the Saint John River in 1769 – May 25, 2016
  108. The Northern Colonies: Languishing in Mediocrity – ca 1804 – May 18, 2016
  109. Fredericton’s Victoria Cottage Hospital – May 11, 2016
  110. The Passamaquoddy Wampum Records – May 4, 2016
  111. Slog on, or Die – Apr. 27, 2016
  112. Changes Nova Scotia Underwent from Discovery to 1758 When the First General Assembly Met in Halifax – Apr. 20, 2016
  113. The Disastrous Winter on St. Croix Island, 1604-05, and Other Adventures – Apr. 13, 2016
  114. Missions to the Mi’kmaq and Maliseet in the Early 1800’s – Apr. 6, 2016
  115. It Sounded Like a Residential School Philosophy – Mar. 30, 2016
  116. The Acadian Fugitives – Mar. 23, 2016
  117. Giddy, Eccentric, and Discontented Characters, or Misguided Souls, or Turncoats? – Mar. 16, 2016
  118. Indian Routes of Travel in New Brunswick – Mar. 9, 2016
  119. Historic Sites from the English Period on the Saint John River – Mar. 2, 2016
  120. How to Hunt a Moose, a Goose, and a Caribou in New Brunswick in 1791 – Feb. 24, 2016
  121. William Hubbard Complains to Edward Winslow about the Congregationalists in Sheffield – Feb. 17, 2016
  122. Good Fences Make Good Neighbours – Feb. 10, 2016
  123. WE NEED THE ACADIANS TO REMAIN: Lieut Governor, 1715 – Feb. 2, 2015
  124. Guy Carleton on the Fur Trade in Canada, 1767 – Jan. 27, 2016
  125. A Letter on Irish Immigrants – Jan. 20, 2016
  126. The Wreck of the ‘Lord Ashburton’ – Jan. 13, 2016
  127. A Ghost at Noonday – Jan. 6, 2016
  128. Silas Rand on the Mi’kmaq People – Part 3: Will Not the Bright Sun and the Blue Heavens Testify Against Us? – Dec. 30, 2015
  129. Silas Rand on the Mi’kmaq People – Part 2: To Every Thing There is a Season – Dec. 23, 2015
  130. Silas Rand on the Mi’kmaq People – Part 1: All Men From One Blood – Dec. 16, 2015
  131. Limits to the Royal Bounty – Dec. 9, 2015
  132. Nova Scotia, a Receptacle for Superfluous People? – Dec. 1, 2015
  133. From New Ireland to New Brunswick – Nov. 25, 2015
  134. The Most Gentlemanlike Government on Earth – Nov. 18, 2015
  135. I Love You for Your Plainness – Nov. 11, 2015
  136. Ward Chipman Remembers the Final Evacuation of New York – Nov. 4, 2015
  137. A Reply to “Men of Honor and Probity Run Amok” – Oct. 28, 2015
  138. A Century of Educational Progress in New Brunswick from 1800 to 1900 – Oct. 21, 2015
  139. Notes About the Earliest Public Markets in Saint John, New Brunswick – Oct. 14, 2015
  140. The Provincial Dairy School at Sussex, New Brunswick, 1900 – Oct. 7, 2015
  141. An Account of Nova Scotia in 1743 – Sept. 30, 2015
  142. The Petition of the Infamous 55 – Sept. 23, 2015
  143. Francis Sharpe’s Woodstock Apples – Sept. 16, 2015
  144. The Expulsion of the Acadians, a Military Surgeon’s Diary – Sept. 9, 2015
  145. The New Brunswick Election of 1785 – Sept. 2, 2015
  146. The Many Fires in Saint John, 1784-1877 – Aug. 26, 2015
  147. A Proposal for an Attack on Nova Scotia – Aug. 19, 2015
  148. Fredericton’s Great Flood of 1936 – Aug. 12, 2015
  149. A Letter about the Acadians and the Expulsion – Aug. 5, 2015
  150. Saint John in 1834, Before it was Forever Changed by the Great Fire – July 29, 2015
  151. New Brunswick, No Country for a Mere Gentleman, 1834 – July 22, 2015
  152. Woodstock, the Only Village Between the Green River and Fredericton in 1834 – July 15, 2015
  153. On the Tamiscouta Prtage from Lake Tamiscouta to just above Grand Falls, 1834 – July 10, 2015
  154. Men of Honor and Probity Run Amok – July 1, 2015
  155. By Steamer to the So-Called City of Fredericton – June 24, 2014
  156. A Quiet and Business-Like Little City – June 17, 2015
  157. Rambles Among the Bluenoses in 1862 – June 10, 2015
  158. Edward John Russell, a New Brunswick Artist – June 3, 2015
  159. Provincial Lunatic Asylum, Report of the Medical Superintendent, 1875 – May 27, 2015
  160. The Saint John River and Port Royal in the Early 1600’s – May 20, 2015
  161. What Should We Think of Benedict Arnold? – May 13, 2015
  162. Diphtheria in New Brunswick in the Year 1889 – May 6, 2015
  163. The Official Account of the Destruction of Burnt Church – Apr. 29, 2015
  164. The Exchange Coffee House and Saint John’s First Club – Apr. 22, 2015
  165. The Wigwams and Dwellings of the Gaspesians – Apr. 15, 2015
  166. The Story of Brook Watson – Apr. 8, 2015
  167. Where Stood Fort LaTour? – Apr. 1, 2015
  168. Things This Morning Really Wear the Aspect of War – Mar. 25, 2015
  169. At Portland Point – Mar. 18, 2015
  170. Electrical Power From the Reversing Falls – Mar. 10, 2015
  171. Father Rale’s War – 1722-25; How it Ended – Mar. 4, 2015
  172. What Was the Big Deal About the Marco Polo? – Feb. 25, 2015
  173. Grand Manan to Petitcodiac, in 1786 – Feb. 18, 2015
  174. A Trip From St. John to Fredericton in 1870 – Feb. 11, 2015
  175. A Tour of St. John, N.B., in 1870 – Feb. 4, 2015
  176. Destruction by Fire of the First Cathedral in Chatham – Jan. 28, 2015
  177. Burgan the Burglar – Jan. 21, 2015
  178. Facts and Reasons Against Confederating With Canada – Jan. 14, 2015
  179. Discontent in Early Halifax in 1756 – Jan. 7, 2015
  180. A Trip on the ICR From Bathurst to Miramichi – Dec. 31, 2014
  181. Early Attempts to Introduce the Cultivation of Hemp in Eastern British America – Dec. 24, 2014
  182. Touring Campbellton and Dalhousie, Despite the Mosquitoes, 1876 – Dec. 19, 2014
  183. The Fire of 1837 in Saint John – Dec. 10, 2014
  184. The Cruise of the Rechab – Dec. 3, 2014
  185. A Night in the Deep – Nov. 26, 2014
  186. Robert Foulis (A Misplaced Genius) – Nov. 19, 2014
  187. The City Mills – Nov. 15, 2014
  188. The Brothers d’Amours – Nov. 5, 2014
  189. John Allan’s Revolutionary Mission to the Saint John River – Oct. 29, 2014
  190. Relics of the Acadian Period – Oct. 22, 2014
  191. Some Odd Old Advertisements – Oct. 15, 2014
  192. The Miramichi Fire – Relief of the Sufferers – Oct. 8, 2014
  193. Jonathan Eddy’s Account of the Attack on Fort Cumberland, November, 1776 – Oct. 1, 2014
  194. Which of These Two is the Wisest and Happiest? – Sept. 24, 2014
  195. Fredericton Bridge, a Prophetic Writing – Sept. 17, 2014
  196. A Speech to Distinguished Persons of Stake and Consideration – Sept. 10, 2014
  197. Building an Education System From Almost Nothing – Sept. 3, 2014
  198. Cape Tormentine to the Baye des Chaleurs in the 1600’s – Aug. 27, 2014
  199. The Customs of the Mi’kmaq in the 1600’s and Before – Aug. 20, 2014
  200. Two Documents Relating to the Fenians in New Brunswick – Aug. 13, 2014
  201. The Lazaretto for Lepers in Tracadie, 1862 – Aug. 6, 2014
  202. Thoughts About the Augustine Mound at Metepenegiag Mi’kmaq Nation – July 30, 2014
  203. What am I Bid for This Pauper? – July 23, 2014
  204. Trouble at Madawaska, 1831 – July 16, 2014
  205. The Great Fire at Saint John, June 20, 1877 – July 9, 2014
  206. The Poor Fellows Shook as if They Would Fall to Pieces! – July 2, 2014
  207. How to Build a Logging Camp in Around 1850 – June 25, 2014
  208. Risen from the Ashes, Phoenix Square in Fredericton – June 18, 2014
  209. Rocks and Water, Magnificence and Squalor; St. John in 1876 – June 11, 2014
  210. Moncton as Seen by a Journalist in 1876 – June 4, 2014
  211. Events Leading to the Caraquet Riots of 1875 – May 28, 2014
  212. A Dramatic Account of the Miramichi Fire – May 21, 2014
  213. Saint John in the Early 1840’s – May 18, 2014
  214. The Myth that Kerosene was Invented in New Brunswick – May 7, 2014
  215. A Church with Military Boots and Fixed Bayonets – Apr. 30, 2014
  216. An Opening Salvo in an Ongoing Argument – Apr. 23, 2014
  217. May living worms his corpse devour – Apr. 16, 2014
  218. He don’t look any better than some of our own boys – Apr. 9, 2014
  219. The Disputed Territory Between New Brunswick and Maine – Apr. 2, 2014
  220. Navigation on the Saint John River – Mar. 26, 2014
  221. Shepody as a Hot Investment Opportunity, 1868 – Mar. 19, 2014
  222. To Her Majesty, RE: Reciprocity, 1853 – Mar. 12, 2014
  223. Diary on the Tobique, 1851 – Mar. 5, 2014
  224. Growing up in Fredericton in the 1820s and 1830s – Feb. 26, 2014
  225. Travels From Eastport, Maine, to Fredericton, 1851 – Feb. 19, 2014
  226. The Saint John General Public Hospital, 19th Century, Part 2 of 2 – Feb. 12, 2014
  227. The Saint John General Public Hospital, 19th Century, Part 1 of 2 – Feb. 5, 2014
  228. The Story of the Great Brothers – Jan. 29, 2014
  229. A Trek up the Tobique, and Onward to Bathurst – Jan. 22, 2014
  230. Summer Tourists. A Manual for New Brunswick Farmers – Jan. 19, 2014
  231. A Trek from Grand Falls to Campbellton, 1862 – Jan. 15, 2014
  232. A Trek From Taymouth to Boisetown, 1862 – Jan. 12, 2014
  233. Capt. William Owen’s Journal, Campobello, 1770-71 – Jan. 8, 2014
  234. The Founding of Campobello Island – Jan. 5, 2014
  235. New Brunswick Roads and Railways, 1855 – Jan. 1, 2014
  236. Grand Manan – Dec. 29, 2013
  237. The Shipyard Fire in Saint John, in 1841 – Dec. 26, 2013
  238. Christmas as it Was in Saint John, in 1808 – Dec. 22, 2013
  239. The Saint John Grammar School – Dec. 18, 2013
  240. William Wishart Blasts the New Brunswick Education System, 1845 – Dec. 15, 2013
  241. The Diary of Sarah Frost – Dec. 11, 2013
  242. Pŭlěs, Pŭlowěch′, and Beechkwěch (Pigeon, Partridge, and Nighthawk) – Dec. 10, 2014
  243. The Government of New Brunswick, 1837 – Dec. 4, 2013
  244. The Whales and the Robbers – Dec. 1, 2013
  245. The Ashburton Treaty – Nov. 27, 2013
  246. Glooscap and His Four Visitors – Nov. 24, 2013
