New Brunswick History and Other Stuff

Table of Contents, Rev. November 14, 2018

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The blog posts follow this Table of Contents, in the sequence shown. To access a particular post, copy and paste the title, or a sufficient part of the title, to the search box to the right.

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  1. The Acadian Exiles – Unwelcome in Pennsylvania – Nov. 14, 2018
  2. The Magical Coat, Shoes, and Sward – Nov. 7, 2018
  3. Thirty Nice Pictures of New Brunswick in About 1882 – Oct. 31, 2018
  4. Northern and Eastern New Brunswick in 1831 – A Neglected Territory – Oct. 24, 2018
  5. From Saint Martins to Saint John in 1843-Ships Being Built all Along the Coast – Oct. 17, 2017
  6. How to Get a Grant of Crown Land in New Brunswick, in 1884 – Oct. 10, 2018
  7. Fredericton, Saint John, and Thereabouts in 1831 – Oct. 3, 2018
  8. Immigrants to New Denmark and Andover, New Brunswick, in 1884 – Sept. 24, 2018
  9. Saint John, New Brunswick, and by Steamer to Fredericton in 1892 – Sept. 19, 2018
  10. New Brunswick’s Eastern Shore and the Moncton Area in 1894 – Sept. 12, 2018
  11. Impressions of an Officer Stationed in Halifax in 1830 – Sept. 5, 2018
  12. Let Us At Least Have a Rudimentary Education System – Aug. 29, 2018
  13. Champlain in 1605: Exploration, Adventure and Murder – Aug. 22, 2018
  14. New Brunswick in Pictures, 1920 – Part 2 of 2 Aug. 15, 2018
  15. New Brunswick in Pictures, 1920 – Part 1 of 2 – Aug. 8, 2019
  16. The Nova Scotia Question – Aug. 1, 2018
  17. Blog Post #400: Maine versus New Brunswick; Complaints and a Call for Action – July 25, 2018
  18. Remembering the Escuminac Disaster of 1959 – July 18, 2018
  19. A Sportsman’s Guide to Sunbury and Queens Counties, 1898. Who to See – July 11, 2018
  20. The Indian who was Transformed into a Megŭmoowesoo – July 4, 2018
  21. Edward Mitchell Bannister, a Prominent Artist From Saint Andrews – June 27, 2018
  22. The Historic Trappist Monastery at Tracadie, N.S., and the Antigonish Area in 1892 – June 20, 2018
  23. God is in His Heaven and All’s Well With New Brunswick – June 13, 2018
  24. Ten Years of Discord in Acadia: And so it Goes – June 6, 2018
  25. Were Taxes too Low in the 1820’s to Promote Industry? – May 30, 2018
  26. The Adventures of Ababejit, an Indian Chief and Magician of the Micmac – May 23, 2018
  27. John Gyles, His Times and How he was Captured – May 16, 2018
  28. An Illustrated Description of the Building of Stanley, New Brunswick – May 9, 2018
  29. A Proposal to Buy Canada for $85.7-million, plus Other Considerations – May 2, 2018
  30. To Fredericton, Stanley and Woodstock, on my Way to the Tobique in 1851 – Apr. 25, 2018
  31. The Principal Hotels in the Maritime Provinces, 1905, With Photographs – Apr. 18, 2018
  32. Halifax From 1749 to 1800 — Minus the Wars and Politics – Apr. 11, 2018
  33. William Brydone Jack on the Future of University Education in New Brunswick – Apr. 4, 2018
  34. Saint John: From Nothing, to Become Canada’s Winter Port – Mar. 28, 2018
  35. Saint John, New Brunswick Churches in 1910 – Mar. 21, 2018