  247. The Pioneers of Saint Stephen – Nov. 20, 2013
  248. The Adventures of Kâktoogwâsees; a Tale of Ancient Times – Nov. 17, 2013
  249. The Asylum at Saint John – Nov. 13, 2013
  250. The Liver-Colored Giants and Magicians – Nov. 10, 2013
  251. Smuggling Between Calais and St. Stephen – Nov. 6, 2013
  252. The Two Weasels – Nov. 3, 2013
  253. The European and North American Railway, 1862 – Oct. 30, 2013
  254. The Origin of the War Between the Mi’kmaq and the Kwěděches – Oct. 23, 2013
  255. Trouble on the Line: The Early Telegraph in New Brunswick – Oct. 16, 2013
  256. The Invisible Boy; Team′ and Oochigeaskw – Oct. 9, 2013
  257. Transportation to and from Fredericton, 1841 – Oct. 2, 2013
  258. The Boy That Was Transformed Into a Horse – Sept. 25, 2013
  259. McAdam: Notes From the Early Days – Sept. 18, 2013
  260. The Magical Food, Belt and Flute – Sept. 11, 2013
  261. European & North American Rly. Staff, 1861 – Sept. 4, 2013
  262. Glooscap and the Megumoowesoo: A Marriage Adventure – Aug. 28, 2013
  263. The Loss of the Royal Tar – Aug. 21, 2013
  264. Robbery and Murder Revenged, Plus a Grand Falls Story – Aug. 14, 2013
  265. The St. John River From Below Fredericton to the Reversing Falls – Aug. 7, 2013
  266. A Proposal for a Wooden Railway – July 31, 2013
  267. ‘On the Early History of New Brunswick’ – July 24, 2013
  268. The Maugerville Settlement, 1763-1824 – July 17, 2013
  269. 1930 Circus Train Wreck Near Moncton, N.B. – July 10, 2013
  270. Horses or Oxen? Pick one – July 3, 2013
  271. The St. John River; Andover to Fredericton – June 26, 2013
  272. Origins of Some Place Names on N.B.’s Eastern Shore – June 19, 2013
  273. The St. John River; Grand Falls to the Tobique – June 12, 2013
  274. Gabriel Acquin – June 5, 2013
  275. The Seigniories of New Brunsiwck – May 29, 2013
  276. An 1841 Trek up the Oromocto River – May 22, 2013
  277. Fredericton’s Exhibition Palace, and Bears in N.B. – May 15, 2013
  278. Murder on Diamond Square Road – May 8, 2013
  279. Acadian Historic Sites in New Brunswick – May 1, 2013
  280. John C. Tracy’s Book, Part 5 of 5 – Apr. 24, 2013
  281. John C. Tracy’s Book, Part 4 of 5 – Apr. 17, 2013
  282. John C. Tracy’s Book, Part 3 of 5 – Apr. 10, 2013
  283. John C. Tracy’s Book, Part 2 of 5 – Apr. 3, 2013
  284. John C. Tracy’s Book, Part 1 of 5 – Mar. 27, 2013
  285. A Retrospective Look at Saint John – Mar. 20, 2013
  286. The Wreck of the England – Mar. 13, 2013
  287. The First Decade of the 1800’s in St. John, N.B. – Mar. 6, 2013
  288. St. John’s Poorhouse and Workhouse – Feb. 27, 2013, Rev. Sept. 9, 2015
  289. New Brunswick Scenes From an Old Book – Feb. 20, 2013
  290. Nice Pictures From Another Old Book – Feb. 13, 2013
  291. Life in the Backwoods of New Brunswick, Part 2/2 – Feb. 6, 2013
  292. Life in the Backwoods of New Brunswick, 1845 – Jan. 30, 2013
  293. The Works of W.O. Raymond – Jan. 23, 2013
  294. The Year of the Fever – Jan. 16, 2013
  295. Hanged for the Theft of 25 Cents – Jan. 9, 2013
  296. Reversing Falls – Pictures – Jan. 2, 2013
  297. Christmas as it was in 1808 – Dec. 25, 2012
  298. Nice Pictures From an Old Book – Dec. 19, 2012
  299. The Saint John Bridge Collapse of 1837 – Dec. 12, 2012
  300. The First Road Bridge Across the Reversing Falls – Dec. 5, 2012
  301. The Mystery of the First Lizzie Morrow – Nov. 28, 2012
  302. The First Murder Trial on the River St. John – Nov. 21, 2012
  303. The March of the 104th Regiment in 1812 – Nov. 14, 2012
  304. Partridge Island – Nov. 7, 2012
  305. Fredericton’s First Bridge Across the Saint John River – Oct. 31, 2012
  306. 1816, The Year Without a Summer – Oct. 31, 2012
  307. Winslow to Wentworth, 1781 – Oct. 31, 2012
  308. The Saxby Gale of 1869 – Oct. 31, 2012
  309. New Brunswick’s Third Town in 1838: Saint Andrews – Oct. 31, 2012
  310. Fredericton and York County in 1838 – Oct. 31, 2012
  311. The City and County of Saint John in 1838 – Sept. 26, 2012
  312. The St. Andrews and Quebec Railroad – Sept. 19, 2012
  313. The Studholm Report of Saint John River Pre-Loyalists in 1783 – Sept. 12, 2012
  314. Caleb Jones. Further RE: Ann, otherwise known as Nancy – Sept. 5, 2012
  315. The Wreck of the Martha – Aug. 29, 2012
  316. The Early Settlement of Maugerville and the Sheffield Parsonage Dispute – Aug. 22, 2012
  317. Lieutenant Governors of New Brunswick to Confederation, Part 2 of 2 – Aug. 15, 2012
  318. Lieutenant Governors of New Brunswick to Confederation, Part 1 of 2 – Aug. 8, 2012
  319. The Morrow House at French Lake, N.B. – New Information – Aug. 1, 2012
  320. Sound by Glen Glenn, Revision 1 – July 25, 2012
  321. Ann, otherwise known as Nancy – July 18, 2012
  322. The Fire of October 7, 1825 – Beyond the Miramichi – July 11, 2012
  323. Lemuel Allan Wilmot – July 4, 2012
  324. The Great Fire at Miramichi, October 7, 1825 – June 27, 2012
  325. Robert Rankin in New Brunswick – June 20, 2012
  326. Who Owned the Mill at Tracy, New Brunswick? – June 13, 2012
  327. Signatures of Sunbury County Ancestors – June 6, 2012
  328. Daniel Wood’s Log Cabin, and Little Field Barn at French Lake, New Brunswick – May 30, 2012
  329. Rusagonis and George Garraty – May 23, 2012
  330. Epitaph Transcriptions from a Collection – May 16, 2012
  331. Central New Brunswick Gravestones from a Genealogy – May 9, 2012
  332. Nashwaak River Pictures with Stewart Family Connections – May 2, 2012
  333. More Sunbury County Photographs from a Collection – Apr. 25, 2012
  334. An Indian Burial Ground at Oromocto; and Coal Mining on the Oromocto River – Apr. 22, 2012
  335. “Days of Old” by Katherine DeWitt and Norma Alexander – Apr. 18, 2012
  336. The Wood Cemetery at French Lake, New Brunswick – Apr. 11, 2012
  337. James Glenie in New Brunswick – Apr. 4, 2012
  338. Four Generations of the Stewart Family on the Nashwaak River – Mar. 28, 2012
  339. Three Generations of the Mersereau Family in New Brunswick – Mar. 21, 2012
  340. Three Generations of the Smith Family of Sunbury County, New Brunswick – Mar. 14, 2012
  341. Three Generations of the Wood Family of French Lake, New Brunswick – Mar. 7, 2012
  342. New Brunswick Education in 1883 – Feb. 29, 2012
  343. Riots and Demonstrations in Saint John – Feb. 20, 2012
  344. Making Better Butter – Feb. 18, 2012
  345. York County Place Names, 1896/1905 – Feb. 8, 2012
  346. Sunbury County Place Names, 1896/1905 – Feb. 1, 2012
  347. Stereoscopic slides from Fred Stewart, Part 3 of 3 – Jan. 25, 2012
  348. Stereoscopic slides from Fred Stewart, Part 2 of 3 – Jan. 18, 2012
  349. Stereoscopic slides from Fred Stewart, Part 1 of 3 – Jan. 11, 2012
  350. The Hon. Thomas Baillie: Gone, but not soon forgotten! – Jan. 5, 2012
  351. The Fort at Oromocto, 1780 – 1783 – Dec. 29, 2011
  352. The Great Fire in Fredericton, 1850 – Early Accounts – Dec. 15, 2011
  353. The Morrow House at French Lake, and More – Dec. 8, 2011
  354. The Old Woman House at French Lake, New Brunswick – Dec. 1, 2011
  355. Smith Family Photographs from a Collection, Sunbury County, N.B. – Nov. 25, 2011
  356. French Lake from Before we Remember – Nov. 20, 2011
  357. How Geary became known as Geary – Nov. 9, 2011
  358. Elizabeth (Smith) Secord; N.B.’s First Woman Registered Doctor – Nov. 4, 2011
  359. Phillips Family Photographs from a Collection, Rusagonis, N.B. – Nov. 2, 2011
  360. Mersereau Family Photographs from a Collection, Sunbury County, N.B. – Oct. 30, 2011
  361. Wood Family Photographs from a Collection, French Lake, N.B. – Oct. 25, 2011
  362. Jeremiah Tracy: Pioneer of the Village of Tracy, New Brunswick – Oct. 20, 2011
  363. Two Old Railroad-Inspired Songs – Oct. 16, 2011
  364. Ode to the Oromocto River – Oct. 10, 2011
  365. John Mersereau, Loyalist 2 – Oct. 4, 2011
  366. The Earliest American Railroads and Locomotives – Sept. 14, 2011
  367. The Mersereau Manufacturing Company of Brooklyn, New York, Notes – Sept. 3, 2011
  368. George Morrow of French Lake, New Brunswick – 1801-1868 – Aug. 26, 2011
  369. The Wood Family of French Lake, New Brunswick – Legends – Aug. 9, 2011
  370. The Baptist Church on the Oromocto River in New Brunswick – Aug. 7, 2011
  371. John Wood of French Lake, New Brunswick – 1788-1868 – Aug. 2, 2011
  372. Daniel Wood of French Lake, New Brunswick – 1764-1847 – Aug. 1, 2011
  373. Three Stewarts on the Nashwaak – July 24, 2011
  374. Bunker Genealogy – Five Bunkers – July 20, 2011
  375. Statistics From the 1851 and 1871 Sunbury County New Brunswick Census Reports – July 19, 2011
  376. Historical Development of the Beam Bending Equation M=fS – July 18, 2011
  377. Seth Noble, Maugerville and the American Revolution – July 16, 2011
  378. Columns, the Long and the Short of it – 1729-1900 – July 15, 2011
  379. The Great Saint John Steel Cantilever Bridge – July 13, 2011
  380. The Upper Oromocto River in 1847 – July 11, 2011
  381. Early Glimpses of the Rusagonis Baptist Church in New Brunswick – July 11, 2011
  382. Abraham Gesner’s 1847 Observations of Sport Hunting in New Brunswick – July 11, 2011
  383. It Sounds a bit Too Easy – July 10, 2011
  384. James Buncker – July 10, 2011
  385. Inconsistent Petitions; Changed Self-Interests – July 10, 2011
  386. Abner Mersereau and a Letter – July 9, 2011
  387. Early Glimpses of the Patterson Settlement Baptist Church in New Brunswick – July 9, 2011
  388. The Textile Mill at Geary, New Brunswick – July 8, 2011
  389. Letter of Mi’kmaq’ Chief Pemmeenauweet to Queen Victoria – 1841 – July 7, 2011
  390. New Brunswick in the 1840s – July 7, 2011


John Wood


Written by johnwood1946

May 16, 2018 at 8:17 AM

Posted in Uncategorized

John Gyles: His Times, and How he was Captured

leave a comment »

From the blog at

John Gyles: His Times, and How he was Captured

The French and Indian Wars were a series of North American wars beginning with King William’s War (1688-1697), and continuing with Father Rail’s War, King George’s War, and finally Father Le Loutre’s War (1749-1755). These conflicts are often described as the North American expression of European conflicts and, in fact, King William’s War occurred during the Nine Years’ War which occupied most of Europe. Likewise, King George’s War occurred during the War of Austrian Succession. There were enough conflicting interests in America to explain the French and Indian Wars even without reference to Europe, however.

Acadia had been ceded to Britain in 1713, with some exceptions such as Cape Breton, but the limits of exactly what had been handed over were in dispute. Britain believed that their territory included Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island; but the French refused to accept that the British were entitled to anything more than present day Nova Scotia. The French believed that their territory, extended all of the way to the Kennebec River in Maine. Massachusetts certainly did not agree that the Kennebec should form their border, for they were administering (in a sense) the lawless and unsettled territories that would become Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont.

Aside from all of this, the Native population had never acknowledged French or English sovereignty over any of the land nor had they ever been asked for it. The Abenaki were allied with the French, but their primary concern was to prevent further incursions into their territories. There was a remarkable demonstration of this, when a British officer explained to a Native delegation that the King of France had surrendered certain territories to Britain. The lead negotiator for the Natives replied “Thou sayest that the French man hast given thee … my neighborhood, and all the lands adjacent; [he can tell thee what he will but,] for me, I have my land which the great Spirit has given me to live on [and] as long as there shall be a child of my nation, he will fight to preserve it.”

Therefore, the area between the Penobscot River and the Saint Croix River was claimed by England (and separately by independent-minded Massachusetts), and by France (and Quebec who had their own interests to preserve), and by the Abenaki (who had actually possessed it for thousands of years). In reality, there was probably not a single English speaking person living there up until 1759 and, when English settlements began to appear, conflict was inevitable.

Native warriors were famous for their brutality, and many contemporary accounts focus on that. The Natives were often accompanied by their French allies, but blame for the brutality was normally placed upon the Natives alone. It is a simple fact, however, that New Englanders also committed acts of indiscriminate slaughter upon the Natives and that these acts were portrayed as victories, rather than the genocide that they were. Both the French and the English used Native warriors to carry out acts of brutality on their behalf — and never accepted any blame for it.

The Natives are also described as duplicitous and willing to make treaties with either French or English from time to time. This was not duplicity. The Natives had their own interests to protect, and lesser concern with conflicting land claims between Europeans (“…as long as there shall be a child of my nation, he will fight to preserve it.”)

John Gyles was nine years old in August of 1689 and, like any nine year old, his world consisted of his immediate circumstance. Gyles’ circumstance was living in Maine at the beginning of King William’s War, and it is no surprise that he would have experiences that he would rather have avoided.

John Gyles’ father, Thomas, had been living in Merrymeeting Bay on the Kennebec River and, after a trip to England, he came back to return to his farm. The community had been attacked by Indians, however, and the whole place was deserted by the time that it was safe for his return. He therefore settled in Pemaquid, east of the Kennebec.

On August 2, 1689, Thomas and others were working in some fields when the guns at a nearby garrison sounded at around one o’clock in the afternoon. The garrison was ill prepared and was now under attack. It would soon be overtaken and many of the defenders slaughtered. In the meantime, a second group of Abenaki warriors shot on the farmers in their fields. Everyone scattered, but Thomas Gyles was wounded and John and his brother James were captured and bound up.

The Natives and their captives had a meeting in the evening, and Thomas, who had been wounded, was in a bad way. Blood was oozing from his boots, and the Indians took him aside and clubbed him to death; as if to hasten the inevitable. The next day, the nearby village of New Harbour was also attacked and burned and nearly everyone was killed.

After a few more days, John Gyles and his captors arrived at Penobscot. There, a Jesuit priest offered to buy Gyles, but found that he was not for sale. The priest was perhaps trying to rescue the boy, but Gyles was terrified that this Papist intended to steal his Protestant soul.

They then proceeded to the confluence of the Mattawamkeag and Penobscot Rivers in the interior of Maine, and onward via streams and portages to Meductic on the Saint John River.

These were the earliest days of John Gyles’ captivity by the Maliseet. He would spend the next five years living with them, and another four years with an Acadian family before he was finally released at the age of 18. His full story was told in a memoir entitled Memoirs of Odd Adventures, Strange Deliverances, etc. in the Captivity of John Giles, …, Boston, 1736, which has been reprinted a number of times since.

The introduction to Gyles memoir seemed odd, to me, when he said “I have been advised to give a particular account of my father, which I am not very fond of, having no dependence on the virtues or honors of my ancestors to recommend me to the favor of God or men; nevertheless, because some think it is a respect due to the memory of my parents, whose name I was obliged to mention in the following story, and a satisfaction which their posterity might justly expect from me, I shall give some account of him, though as brief as possible.”1 I take it that their relationship was complicated.

Note: 1. This quotation is from the 1869 edition of his memoir.

Related Links:

Written by johnwood1946

May 16, 2018 at 8:16 AM

Posted in Uncategorized

An Illustrated Description of the Building of Stanley, New Brunswick

leave a comment »

From the blog at

An Illustrated Description of the Building of Stanley, New Brunswick

The Village of Stanley was built by the New Brunswick and Nova Scotia Land Company in the 1830’s, and they published a description of their progress entitled Sketches in New Brunswick: … shewing the nature … of the land … in the year 1833, [illustrated], London, 1836. This was published to attract settlers, and to attract and retain investors.

The archival copy of this work was scanned from the microfilm, and the illustrations were poorly reproduced. The illustrations in this blog post are the same ones that they used, but are from other sources, as shown.

This is the second post in this blog about the founding of Stanley. The first one was entitled Stanley, N.B., Carved from the Wilderness — In a Hurry, and can be found at


No. I. Encampment at Stanley

[This copy of image from Toronto Public Library, depicting 1834.]