  36. Chief Making Among the Passamaquoddy Indians – Mar. 14, 2018
  37. Canoeing Down the Restigouche River in 1895 – Mar. 7, 2018
  38. Northern New Brunswick, Heaven on Earth – Feb. 28, 2018
  39. Indian Place Names From Around Passamaquoddy Bay – Feb. 21, 2018
  40. Alexander McNutt’s Accomplishments Went Well Beyond Maugerville – Feb. 14, 2018
  41. Albert County, New Brunswick, about 170 Years Ago – Feb. 7, 2018
  42. 1865: Rise in Support of this Mighty Project! The Confederation Debate – Jan. 31, 2018
  43. The Genesis of Prince Edward Island’s Distinctive Property Laws – Jan. 24, 2018
  44. Saint John’s ‘English Period’, 1758 to 1782 – Jan. 17, 2018
  45. Education in New Brunswick in 1837 – Jan. 10, 2018
  46. The Babcock Tragedy, a Story of Madness and Murder – Jan. 3, 2018
  47. Cape Breton, from about 1000 AD to the Mid-1600’s – Dec. 27, 2017
  48. Christmas as it was in Saint John, 1808 – Dec. 23, 2017
  49. The Saint John River, the Rhine of America – Dec. 20, 2017
  50. A Veiled Threat to Invade New Brunswick – Dec. 13, 2017
  51. A Few Weeks in 1755, the Expulsion of the Acadians Begins – Dec. 6, 2017
  52. The Magical Dancing Doll – Nov. 29, 2017
  53. Immigration to New Brunswick in 1832, and Lumber Mills – Nov. 22, 2017
  54. Harvey, New Brunswick, 1837 – Nov. 15, 2017
  55. On the Road to Responsible Government in New Brunswick – Nov. 8, 2017
  56. Through the Woods in the Dead of Winter; Fredericton to the Miramichi – Nov. 5, 2017
  57. Acadia in 1720, as Seen by Paul Mascerene – Oct. 25, 2017
  58. Nova Scotia’s Sham Government in 1720 – Oct. 18, 2017
  59. Three Short Wabanaki Thunder Stories – Oct. 11, 2017
  60. Stanley, N.B., Carved from the Wilderness – in a Hurry – Oct. 4, 2017
  61. Drunkenness Yearly More Common Amongst all Classes – Sept. 27, 2017
  62. John Cabot, London Superstar and Discoverer of Cape Breton – Sept. 20, 2017
  63. Nicolas Denys, the First Proprietor and Governor of all of the Gulf Coast of Acadia – Sept. 13, 2017
  64. Promoting New Brunswick in 1832 – Sept. 6, 2017
  65. A View of Acadian History, from 30,000 Feet – Aug. 30, 2017
  66. Nova Scotia During the Revolution, an American Perspective – Aug. 23, 2017
  67. The Many Trials of Richard Valpey of Yarmouth, and his Service to the American Cause During the Revolution – Aug. 16, 2017
  68. From Saint John to Annapolis Royal, Around the Bay of Fundy in 1787 – Aug. 9, 2017
  69. Nova Scotia in 1775: “Every Spot is Inhospitable and Frigid” – Aug. 2, 2017
  70. Notes About Edward Cornwallis, Who Has Been in the News Lately – July 26, 2017
  71. Starving, Fly-Bitten, and Lost in the Woods – July 19, 2017
  72. Saint John and Saint George, New Brunswick, in 1842 – July 12, 2017
  73. The Razing of Chignecto, and the Attack on Fort Nashwaak – July 5, 2017
  74. Captain Henry Mowat’s Account of the Battle on the Penobscot – June 28, 2017
  75. Voyage of the First Fleet of 1783, and the Settlement of Kingston by a Band of Loyalists – June 21, 2017
  76. 1,500 Dead in Saint John. The Cholera Epidemic of 1854 – June 14, 2017
  77. Fishing on the Nepisiquit River in the 1870’s – June 7, 2017
  78. The Clock at Fredericton City Hall – May 31, 2017
  79. Prohibition in Saint John in the 1920’s, an Exposé – May 24, 2017
  80. Boss Gibson’s First Railroad – May 17, 2017
  81. The New Brunswick Postal Service in 1856 – May 10, 2017
  82. Defending the ‘Worthless, Unsteady and Villainous’ Cutters of Wood – May 3, 2017
  83. Tossed by the Sea Into a Frozen Wilderness-1788 – Apr. 26, 2017
  84. The King of France Cannot Have Given You Our Land, Because it Was Not His – Apr. 19, 2017
  85. Bureaucracy and the Expulsion of the Acadians – Apr. 12, 2017
  86. From Pictou, Nova Scotia to Saint John, New Brunswick via Charlottetown and Shediac in 1867 – Apr. 5, 2017
  87. A Sunday EXTRA: No Meeting of Minds Between the Acadians and the British in 1717 – Apr. 2, 2017
  88. Grand Falls, New Brunswick in 1844 – A Vast Ocean of Trees – Mar. 29, 2017
  89. Shabby Streets, Decaying Houses, and Steep Plank Sidewalks. Saint John in 1874 – Mar. 22, 2017
  90. In the Beginning – Wabanaki Creation Stories – Mar. 15, 2017
  91. Pride versus Rascals and Villains in Saint John in 1791 – Mar. 8, 2017
  92. The Trent Affair – Mar. 1, 2017
  93. A Shocking Description of Anti-Confederates in Rural Nova Scotia in 1867 – Feb. 22, 2017
  94. Surveying Through the Wilderness in 1844 – Feb. 15, 2017
  95. At the Bend of the Petitcodiac in 1844: Moncton – Feb. 8, 2017
  96. Maria Rye and Her British Home Children – Feb. 1, 2017
  97. New Brunswick’s East Coast in 1832, Following the Miramichi Fire – Jan. 25, 2017
  98. Slavery in the Loyalist Era – Jan. 18, 2017
  99. Weather and the Seasons in Micmac Mythology – Jan. 11, 2017
  100. New Brunswick’s Roads in 1832: ‘Many paths are misnamed roads’. Jan. 7, 2017
  101. Nova Scotia and New England During the Revolution – Dec. 28, 2016
  102. A Holiday Special: Christmas as it Was in Saint John in 1808 – Dec. 23, 2016
  103. Expressions from Cuffer Down plus Signs and Omens – Dec. 21, 2016
  104. From Passamaquoddy to the Petitcodiac: What it Was Like in 1832 – Dec. 14, 2016
  105. Raymond Writes About the Lives and Customs of the Mi’kmaq and Maliseet People – Dec. 7, 2016
  106. The Governor’s House was an Outrage to Good Taste – Fredericton in 1832 – Nov. 30, 2016
  107. An Unparalleled and Abominable Deception – Nov. 23, 2016
  108. Not a Metropolis, but the Largest Town in the Province – Saint John in 1832 – Nov. 16, 2016
  109. Lumber Camp Life, and Game-Wardens Poaching Moose – Nov. 9, 2016
  110. Louisbourg: It Didn’t Have to Happen. It Just Didn’t Have to Happen – Nov. 2, 2016
  111. Let Us Consider the Lowly Seagull – Oct. 26, 2016
  112. 5 – David Kennedy Completes His Travels of 1876 in Halifax – Oct. 19, 2016
  113. 4 – David Kennedy’s Tour of Nova Scotia in 1876 – Oct. 12, 2016
  114. 3 – David Kennedy’s Tour of Newcastle, Chatham and Bathurst in 1876 – Oct. 5, 2016
  115. 2 – David Kennedy’s Visit to Saint John, New Brunswick in 1876 – Sept. 28, 2016
  116. 1 – David Kennedy’s Travels from Quebec City to New Brunswick in 1876 – Sept. 21, 2016 (This blog posting was lost on Sept. 28th. I decided not to re-post, since it would clutter my subscribers’ screens.)