The surveying party, appointed to explore the line of road, intended to be opened out through the Forest, started from Fredericton, in July 1834; and after tracing out a practicable line nearly straight, struck the River Nashwaak, at the spot here delineated. The view was taken on the evening of their arrival; it shows the party felling the first trees, and forming their encampment. The spot being found eligible for a Town, from a combination of favourable circumstances, was subsequently laid out as such, and the following sketches will show the progress of its formation. It was named Stanley, in compliment to the present Lord Stanley, then Secretary of State for the Colonial Department.

No. II. Erecting the Mill-Dam at Stanley

[This copy of image from Toronto Public Library, depicting 1834.]

In all new settlements one of the essentials is a Saw Mill; and when we observe that all the houses are built of wood, its utility becomes the more apparent. Advantage was therefore taken of the natural Fall in the river, and a dam was thrown across the Nashwaak of about 160 feet in length. The sketch shows the mode of effecting it. A number of the largest trunks of elm and pine trees were placed up and down the stream, in the direction of the current; these were crossed by others of great length, notched on to them transversely, and well loaded with stones. A second series of trees, very much longer than the first, was then crossed on the transverse logs, immediately over them, and in like manner well loaded with rocks; and so on, until the structure attained a sufficient height. The framework on the left was made of birch timber, firmly bolted together, and technically called the Flume; through which the water, acting on the wheel in the mill, is designed to be conveyed. The proper elevation and inclination having been attained, the back of the dam is covered by stout planking, closely fitted. The joints were then rendered tight with hay and gravel, so as effectually to prevent the escape of the water; and on the completion of the mill, the flume was planked, and the water suffered to accumulate behind the dam to a required head. If the bottom be of a sandy nature, it becomes necessary to incline the dam both up and down the stream, or the constant falling over of the water would excavate and undermine the structure, to the destruction of the mill and dam. This latter kind is called the Rolling Dam. In the centre of the sketch is seen the first log-house, built on the surveying party’s first encampment; and on the left, a shed covered by spruce bark, forming a sort of shop for the carpenters, until something more substantial could be made for their use.

No. III. The Mill-Dam at Stanley

[This copy of image from Toronto Public Library, depicting 1836.]

This view shows the dam when completed; the water of the Nashwaak flowing over it. The frame of the mill had not then been placed in its situation, in front of the flume. In the foreground are seen the log canoes which, towed by horses, conveyed the provisions to the parties engaged in the several works in operation. Some of these canoes are thirty-six feet in length, by three in breadth, hewn out of single pine trees. The navigation of these vessels requires great skill and hardihood, both in the management of the canoe, and the riding of the horse over the uneven and rocky bed of an impetuous river. Few horses can endure the fatigue more than two seasons, and the men in after-life are frequently victims to rheumatism, brought on by exposure and immersion in the water, at often a freezing temperature, for days together, in the spring and autumn: and men engaged in such pursuits, are deserving higher remuneration than the ordinary labourer.

No. IV. Commissioners’ Camp or Wigwam at Stanley

[This copy of image from Toronto Public Library.]

Before any houses could be erected, this temporary shelter was built, and occupied by Mr. Kendall, during his superintendence of the operations going forward at Stanley, for the first season. It was made by arranging a number of twenty-feet poles, so as to meet in a point in the centre, where they were firmly secured; a quantity of spruce bark was then laid on, and fastened to the poles; a flooring of spruce boughs, and a buffalo skin, completed the furniture, with the exception of the tea-kettle, tin dish, and pemmican, which form the invariable, indeed indispensable accompaniments of the woodman’s hut.

No. V. Process of Clearing the Town-Plot of Stanley

[This copy of image from Collections Canada, depicting 1834.]

Clearing land, that is getting rid of the trees growing on it, is to a novice one of the most disagreeable kinds of labour, though to the persons accustomed to it, it seems to possess a charm, as they prefer it to other kind of labour. In the view before us, the fire has run over the ground once, and the men are piling and burning the limbs left unconsumed. The surveying party on the right are represented as about to start on an exploring expedition, and the provisions are being brought by oxen for the supply of the different parties. The mill and tavern were in an incomplete state, as shown in the drawing. The appearance of the blackened stumps, is distressing to the eye of an English farmer; but in practice, the plan of leaving them in the ground for a few years is found to succeed much better than the slower and more expensive mode of uprooting the trees at once. The grain is scattered among the ashes, and covered in with a rude angular harrow, which, at this early stage, supersedes the plough; and this rough mode of culture is sufficient to produce a crop much greater than would he expected by persons accustomed to the straight furrow, and drill husbandry.

No. VI. The Saw-Mill Completed, and in Operation, Taken From the Mill-Pond, Above the Dam

[This copy of image from the Canadian Encyclopedia.]

The logs are cut on the borders of the river, and floated down to the mill-pond to be sawn. The deals are thrown out at the lower side of the mill, ready to be collected in rafts and conveyed to market. On the right is seen one of a series of pier-frames, built of logs, filled with stones, for the purpose of breaking the force of the ice in the spring freshet, and to conduct the logs to the mill by means of a boom, connected by chains extending from pier to pier.

No. VII. Tavern at Stanley

[This copy of image from Library and Archives Canada, depicting 1835.]

This building was made of logs, nearly in the form of a cross, the angles being dove-tailed together, and each course of timber being firmly connected by treenails of hardwood to the one beneath it; the interior square was continued one story higher than the others, so as to allow their roofs to abut against it; and by this means a very strong and commodious building was made. The buildings to the right are the workmen’s houses; and the machine drawn by oxen, was made of solid birch, wheels bound by iron, with a strong axle and pole,—used for conveyance over the rough and uneven ground previous to the formation of roads.

No. VIII. General View of Stanley, from the Road

[This copy of image from history.earthsci.carleton.]

At the time this view was taken, the hill on the opposite side, comprising thirty-four acres, was cleared and cropped; the buildings nearly all enclosed, and in a habitable state. Parties were engaged in building houses on six of the town lots, one of which is shown to the right, the men being engaged in covering the roof with shingles, made of pine, and laid on similar to slating. A stream sufficient to drive ordinary machinery, runs down the valley, on the opposite or northern side of the Nashwaak; and the road, after crossing the bridge which is thrown over the river, below the hill, winds up the valley, and is continued in a direction nearly straight to the S.W. branch of the Miramichi River.

No. IX. Exhibits Part of the Royal Road, Designed to Extend from Fredericton to Quebec

[This copy of image from the New Brunswick Museum.]

The principal feature is a remarkable elm tree, standing by the road-side, which even the ruthless destroyers of everything in the shape of timber, who constitute the labouring population of New Brunswick, spared in opening out the road, and dignified by the name of Sir Archibald’s Walking-Stick in compliment to his Excellency the Governor, Sir A. Campbell. A gentleman resident in the neighbourhood, a man hauling cordwood to town, a shanty, and an incipient log-house, make up the concomitants of the scene.

Nos. X, XI, XII

[This copy of image ‘X’ from Virtual Gallery of Historic Fredericton.]

[This image ‘XI’ from the poor quality microfilm.]

[This image ‘XII’ from the poor quality microfilm.]

The winter in New Brunswick, is a season of the greatest activity. The snow renders many parts of the country accessible, which from want of good roads are almost impassable in the summer; it also enables the lumber men to drag the trunks of trees intended for market, to the banks of the rivers, which are swollen by its melting in the spring sufficiently to float them to the seaports.

These views attempt an illustration of the appearance of the country at this period, and the sort of carriages used. The Sleigh is the vehicle for personal conveyance, and varies in form according to the taste of the owner. The Sled is that used for heavy draught: on it the farmer conveys his produce to market, whence he returns home with a heterogeneous load from the merchants’ store, for his winter supply.

In the Lithographic drawings, the skies are made murky and dark: this is by no means the ordinary appearance, either in summer or winter, except for a few hours preceding or during the continuance of a snow-storm. On the contrary, the atmosphere is clear in a most remarkable degree; and the roofs of houses, covered with tin, continue perfectly bright and free from rust for a number of years.

Written by johnwood1946

May 9, 2018 at 8:28 AM

Posted in Uncategorized

A Proposal to Buy Canada for $85.7-Million, plus Other Considerations

leave a comment »

From the blog at

A Proposal to Buy Canada for $85.7-Million, plus Other Considerations

Nathaniel Banks Proposed the Transfer

Photograph from Wikipedia

Benedict Arnold led an invasion of Quebec City during the American Revolution, and predicted that “Great numbers of Canadians … are determined to join us.” Later, in 1812, Thomas Jefferson said that “The acquisition of Canada … will be a mere matter of marching.” Arnold and Jefferson were both proved wrong, but the idea that the British territories should somehow be included in the United States persisted for a long time.

In 1866, Congressman Nathaniel Prentiss Banks proposed that Britain might be persuaded to cede her Canadian territories to the United States, in return for a cash payment and for American cooperation in the building of railways, particularly a railway line to the Pacific. Terms of the proposed agreement were spelled out in an Act of Congress which was read and referred to committee. That bill follows:


H.R. 541; In the House of Representatives, July 2, 1866

Read twice, referred to the Committee on Foreign Affairs, and ordered to be printed.

Mr. Banks, on leave, introduced the following bill:

For the admission of the States of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Canada East, and Canada West, and for the organization of the Territories of Selkirk, Saskatchewan, and Columbia

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the President of the United States is hereby authorized and directed, whenever notice shall be deposited in the Department of State that the governments of Great Britain and the provinces of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, Newfoundland, Canada, British Columbia, and Vancouver’s Island have accepted the proposition hereinafter made by the United States, to publish by proclamation that, from the date thereof, the States of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Canada East, and Canada West, and the Territories of Selkirk, Saskatchewan, and Columbia, with limits and rights as by this act defined, are constituted and admitted as States and Territories of the United States of America.