  117. A Short History of Early English Nova Scotia – Sept. 14, 2016
  118. Fish Wardens Described as Useless Political Appointments – Sept. 7, 2016
  119. With Indian Guides in the Wilds of New Brunswick, 1862 – Aug. 31, 2016
  120. Blog past #300: Port Royal from 1604 to 1613. Of Heritage Value to all North Americans – Aug. 24, 2016
  121. Hunting Down the Last of the Old Growth Pine – Aug. 17, 2016
  122. Dr. James Robb – Aug. 10, 2016
  123. Peace Negotiations With Pierre Tomah on the Saint John River – Aug. 3, 2016
  124. Business Opportunities on Campobello Island – July 27, 2016
  125. A Pompous Captain on the Evils of Logging – July 20, 2016
  126. The Too-Easy Life of Nova Scotians Disproved – July 13, 2016
  127. Why Not to Marry a Nova Scotia Woman, and How to Make Maple Sugar – July 6, 2016
  128. The Bloody Assault on Fort Louisbourg in 1758 – June 29, 2016
  129. The Medical Men of Saint John in its First Half Century – June 22, 2016
  130. Henry Ketchum and the Chignecto Marine Transport Railway – June 15, 2016
  131. A War Journal from Majabidwaduce on the Penobscot – June 8, 2016
  132. Mi’kmaq Magic and Medicine – June 1, 2016
  133. Thomas Wood, and His Visit to the Saint John River in 1769 – May 25, 2016
  134. The Northern Colonies: Languishing in Mediocrity – ca 1804 – May 18, 2016
  135. Fredericton’s Victoria Cottage Hospital – May 11, 2016
  136. The Passamaquoddy Wampum Records – May 4, 2016
  137. Slog on, or Die – Apr. 27, 2016
  138. Changes Nova Scotia Underwent from Discovery to 1758 When the First General Assembly Met in Halifax – Apr. 20, 2016
  139. The Disastrous Winter on St. Croix Island, 1604-05, and Other Adventures – Apr. 13, 2016
  140. Missions to the Mi’kmaq and Maliseet in the Early 1800’s – Apr. 6, 2016
  141. It Sounded Like a Residential School Philosophy – Mar. 30, 2016
  142. The Acadian Fugitives – Mar. 23, 2016
  143. Giddy, Eccentric, and Discontented Characters, or Misguided Souls, or Turncoats? – Mar. 16, 2016
  144. Indian Routes of Travel in New Brunswick – Mar. 9, 2016
  145. Historic Sites from the English Period on the Saint John River – Mar. 2, 2016
  146. How to Hunt a Moose, a Goose, and a Caribou in New Brunswick in 1791 – Feb. 24, 2016
  147. William Hubbard Complains to Edward Winslow about the Congregationalists in Sheffield – Feb. 17, 2016
  148. Good Fences Make Good Neighbours – Feb. 10, 2016
  149. WE NEED THE ACADIANS TO REMAIN: Lieut Governor, 1715 – Feb. 2, 2015
  150. Guy Carleton on the Fur Trade in Canada, 1767 – Jan. 27, 2016
  151. A Letter on Irish Immigrants – Jan. 20, 2016
  152. The Wreck of the ‘Lord Ashburton’ – Jan. 13, 2016
  153. A Ghost at Noonday – Jan. 6, 2016
  154. Silas Rand on the Mi’kmaq People – Part 3: Will Not the Bright Sun and the Blue Heavens Testify Against Us? – Dec. 30, 2015
  155. Silas Rand on the Mi’kmaq People – Part 2: To Every Thing There is a Season – Dec. 23, 2015
  156. Silas Rand on the Mi’kmaq People – Part 1: All Men From One Blood – Dec. 16, 2015
  157. Limits to the Royal Bounty – Dec. 9, 2015
  158. Nova Scotia, a Receptacle for Superfluous People? – Dec. 1, 2015
  159. From New Ireland to New Brunswick – Nov. 25, 2015
  160. The Most Gentlemanlike Government on Earth – Nov. 18, 2015
  161. I Love You for Your Plainness – Nov. 11, 2015
  162. Ward Chipman Remembers the Final Evacuation of New York – Nov. 4, 2015
  163. A Reply to “Men of Honor and Probity Run Amok” – Oct. 28, 2015
  164. A Century of Educational Progress in New Brunswick from 1800 to 1900 – Oct. 21, 2015
  165. Notes About the Earliest Public Markets in Saint John, New Brunswick – Oct. 14, 2015
  166. The Provincial Dairy School at Sussex, New Brunswick, 1900 – Oct. 7, 2015
  167. An Account of Nova Scotia in 1743 – Sept. 30, 2015
  168. The Petition of the Infamous 55 – Sept. 23, 2015
  169. Francis Sharpe’s Woodstock Apples – Sept. 16, 2015
  170. The Expulsion of the Acadians, a Military Surgeon’s Diary – Sept. 9, 2015
  171. The New Brunswick Election of 1785 – Sept. 2, 2015
  172. The Many Fires in Saint John, 1784-1877 – Aug. 26, 2015
  173. A Proposal for an Attack on Nova Scotia – Aug. 19, 2015
  174. Fredericton’s Great Flood of 1936 – Aug. 12, 2015
  175. A Letter about the Acadians and the Expulsion – Aug. 5, 2015
  176. Saint John in 1834, Before it was Forever Changed by the Great Fire – July 29, 2015
  177. New Brunswick, No Country for a Mere Gentleman, 1834 – July 22, 2015
  178. Woodstock, the Only Village Between the Green River and Fredericton in 1834 – July 15, 2015
  179. On the Tamiscouta Prtage from Lake Tamiscouta to just above Grand Falls, 1834 – July 10, 2015
  180. Men of Honor and Probity Run Amok – July 1, 2015
  181. By Steamer to the So-Called City of Fredericton – June 24, 2014
  182. A Quiet and Business-Like Little City – June 17, 2015
  183. Rambles Among the Bluenoses in 1862 – June 10, 2015
  184. Edward John Russell, a New Brunswick Artist – June 3, 2015
  185. Provincial Lunatic Asylum, Report of the Medical Superintendent, 1875 – May 27, 2015
  186. The Saint John River and Port Royal in the Early 1600’s – May 20, 2015
  187. What Should We Think of Benedict Arnold? – May 13, 2015
  188. Diphtheria in New Brunswick in the Year 1889 – May 6, 2015
  189. The Official Account of the Destruction of Burnt Church – Apr. 29, 2015
  190. The Exchange Coffee House and Saint John’s First Club – Apr. 22, 2015
  191. The Wigwams and Dwellings of the Gaspesians – Apr. 15, 2015
  192. The Story of Brook Watson – Apr. 8, 2015
  193. Where Stood Fort LaTour? – Apr. 1, 2015
  194. Things This Morning Really Wear the Aspect of War – Mar. 25, 2015
  195. At Portland Point – Mar. 18, 2015
  196. Electrical Power From the Reversing Falls – Mar. 10, 2015
  197. Father Rale’s War – 1722-25; How it Ended – Mar. 4, 2015
  198. What Was the Big Deal About the Marco Polo? – Feb. 25, 2015
  199. Grand Manan to Petitcodiac, in 1786 – Feb. 18, 2015
  200. A Trip From St. John to Fredericton in 1870 – Feb. 11, 2015
  201. A Tour of St. John, N.B., in 1870 – Feb. 4, 2015
  202. Destruction by Fire of the First Cathedral in Chatham – Jan. 28, 2015
  203. Burgan the Burglar – Jan. 21, 2015
  204. Facts and Reasons Against Confederating With Canada – Jan. 14, 2015
  205. Discontent in Early Halifax in 1756 – Jan. 7, 2015
  206. A Trip on the ICR From Bathurst to Miramichi – Dec. 31, 2014
  207. Early Attempts to Introduce the Cultivation of Hemp in Eastern British America – Dec. 24, 2014
  208. Touring Campbellton and Dalhousie, Despite the Mosquitoes, 1876 – Dec. 19, 2014
  209. The Fire of 1837 in Saint John – Dec. 10, 2014
  210. The Cruise of the Rechab – Dec. 3, 2014
  211. A Night in the Deep – Nov. 26, 2014
  212. Robert Foulis (A Misplaced Genius) – Nov. 19, 2014
  213. The City Mills – Nov. 15, 2014