Sec. 2. And be it further enacted, That the following articles are hereby proposed, and from the date of the proclamation of the President of the United States shall take effect, as irrevocable conditions of the admission of the States of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Canada East, and Canada West, and the future States of Selkirk, Saskatchewan, and Columbia, to wit:

Article I — All public lands not sold or granted; canals, public harbors, light-houses, and piers; river and lake improvements; railway stocks, mortgages, and other debts due by railway companies to the provinces; custom-houses and post offices, shall vest in the United States; but all other public works and property shall belong to the State governments respectively, hereby constituted, together with all sums due from purchasers or lessees of lands, mines, or minerals at the time of the union.

Article II — In consideration of the public lands, works, and property vested as aforesaid in the United States, the United States will assume and discharge the funded debt and contingent liabilities of the late provinces, at rates of interest not exceeding five per centum, to the amount of eighty-five million seven hundred thousand dollars, apportioned as follows: To Canada West, thirty-six million five hundred thousand dollars; to Canada East, twenty-nine million dollars; to Nova Scotia, eight million dollars; to New Brunswick, seven million dollars; to Newfoundland, three million two hundred thousand dollars; and to Prince Edward Island, two million dollars; and in further consideration of the transfer by said provinces to the United States of the power to levy import and export duties, the United States will make an annual grant of one million six hundred and forty-six thousand dollars in aid of local expenditures, to be apportioned as follows: To Canada West, seven hundred thousand dollars; to Canada East, five hundred and fifty thousand dollars; to Nova Scotia, one hundred and sixty-five thousand dollars; to New Brunswick, one hundred and twenty-six thousand dollars; to Newfoundland, sixty-five thousand dollars; to Prince Edward Island, forty thousand dollars.

Article III — For all purposes of State organization and representation in the Congress of the United States, Newfoundland shall be part of Canada East, and Prince Edward Island shall be part of Nova Scotia, except that each shall always be a separate representative district, and entitled to elect at least one member of the House of Representatives, and except, also, that the municipal authorities of Newfoundland and Prince Edward Island shall receive the indemnities agreed to be paid by the United States in Article II.

Article IV — Territorial divisions are established as follows: (1,) New Brunswick, with its present limits; (2,) Nova Scotia, with the addition of Prince Edward Island; (3,) Canada East, with the addition of Newfoundland and all territory east of longitude eighty degrees and south of Hudson’s strait; (4,) Canada West, with the addition of territory south of Hudson’s bay and between longitude eighty degrees and ninety degrees; (5,) Selkirk Territory, bounded east by longitude ninety degrees, south by the late boundary of the United States, west by longitude one hundred and five degrees, and north by the Arctic circle; (6,) Saskatchewan Territory, bounded east by longitude one hundred and five degrees, south by latitude forty-nine degrees, west by the Rocky mountains, and north by latitude seventy degrees; (7,) Columbia Territory, including Vancouvcr’s Island, and Queen Charlotte’s island, and bounded east and north by the Rocky mountains, south by latitude forty-nine degrees, and west by the Pacific ocean and Russian America, but Congress reserves the right of changing the limits and subdividing the areas of the western territories at discretion.

Article V — Until the next decennial revision, representation in the House of Representatives shall be as follows: Canada West, twelve members; Canada East, including Newfoundland, eleven members; New Brunswick, two members; Nova Scotia, including Prince Edward Island, four members.

Article VI — The Congress of the United States shall enact, in favor of the proposed Territories of Selkirk, Saskatchewan, and Columbia, all the provisions of the act organizing the Territory of Montana, so far as they can be made applicable.

Article VII — The United States, by the construction of new canals, or the enlargement of existing canals, and by the improvement of shoals, will so aid the navigation of the Saint Lawrence river and the great lakes that vessels of fifteen hundred tons burden shall pass from the Gulf of Saint Lawrence to Lakes Superior and Michigan: Provided, That the expenditure under this article shall not exceed fifty millions of dollars.

Article VIII — The United States will appropriate and pay to “The European and North American Railway Company of Maine” the sum of two millions of dollars upon the construction of a continuous line of railroad from Bangor, in Maine, to Saint John’s, in New Brunswick: Provided, That said “The European and North American Railway Company of Maine” shall release the government of the United States from all claims held by it as assignee of the States of Maine and Massachusetts.

Article IX — To aid the construction of a railway from Truro, in Nova Scotia, to Riviere du Loup, in Canada East, and a railway from the city of Ottawa, by way of Sault Ste. Marie, Bayfield, and Superior, in Wisconsin, Pembina, and Fort Garry, on the Red River of the North, and the valley of the North Saskatchewan river to some point on the Pacific ocean north of latitude forty-nine degrees, the United States will grant lands along the lines of said roads to the amount of twenty sections, or twelve thousand eight hundred acres, per mile, to be selected and sold in the manner prescribed in the act to aid the construction of the Northern Pacific railroad, approved July two, eighteen hundred and sixty two, and acts amendatory thereof; and in addition to said grants of lands, the United States will further guarantee dividends of five per centum upon the stock of the company or companies which may be authorized by Congress to under take the construction of said railways: Provided, That such guarantee of stock shall not exceed the sum of thirty thousand dollars per mile, and Congress shall regulate the securities for advances on account thereof.

Article X — The public lands in the late provinces, as far as practicable, shall be surveyed according to the rectangular system Of the General Land Office of the United States; and in the Territories west of longitude ninety degrees, or the western boundary of Canada West, sections sixteen and thirty-six shall be granted for the encouragement of schools, and after the organization of the Territories into States, five per centum of the net proceeds of sales of public lands shall be paid into their treasuries as a fund for the improvement of roads and rivers.

Article XI — The United States will pay ten millions of dollars to the Hudson Bay Company in full discharge of all claims to territory or jurisdiction in North America, whether founded on the charter of the company or any treaty, law, or usage.

Article XII —It shall be devolved upon the legislatures of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Canada East, and Canada West, to conform the tenure of office and the local institutions of said States to the Constitution and laws of the United States, subject to revision by Congress.

Sec. 3. And be it further enacted, That if Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland, or either of those provinces, shall decline union with the United States, and the remaining provinces, with the consent of Great Britain, shall accept the proposition of the United States, the foregoing stipulation in favor of Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland, or either of them, will be omitted; but in all other respects the United States will give full effect to the plan of union. If Prince Edward Island, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick shall decline the proposition, hut Canada, British Columbia, and Vancouver island shall, with the consent of Great Britain, accept the same, the construction of a railway from Truro to Riviere du Loup, with all stipulations relating to the maritime provinces, will form no part of the proposed plan of union, but the same will be consummated in all other respects. If Canada shall decline the proposition, then the stipulations in regard to the Saint Lawrence canals and a rail way from Ottawa to Sault Ste. Marie, with the Canadian clause of debt and revenue indemnity, will be relinquished. If the plan of union shall only be accepted in regard to the northwestern territory and the Pacific provinces, the United States will aid the construction, on the terms named, of a rail way from the western extremity of Lake Superior, in the State of Minnesota, by way of Pembina, Fort Garry, and the valley of the Saskatchewan, to the Pacific coast, north of latitude forty-nine degrees, besides securing all the rights and privileges of an American territory to the proposed Territories of Selkirk, Saskatchewan, and Columbia.

Written by johnwood1946

May 2, 2018 at 8:19 AM

Posted in Uncategorized

To Fredericton, Stanley and Woodstock, on my Way to the Tobique in 1851

leave a comment »

From the blog at

To Fredericton, Stanley and Woodstock, on my Way to the Tobique in 1851

Native Group at Tobique, in About 1904

From the N.B. Museum via the McCord Museum

An anonymous adventurer, who had spent time in the wilderness of Australia, came to New Brunswick in the fall of 1851, looking for a rugged landscape in which to settle. His search was chronicled in a diary, but that diary was not published until about 1866, in London, which was after his death. The publication was entitled Adventures in Canada, Being Two months on the Tobique in 1851, New Brunswick. Following is an edited excerpt from the diary, describing the trip up the Saint John River to the Tobique.


September 11th— For the last two or three hours we have been steaming up the St. John River to Fredericton, along the mighty stream flowing between rugged hills clothed with deep forests. As we ascend the river, the landscape loses much of its rude magnificence, and assumes a richer character. Long low islands, covered with stacks of hay, or still shaded by the graceful elm and butter-nut trees, divide the stream. The intervales are spread from the margin of the broad current to the still forest-clad hills, which recede further into the wilderness. Numerous farms are scattered among fertile fields and cattle browse along the grassy banks, where the energies of man have turned the gloomy forest to a smiling habitation. But my sympathies are still more strongly enlisted with the forest. With impatience did I long to plunge into the vast woods that I saw around me. I can admire the rich and fertile tracts; I take interest in agriculture; and can appreciate the great charm of a farmer’s life; but the truth is I have spent so many years amongst wild lands, boundless plains, or nocturnal forests, that my inclination leads me to the wilderness, rather than to the abode of man.

At 8 P.M. the steamer lay alongside the makeshift wharf at Fredericton, and out poured the passengers, dispersing themselves through the scattered village. I betook myself to a very fair hotel by the waterside with a fellow traveler. The scenery immediately about Fredericton is tame; there is a considerable extent of cleared land between the river and the old forest; but there is here none of either the boldness or the richness of the lower parts of the river. A strong N.W. breeze, cool and refreshing, has dispersed the thick smoke-fog, which had obscured the air since I landed at St. John, tempering the warm sun, and producing a day of weather which could hardly be surpassed. Clouds of dust drive through the streets, however, which make walking highly unpleasant.

14th, Sunday— The piercing nor-wester, which has been chilling us all day, is a kind of gentle hint of what the winter is preparing for us; still it is fine bracing weather, a clear and deep blue sky, with glorious sun. I attended service at the church which at present supplies the place of a cathedral. Dr. Field, Bishop of Newfoundland, preached a sermon which left his hearers in no doubt of his theological bias—which is very high church. I accompanied Colonel — to his house, and was introduced to his daughters, natives of Canada, with all the brilliancy of complexion which so distinguishes the North Americans. Yesterday I presented myself at Government House. I dined there in the evening, and met the Bishop of N.F.L. and N.S., Colonel Haynes, Colonel Lockyer, &c. A very pleasant evening I spent there.