  214. The Brothers d’Amours – Nov. 5, 2014
  215. John Allan’s Revolutionary Mission to the Saint John River – Oct. 29, 2014
  216. Relics of the Acadian Period – Oct. 22, 2014
  217. Some Odd Old Advertisements – Oct. 15, 2014
  218. The Miramichi Fire – Relief of the Sufferers – Oct. 8, 2014
  219. Jonathan Eddy’s Account of the Attack on Fort Cumberland, November, 1776 – Oct. 1, 2014
  220. Which of These Two is the Wisest and Happiest? – Sept. 24, 2014
  221. Fredericton Bridge, a Prophetic Writing – Sept. 17, 2014
  222. A Speech to Distinguished Persons of Stake and Consideration – Sept. 10, 2014
  223. Building an Education System From Almost Nothing – Sept. 3, 2014
  224. Cape Tormentine to the Baye des Chaleurs in the 1600’s – Aug. 27, 2014
  225. The Customs of the Mi’kmaq in the 1600’s and Before – Aug. 20, 2014
  226. Two Documents Relating to the Fenians in New Brunswick – Aug. 13, 2014
  227. The Lazaretto for Lepers in Tracadie, 1862 – Aug. 6, 2014
  228. Thoughts About the Augustine Mound at Metepenegiag Mi’kmaq Nation – July 30, 2014
  229. What am I Bid for This Pauper? – July 23, 2014
  230. Trouble at Madawaska, 1831 – July 16, 2014
  231. The Great Fire at Saint John, June 20, 1877 – July 9, 2014
  232. The Poor Fellows Shook as if They Would Fall to Pieces! – July 2, 2014
  233. How to Build a Logging Camp in Around 1850 – June 25, 2014
  234. Risen from the Ashes, Phoenix Square in Fredericton – June 18, 2014
  235. Rocks and Water, Magnificence and Squalor; St. John in 1876 – June 11, 2014
  236. Moncton as Seen by a Journalist in 1876 – June 4, 2014
  237. Events Leading to the Caraquet Riots of 1875 – May 28, 2014
  238. A Dramatic Account of the Miramichi Fire – May 21, 2014
  239. Saint John in the Early 1840’s – May 18, 2014
  240. The Myth that Kerosene was Invented in New Brunswick – May 7, 2014
  241. A Church with Military Boots and Fixed Bayonets – Apr. 30, 2014
  242. An Opening Salvo in an Ongoing Argument – Apr. 23, 2014
  243. May living worms his corpse devour – Apr. 16, 2014
  244. He don’t look any better than some of our own boys – Apr. 9, 2014
  245. The Disputed Territory Between New Brunswick and Maine – Apr. 2, 2014
  246. Navigation on the Saint John River – Mar. 26, 2014
  247. Shepody as a Hot Investment Opportunity, 1868 – Mar. 19, 2014
  248. To Her Majesty, RE: Reciprocity, 1853 – Mar. 12, 2014
  249. Diary on the Tobique, 1851 – Mar. 5, 2014
  250. Growing up in Fredericton in the 1820s and 1830s – Feb. 26, 2014
  251. Travels From Eastport, Maine, to Fredericton, 1851 – Feb. 19, 2014
  252. The Saint John General Public Hospital, 19th Century, Part 2 of 2 – Feb. 12, 2014
  253. The Saint John General Public Hospital, 19th Century, Part 1 of 2 – Feb. 5, 2014
  254. The Story of the Great Brothers – Jan. 29, 2014
  255. A Trek up the Tobique, and Onward to Bathurst – Jan. 22, 2014
  256. Summer Tourists. A Manual for New Brunswick Farmers – Jan. 19, 2014
  257. A Trek from Grand Falls to Campbellton, 1862 – Jan. 15, 2014
  258. A Trek From Taymouth to Boisetown, 1862 – Jan. 12, 2014
  259. Capt. William Owen’s Journal, Campobello, 1770-71 – Jan. 8, 2014
  260. The Founding of Campobello Island – Jan. 5, 2014
  261. New Brunswick Roads and Railways, 1855 – Jan. 1, 2014
  262. Grand Manan – Dec. 29, 2013
  263. The Shipyard Fire in Saint John, in 1841 – Dec. 26, 2013
  264. Christmas as it Was in Saint John, in 1808 – Dec. 22, 2013