16th September— Colonel H—, agent to the Nova Scotia Land Company, drove me to Stanley today. Stanley is one of the principal settlements of this company, and was first commenced about fifteen years ago. This was my first introduction to the tangled forests of New Brunswick. Stanley, a large island as it were, surrounded on every side by the wild forest, studded with white cheerful cottages, paneled with fields of grass or grain, forming altogether a scene pleasing to look on.

[Note: Stanley was carved out of the wilderness in the 1830’s. Ref.]

These settlements, hacked and hewed out of the almost impenetrable forests, seem to me but little better than a large prison after all, surrounded on all sides by high and gloomy walls—a howling wilderness, the only exit a road I could almost compare to a dark underground passage, overshadowed by the woods. The little village, consisting of a tavern, church, school-house, blacksmith’s shop, parsonage, doctor’s house, and a few other buildings, is placed in a somewhat ill-judged position at the bottom of a deep valley, so that all egress from it must be by a long steep hill. Through this valley flows the beautiful river Nashwaak—at the time of my visit a shallow stream rustling over a stony bed. When the rains fall, however, and the snows melt, the river is a wide, rushing torrent, carrying dams, bridges, mill-houses, and bridges.

Across the new bridge the doctor drove me, in a wagon, as they call the queer-looking trough set upon wheels which are the usual vehicles in this country, and went up the opposite hill by the Miramichi Road, thence we obtained a fine view of the settlement, and of the river winding beneath us under steep, forest-burthened hills.

September 20th— I again left Fredericton with Colonel H—, to whose kindness I am much indebted, on our way to another of the Nova Scotia Land Company’s settlements called Springfield, about twenty-five miles up the St. John, and five miles back from the river. This settlement is not as far advanced as Stanley, and is still covered with a thick crop of stumps.

We traveled onward, we passed the night at the house of an old gentleman who came to the country before a house was built in St. John. The country is as fine a farming land as anyone could desire, said he. Its only fault is in the people—dense ignorance, no energy, or energy only exerted in the gambling business of lumbering. The lumbering business drags on the progress of the colony, and this so well-known that it is a truism.

Next morning, having paid for our board and lodging (for there is no gratis hospitality among the rural population here), the colonel and I parted, he on his way back, I on mine to Woodstock, a small town sixty miles above Fredericton. At a neighbouring farm, I hired a horse and wagon to take me on for £1, currency. This is the usual way of traveling where there is no stage. As a great favour, the owner of a horse drives you as far as he thinks proper, and expects with your thanks to receive a handsome remuneration. This you put in his hand, shake the other, thank him for his kindness in earning a pound or two, and so you go.

22nd, Woodstock— Mr. G—, with that readiness to assist which I have so constantly met with in New Brunswick, called on me early, and showed me a plan of a road from the Tobique to the Grand Falls, besides lending me a map of the Tobique itself to take with me when I explore that river.

During the forenoon I went out with Mr. J—, who, did all he could to help me, driving me to an Indian village, where he introduced me to a friend of his called Joe, with whom we made a bargain that he should take me up to the Tobique, and thence as high as the stream would let us go. These Indians were living in small log huts.

At Mr. J—’s house, where I spent a pleasant evening, I found the Indian whom I had hired waiting to tell me that he had procured a canoe, for which he wanted an advance of six dollars, besides one more to buy flour for his family in his absence. We started at 8 the next morning, with a supply of pork, biscuit, tea, and sugar for a fortnight’s cruise. Strong as was the current, Joe made the canoe shoot along with his pole at a rate which astonished me, not more, however, than the places through which he unhesitatingly guided her. The river was very low, and banks or bars of gravel and large shingle frequently divided it into one or more channels, which themselves were often so shallow as barely to allow even the light canoe to pass. On one occasion Joe had chosen one which, had he known, he would certainly have avoided, but having entered it, he proceeded with perseverance. Gently and cautiously he steered the little craft along a bank of shingle, which closed the upper entrance of the channel, and over which the stream was gurgling and tumbling in a manner which made me rather nervous. “You will have to go back, Joe; you can never get over that,” said I. “I guess I can,” was his quiet reply, and at the same instant, to my unbounded surprise, he shoved the canoe right on to a place where the stronger and more riotous rush of the current promised a little greater depth of water, though to go up there seemed about the same thing as going upstairs in a boat. My surprise was not much less when, with the assistance of a shove with his spear, which I had in my hand, we found ourselves safe in the deep water above.

Close by the mouth of a deep rocky gully we landed to dine on our pork and biscuit, having found fuel in driftwood scattered over the stony beach. Joe then proceeded to stop sundry leaks which had shown themselves with mixed rosin and grease, and then once more we launched our frail craft on the swift waters of the St. John.

Joe talked of finding quarters for the night in some one of the numerous houses which stud the banks of the river from St. John upwards. I don’t much like asking the hospitality of strangers when supplied with the means for camping out, unless the weather is very bad indeed. Under all circumstances the stranger finds himself the cause of inconvenience to his entertainers; their daily routine is interrupted, and they look uncomfortable, while the guest is thoroughly so, mentally and physically. Joe’s plan was in favour of a Mr. P—’s house, about a mile higher up. Of this Mr. P— I had never heard before; but I internally resolved that no force of circumstances should make me go there. But as I had no reason to back my decision, instead of openly rebelling, I waited, trusting to find some loophole whereby to escape.

The night began to fall, leaving little time to find what I sought, when a tow-boat moored to the banks with a vacant cabin or house astern caught my eye. “Good place for a man to sleep in on a wet night, Joe,” I carelessly remarked, as we came up to it. “Yes, sir, first-rate.” Joe had committed himself, and I hastened to secure my advantage. “Suppose we sleep there tonight, Joe?” “Very well, sir, as you please.” On a steep hank above us was a little farm-house, where I saw a man chopping firewood. We landed, and I inquired of him if the boat was his, stating my wish to pass the night in it. He said that “the boat was none of his, but that if I liked I might cook my victuals in his house, lie down by his fire, and welcome.” The increasing rain was a strong argument in favour of this proposal and as I at once agreed.

So the Indian and I forthwith carried up our blankets, cooking-apparatus and food into a rough but very substantially built little house, where a roaring fire and well-heated stove contrasted with the gloom and rain outside. Two comely, middle-aged women (one of them the man’s wife), and an old gentleman, his father, received us very graciously, supplying us with forks to eat with, and cream for our tea. I had a long talk with the old gentleman, who had come from the States thirty years ago; and, like most of the many Yankees I have met, seemed a very intelligent, well-informed man. On his hearing I had been in Australia, I had, as usual, to answer a multitude of questions, evincing great curiosity on the subject. The women especially took interest in the wool, wishing they had as much at their command, for all New Brunswick farm-wives have a spinning-wheel, and manufacture most of the woolen articles of their dress. I was much pleased by the straw hats so generally worn by the fair Bluenoses, setting off their undeniably good looks.

So bitterly cold was it next morning that on shaking hands with my entertainers, and bidding them good morning, I was resolved to walk part of the way, at least, though my weight in the boat would have been rather an advantage to Joe. After a brisk walk, I got on board, and endured the stiff wind. So I again rebelled, and insisted on going on shore again. Here I contrived to entangle myself among elder thickets, and clamber about steep banks till I fell far astern of the canoe, and was glad enough to embark once more and remain there quietly, covering myself with a piece of oiled canvas Mr. J— had lent me for a tent. We reached, at noon, a collection of houses round a saw-mill, which had been built in one of those steep gullies generally chosen for mill privileges, as they call them. Here Joe found a blacksmith to put a spike on his pole, and had again to repair his canoe, which leaked annoyingly.

Cramped up in the bottom of the canoe, with scarcely room to stir, benumbed with cold, and shrinking from the bitter blast, I had now begun to appreciate the advice I had received, and rejected, to take with me a little spirits, as well for myself and Joe, who had, in fact, taken care of himself with a small bottle of brandy.

While Joe was patching his canoe I sat under the lee of the steep rocky bank, clothed with thick alders, sketching him as he worked, bringing into the picture a log canoe or pirogue, poled across the stream by two men. I wish my pencil could do justice to the picturesque scene, or my pen to the beauty I heard, felt, and saw in that quiet half hour. But such dreams won’t help us to the Tobique, so “Come, Joe, we must be off.”

We reached a Temperance inn, a mile beneath the mouth of the Tobique, at dusk. The wind had died away, and the northern lights promised us a smart frost, a promise which was kept.

Next morning (the 25th) I started on foot for the mouth of the Tobique, which I had understood was a mile and a half from the inn. The walk in such glorious weather was delightful, and when I came to a cluster of houses on one side the river, and the junction of a biggish stream on the other, with another cluster in the angle of the junction, I could hardly believe I had reached the Tobique. So I went on till I met a wagon driven by a lad who looked hard at me, and said, “I say, mister, are you the man as wants to go to the Falls?” In fact I had told the innkeeper I was thinking of going on thither, as it would take a day or two to put the canoe to rights. “Cos my uncle was at H—’s last night, and he told my father there was a man as was going to the Falls, so I came down to see.” Thereupon the lad became skeptical and guessed that I was not the man after all. He was finally convinced, however, and I got into the wagon. My immediate object was to get some grog, the supply at the Tobique inn being out. I procured some excellent brandy, which will, I hope, keep a fellow poling hard, as Joe says, in good spirits.

Written by johnwood1946

April 25, 2018 at 8:15 AM

Posted in Uncategorized

The Principal Hotels in the Maritime Provinces, 1905, With Photographs

leave a comment »

From the blog at

The Principal Hotels in the Maritime Provinces, 1905, With Photographs

From the 1905 Pocket Guide

[][][][][][][] New Brunswick [][][][][][][]


ROBERTSON HOTEL — Geo. Robertson, Proprietor. Capacity 50. Rate per day, $1.50. Rate per week, $5.00. [Photograph from the Centre des études acadiennes, via the McCord Museum.]


ROYAL HOTEL — Wm. Sproul. Proprietor. Capacity 50. Rate per day. $1.50 to $2.00. Rate per week, $7.00.


ADAMS HOUSE — Thos. Flanagan Proprietor. Capacity 50. Rate per day $1.50 to $2.00. Rate per week (Special).


MURPHY’S HOTEL — Thos. Murphy. Proprietor. Capacity, 50. Rate per day. $1.50. Rate per week $7-00 to $9.00.


WINDSOR HOTEL — W. Frank Tait, Proprietor. Capacity 75. Rate per day $1.50 to $3.00. Rate per week $4.00 to $10.00. [Photograph from the New Brunswick Provincial Archives.]


BARKER HOUSE — S.L.C. Coleman, Proprietor. Capacity, 70. Rate per day $2.00 to $3.00. Rate per week (Special). [Photograph from the N.B. Provincial Archives via the York Sunbury Historical Society.]

QUEEN HOTEL — J.J. McCaffrey, Proprietor. Capacity 150. Rate per day $2.50. [Photograph of Wueen Street East with the hotel on the left, from the N.B. Provincial Archives via the York Sunbury Historical Society.]

WINDSOR HALL — A.E. Everett, Proprietor. Capacity 100. Rate per day, $2.00. [Photograph from the York Sunbury Historical Society.]


HOTEL AMERICAN — Bigelow & Co., Ltd., Props. Capacity, 75. W. B. Ganong, Manager. Rates per day, $2.00 to $3.50. [Photograph from the McCord Museum.]

HOTEL BRUNSWICK — Geo. McSweeney, Proprietor. Capacity, 200. Rate per day, $2.00. [Photograph from the Centre des études acadiennes, via the McCord Museum.]

HOTEL MINTO — P. Gallagher, Manager. Capacity, 100. Rate per day $1.50 to $2.00 Rate per week, $7.00 to $10.00. [Photograph from the McCord Museum.]


HOTEL MIRAMICHI — Thos. Foley, Proprietor. Capacity, 75. Rate per day, $2.00 to $2.50. Rate per week (Special). [Photograph from the New Brunswick Provincial Archives.]

WAVERLEY HOTEL — J.J. Pallen, Proprietor. Capacity, 40. Rate per day $1.50. Rate per week, (Special). [Photograph from the New Brunswick Provincial Archives.]


ALGONQUIN HOTEL — Canadian Pacific Railway Co. Proprietor. H.S. Houston, Manager. Capacity 175. Rate per day, $3 50 and up. Rate per week $17. 50 and up. [Photograph from the McCord Museum.]

KENNEDY’S HOTEL — A. Kennedy & Son Proprietors. Capacity 75. Rate per day $2.00. Rate per week $10.00 to $14.00.


CLIFTON HOUSE — W. Allan Black, Proprietor. Capacity, 75. Rate per day $2.00 and up. Rate per week. (Special).

THE DUFFERIN — E. LeRoi Willis, Proprietor. Chas. Campbell Manager. Capacity 150. Rate per day $3.00. [Photograph from the New Brunswick Museum.]

GRAND UNION HOTEL — W. H. McQuade, Proprietor. Capacity 75. Rate per day $1.50 to $2.00. [Photograph from the N.B. Museum via the Saint John an Industrial City in Transition website.]

NEW VICTORIA HOTEL — S.A. McCoskery, Proprietress. Capacity 200. Rate per day $2.00 to $2.50. Rate per week, $10.00.

PARK HOTEL — C. Damery, Proprietor. Capacity 200 Rate per day $2.00 to $2.50. Commercial rate per day $1.50. Rate per week (Special).

ROYAL HOTEL — Raymond & Doherty, Props. Capacity 200 Rate per day, $3.00. [Photograph from the New Brunswick Museum.]

VICTORIA HOTEL — Victoria Hotel Co., Ltd., Props. E.W. Bowman, Manager. Capacity 200. Rate per day $2.50 to $3.00. Rate per week, $15.00 to $18.00. [Photograph from the N.B. Museum via the McCord Museum.]

INTERCOLONIAL RAILWAY — City Ticket Office 7 King Street.



WINDSOR HOTEL — W. Fred Nicholson, Proprietor. Capacity 150. Rate per day $2.00. Rate per week (Special).


BRUNSWICK HOTEL — Thos. Estabrooks, Proprietor. Capacity 75. Rate per day $1.50 to $2.50. Rate per week $4.00 to $10.00.


WELDON HOUSE — J.D. Weldon, Proprietor. Capacity 100. Rate per day $1.50. Rate per week $4.00 to $7.00.


CARLISLE HOTEL — C.J. Tabor, Proprietor. Capacity 100. Rate per day $2.00 to $2.50. Rate per week (Special).

[][][][][][][] Nova Scotia [][][][][][][]


AMHERST HOTEL — Andrew Gorman, Proprietor. Rate per day, $2.00. Rate per week, $10.50.

TERRENCE HOTEL — Wm. G. Calhoun, Proprietor. Rate per day, $1.50 to $2.00. Rate per week, $10.50.


QUEEN HOTEL —Riorden Bros., Proprietors. Capacity, 60. Rate per day, $2.00. Rate per week, (Special).


MERRIMAC HOUSE —Rufus Hale, Proprietor. Capacity, 60. Rate per day, $1.50 to $2.00. Rate per week, $4.00 to $9.00.


WAVERLEY HOUSE — C.C. Church, Proprietor. Capacity, 20. Rate per day, $1.50. Rate per week. $7.00 to $10.00.


EATON’S HOTEL — F.G. Eaton, Proprietor. Capacity, 25. Rate per day, $1.50. Rate per week, $8.00.


HALIFAX HOTEL — E.L. MacDonald, Manager. Capacity, 300. Rate per day, $2.50 to $3.50. Rate per week (Special). [Photograph of interior from the Centre des études acadiennes, via the McCord Museum.]

KING EDWARD HOTEL — Wm. Wilson, Proprietor. Capacity, 100. Rate per day, $1.50 to $2.50. Rate per week (Special). [Picture from The Original King Edward Hotel in Halifax… website.]

QUEEN HOTEL — James P. Fairbanks, Proprietor. Capacity, 200. Rate per day, $2.00 to $2.50. Rate per week (Special). [Photograph from the HalifaxPeople website.]


ABERDEEN HOTEL — H.L. Cole, Proprietor. Capacity, 50. Rate per day, $2.00. Rate per week, $10.00 to $12.00. [Photograph from the Nova Scotia Archives.]


HOTEL VENDOME — D. McDearmid, Proprietor. Capacity, 75. Rate per day, $2.00. Rate per week (Special). [Photograph from the Pictou-Antigonish Regional Library website.]


HOTEL ALBERT — W.A. Slipp, Manager. Capacity, 100. Rate per day, $1.50 to $2.00.


HOTEL WALLACE — Geo. F. Wallace & Son, Props. Capacity, 100. Rate per day, $2.00. Rate per week, $14.00.


THE SYDNEY — E. LeRoi Willis, Proprietor. Capacity, 275. Rate per day, $2.50 to $3.00.


LEARMENT HOTEL — A.H. Learment, Proprietor. Capacity, 100. Rate per day, $2.00.


VICTORIA HOTEL — T. Doron, Proprietor. Capacity, 60. Rate per day $1.50. Rate per week, $9.00.


ROYAL HOTEL — J.W. Beckwith, Proprietor. George Q. Patee, Manager. A.W. Eakins, Secretary. Capacity, 60. Rate per day $1.50. Rate per week, $5.00 to $10.00.


THE GRAND HOTEL — The Grand Hotel Co., Ltd., Proprietor. Capacity, 150. Rate per day $2.50. Rate per week, $12.00 to $20.00. [Photograph from the YarmouthHistory website.]

[][][][][][][] Prince Edward Island [][][][][][][]


HOTEL VICTORIA — R.H. Sterns, Proprietor. Capacity, 200. Rate per day, $2.00 to $3.50. Rate per week (Special).

QUEEN HOTEL — M.M. Archibald, Proprietress. Capacity, 100. Rate per day, $1.50 to $2.00. Rate per week (Special).



CLIFTON HOTEL — Miss. G.P. Mawley, Proprietress. Capacity, 30. Rate per day, $2.00 to $2.50.

Written by johnwood1946

April 18, 2018 at 8:15 AM

Posted in Uncategorized

Halifax From 1749 to 1800 — Minus the Wars and Politics

leave a comment »

From the blog at

Halifax From 1749 to 1800 — Minus the Wars and Politics

Following is a description of life in Halifax during the last half of the 18th century. It is not a story of politics and wars, but is a description of the everyday. It is taken from Memoir of Sir Brenton Halliburton, Late Chief Justice of the Province of Nova Scotia, by George W. Hill, published in Halifax in 1864.

I found the chapter about early Halifax to be unnecessarily long, and sometimes overly sentimental. The following version is therefore very condensed and edited—about one-third of its original length.

‘Halifax, Drawn from ye Topmasthead’

By Thomas Jefferys, 1750, from the Public Archives of Nova Scotia


Halifax has undergone great changes during its first century of existence. It has developed from a rude village into a well-planned town. In some respects, progress has been slow and inconsiderable while, in others, it has been rapid and great. Overall, however, Halifax cannot boast about its growth. In other places, towns have sprung up in the wilderness to rival the older cities of the East within the space of ten or twenty years. The rise and progress of Halifax has been nothing compared with these, however, even though it possessed advantages which ought to have resulted in marked material progress. The causes for this included the belief in Britain that the climate was severe and the soil sterile; neglect in promoting immigration; and a too-great dependence in Halifax upon the mother country.

In this commentary, I shall draw a picture of Halifax as it was during its first fifty years, that is, from its settlement under Edward Cornwallis in 1749 until about 1800. Here I will emphasize its progress which, though slow, has certainly been sure. This will hopefully give us a clearer view of the past, than a bare acquaintance with the dates of certain events.

In days of old, the limits of the town were narrow. The harbor on the east, Salter Street on the south, Jacob Street on the north, and the citadel on the west, were the boundaries, and the whole was enclosed with a palisade. Later, these limits were not so strictly observed, and the palisades fell into decay. They appear, however, to have still been there in 1760, since ceremonies proclaiming King George III were performed at the north and south gates. Everything outside of these limits was a suburb. The Dockyard, which was first established in 1758, was then quite unconnected with Halifax proper.

The small settlement of some fifteen German families who stayed in Halifax rather than following their fellows to Lunenburg, had fixed their residence in the north suburbs. So completely detached were they from the town, both by position and nationality, that a place of worship was erected in 1761 for their use, and a lot was granted for the parsonage. Two or three years afterwards the inhabitants applied to the Governor to name their town Gottingen, a name was eventually confined to one of the streets running through it. Brunswick was applied to another street in memory of their German heritage, and this became the main thoroughfare with single story houses and roofs of double pitch. The remaining street, beside that which ran along the water’s edge, seems to have been named in honor of an early settler, L. Lockman. There was a long space between this German town and Halifax, and between the Dockyard and Halifax, so that passing from either one of these to the town was quite a business.

Lamps were placed at the principal street corners between 1768 and 1777, though the condition of the streets remained poor for a long time. An irregular street ran along the water side of town, following the shore, and this is where most of the shops and stores were built, while the water lots accommodated wharves and slips. The waterside street was not named Water Street, as now, but was simply referred to as the Beach, and ran from the Dockyard in a southerly direction through the Royal Engineer Yard until it reached Point Pleasant. It became a favorite and leisurely walk, and was kept in such excellent condition that Governor Fanning made his residence just below the Tower. Another road, leading to the northern suburbs, also became a fashionable resort. Governor, Sir Andrew Snape Hammond had a house on this road, forming part of the highway to Windsor. Near the Governor’s house stood another, which became famed for breakfasts and suppers during the summer season.

Public gardens were established and largely patronized. Not far from the present Horticultural Society’s Garden, and hard by the Artillery Park, was one containing a pavilion, in which grew a great variety of fruit trees and shrubs. Another was situated near the old burial-ground of St. Paul’s or the English churchyard, as it was sometimes termed; while a third was kept by a provincial gardener, to whom the House of Assembly voted a salary.

Within the town, the Parade was a great landmark, and no buildings were erected upon it, save the Artillery Barrack. Nearby shops or houses were simply described as being on the Parade, as regular street names were seldom used in those days.

Many of the streets were lined with trees, particularly in the southern portion of the town, adding much to its appearance. Reverend Jacob Bailey described Pleasant Street in 1779 as “the most elegant street in the town, [being] much frequented by gentlemen and ladies for an evening walk in fine weather.”

Public buildings were numerous, it being a Government town. Amongst the first were the churches—St. Paul’s, for the United Church of England and Ireland, and St. Matthew’s for the Protestant Dissenting congregation. The frame and other materials for St. Paul’s was ordered from Boston, and it opened on the 2nd September, 1750. Flourishing accounts of its size, appearance, and workmanship, were sent to England by those most interested in it. It was the custom for the House of Assembly to attend St. Paul’s annually. The organ was not purchased at first, and, while waiting to send to England for it a Spanish ship was brought into harbor as a prize. On board was an organ, which was sold, and the churchwardens of St. Paul’s became its owners. The instrument was replaced by another many years later, but the case still stands unchanged. St. Paul’s was also the site for signing of an important treaty between the British and the Mi’kmaq people.

A lot was granted for the Protestant Dissenting congregation in December of 1749, and this frame was probably also imported from Boston. The church was soon erected and was called the Mather Church, no doubt, in compliment to Cotton Mather. The name Saint Matthew, appears to be a corruption of the word Mather, with the Scotch prefixing the title Saint. The first minister was Aaron Cleaveland, but the early church records were destroyed by a fire, and we are thus left without the information which would now be of interest.

In the middle of the square now occupied by the Province Building, stood the first Government House. It was described as “a low building of one story, surrounded by hogsheads of gravel and sand, on which small pieces of ordnance were mounted for defence.” This house was later replaced by a more spacious and convenient residence; and this continued to be the Government House until Sir George Prevost caused it to be taken away, and the present building erected.

The House of Assembly was first convened by Governor Lawrence on the 2nd October, 1758. It was held in a house now used as the Halifax Grammar School. This house was one of the best known in Halifax, for it did duty for various official bodies, being at one time a Court House and at another a Guard House.

One of the most noted buildings was the old Market House, on the site of the present Police Establishment. A balcony ran along the front, and it became a well-known meeting place.

Next in importance came the hotels. The first of these was The Great Pontac. This was a large building of three stories originally kept by a Mr. Willis. There were no houses or stores on the lower side of the street which skirted the beach, and a fine view of the harbor was seen from the windows. Here were held balls and all sorts of public entertainment. Hospitalities were frequent enough that the host was glad to receive assistance from the cooks of the ships of war. Steaming dishes were brought in boats from the ships, while other sailors transported them from the beach to the dining room.

One of the most remarkable concentration of troops at Halifax occurred some eight years after the settlement was established. A fleet and army arrived on their way to attack Louisburg. Lord Loudon then joined them with six thousand Provincial soldiers from New York. This attempt was unsuccessful, but some of the ships returned to Halifax for the winter. Early in the following spring, General Amherst arrived with twelve thousand men, partly provincials, enlisted in New England, and partly regulars. The whole force consisted of one hundred and fifty-seven sail, and fourteen thousand men, and did not leave Halifax until near the end of May. The assault upon the French was successful, and the fleet and army returned to Halifax and remained for some time.

There were other such concentrations of military at Halifax, for in the very next year, General Wolfe arrived with another fleet and army on his way to the siege of Quebec. Though Wolfe fell on the Plains of Abraham, the ships and troops returned to Halifax, and from this date the harbor was constantly visited by the squadrons and cruisers for four years. A lull, both in the business and gaieties of the town, then set in, which continued until the breakout of the American Revolution. Activity then revived with the return of army and naval forces. The presence of so many men and their money, which was freely spent, brought prosperity and raucous behaviour in equal measure. All of this supported the Great Pontac and rendered it so prosperous that a competing hotel was opened, called the Little Pontac. Two other establishments sprung up between the Dockyard and the town, one being the Crown Coffee House, frequented mainly by country people, and the other being the Jerusalem Coffee House, a sort of halfway-house, between the Dockyard and Market.

The town was laid out in squares, each containing sixteen lots, of forty by sixty feet, and some people owned more than one lot if they could afford it. The houses were mostly small, and seldom more than a single story, but finished with an attic. Most people kept gardens, both out of necessity and for recreation. Quite a few people planted trees. Furniture in better-off homes was far more substantial and expensive than used by people of the same class today. Householders were content with far less of it then than now, however. The day’s labor began early, with the often unsuccessful attempt to produce fire from flint and steel in the open hearth.

It was the habit to take supper between eight and nine o’clock. The fashionable dinner hour was three o’clock, and on some occasions it was made as late as four. As a consequence, business ceased, at least by the public offices, soon after mid-day. It was then too late to return when the somewhat lengthened meal was over. There was much to hinder and very little to promote education. Opportunities for instruction were few and far between.

The market offered much less variety of foods than today. When the troops were present, they would invade the town by thousands and almost produce a famine. On one occasion beef rose to two shillings and sixpence per pound, and butter to five. Except in these extreme cases, the necessities of life were abundant enough. Corned beef, pork, and salted codfish, far more frequently formed the dishes of all classes than fresh meat. The same species of meat was dressed in many ways; and preserved fruits were a favourite during the winter season. For vegetables, each household was either dependent upon their own garden or, if they could not, there were always the public gardener.

Thus were the original settlers supplied with food. Unfortunately, however, there was no shortage of things to drink. Wines and liquors were bought in quantity at the market, which had a baneful influence upon people of all ages and ranks.

Carriages were owned only by a few, and even up to the end of the century carriage owners paid a special tax. There was only one covered carriage, owned by a former Government official.

The gentry were served by slaves in some cases, owned as goods and chattel. A slave sale was advertised in the newspaper as early as 1769, and a reward was offered for the capture of a runaway in 1790.

The police force was very small, with only two or three constables under the direction of a Chief Magistrate. The military sometimes lightened their task. The townsmen would turn out to patrol the streets when there were thieves or housebreakers to be dealt with. Punishments for minor offences were similar to those in use in older countries: the stocks for drunkenness, and whipping at the public post for theft.

The Nova Scotia Chronicle and Weekly Gazette was first published in January, 1769. Papers were modelled after the usual pattern, the principal feature being news from English and American newspapers. Editorials were few and brief, and there was rarely any attempt to influence or reflect public opinion. The space devoted to local news, even including the shipping lists, and notices of deaths and marriages, seldom exceeded half a column.

Communication with England was uncertain, and sometimes infrequent. There was either a constant succession of ships arriving and departing, or an almost total absence of them. When ships did arrive, people who were anxious to cross the Atlantic often found passage on board. Accommodations were poor, and a schooner was often the style of vessel in which they were compelled to sail.

Those days in Halifax were very irreligious. Lack of regard for the doctrines of the Gospel were manifest. There were exceptions, but the record is unanimous, that religion was treated with indifference and scorn by some, and with reverence by but few. [George W. Hill provides no examples, but] the first Bishop was so impressed with the moral conditions, the general tone of society, and the debasing tendencies that he wrote a letter bewailing it and urged that steps be taken to erect barriers against the impetuous torrent which threatened to overwhelm morality.

Such was the condition of Halifax, material and moral, during the first half century of its history. With the exception of events which are mentioned as belonging to the infancy of the town—such as its limits and defenses— the details belong almost as much to the middle and close of the fifty years, as to the commencement.

Written by johnwood1946

April 11, 2018 at 8:24 AM

Posted in Uncategorized