  265. The Saint John Grammar School – Dec. 18, 2013
  266. William Wishart Blasts the New Brunswick Education System, 1845 – Dec. 15, 2013
  267. The Diary of Sarah Frost – Dec. 11, 2013
  268. Pŭlěs, Pŭlowěch′, and Beechkwěch (Pigeon, Partridge, and Nighthawk) – Dec. 10, 2014
  269. The Government of New Brunswick, 1837 – Dec. 4, 2013
  270. The Whales and the Robbers – Dec. 1, 2013
  271. The Ashburton Treaty – Nov. 27, 2013
  272. Glooscap and His Four Visitors – Nov. 24, 2013
  273. The Pioneers of Saint Stephen – Nov. 20, 2013
  274. The Adventures of Kâktoogwâsees; a Tale of Ancient Times – Nov. 17, 2013
  275. The Asylum at Saint John – Nov. 13, 2013
  276. The Liver-Colored Giants and Magicians – Nov. 10, 2013
  277. Smuggling Between Calais and St. Stephen – Nov. 6, 2013
  278. The Two Weasels – Nov. 3, 2013
  279. The European and North American Railway, 1862 – Oct. 30, 2013
  280. The Origin of the War Between the Mi’kmaq and the Kwěděches – Oct. 23, 2013
  281. Trouble on the Line: The Early Telegraph in New Brunswick – Oct. 16, 2013
  282. The Invisible Boy; Team′ and Oochigeaskw – Oct. 9, 2013
  283. Transportation to and from Fredericton, 1841 – Oct. 2, 2013
  284. The Boy That Was Transformed Into a Horse – Sept. 25, 2013
  285. McAdam: Notes From the Early Days – Sept. 18, 2013
  286. The Magical Food, Belt and Flute – Sept. 11, 2013
  287. European & North American Rly. Staff, 1861 – Sept. 4, 2013
  288. Glooscap and the Megumoowesoo: A Marriage Adventure – Aug. 28, 2013
  289. The Loss of the Royal Tar – Aug. 21, 2013
  290. Robbery and Murder Revenged, Plus a Grand Falls Story – Aug. 14, 2013
  291. The St. John River From Below Fredericton to the Reversing Falls – Aug. 7, 2013
  292. A Proposal for a Wooden Railway – July 31, 2013
  293. ‘On the Early History of New Brunswick’ – July 24, 2013
  294. The Maugerville Settlement, 1763-1824 – July 17, 2013
  295. 1930 Circus Train Wreck Near Moncton, N.B. – July 10, 2013
  296. Horses or Oxen? Pick one – July 3, 2013
  297. The St. John River; Andover to Fredericton – June 26, 2013
  298. Origins of Some Place Names on N.B.’s Eastern Shore – June 19, 2013
  299. The St. John River; Grand Falls to the Tobique – June 12, 2013
  300. Gabriel Acquin – June 5, 2013
  301. The Seigniories of New Brunsiwck – May 29, 2013
  302. An 1841 Trek up the Oromocto River – May 22, 2013
  303. Fredericton’s Exhibition Palace, and Bears in N.B. – May 15, 2013
  304. Murder on Diamond Square Road – May 8, 2013
  305. Acadian Historic Sites in New Brunswick – May 1, 2013
  306. John C. Tracy’s Book, Part 5 of 5 – Apr. 24, 2013
  307. John C. Tracy’s Book, Part 4 of 5 – Apr. 17, 2013
  308. John C. Tracy’s Book, Part 3 of 5 – Apr. 10, 2013
  309. John C. Tracy’s Book, Part 2 of 5 – Apr. 3, 2013
  310. John C. Tracy’s Book, Part 1 of 5 – Mar. 27, 2013
  311. A Retrospective Look at Saint John – Mar. 20, 2013
  312. The Wreck of the England – Mar. 13, 2013
  313. The First Decade of the 1800’s in St. John, N.B. – Mar. 6, 2013
  314. St. John’s Poorhouse and Workhouse – Feb. 27, 2013, Rev. Sept. 9, 2015
  315. New Brunswick Scenes From an Old Book – Feb. 20, 2013
  316. Nice Pictures From Another Old Book – Feb. 13, 2013
  317. Life in the Backwoods of New Brunswick, Part 2/2 – Feb. 6, 2013
  318. Life in the Backwoods of New Brunswick, 1845 – Jan. 30, 2013
  319. The Works of W.O. Raymond – Jan. 23, 2013
  320. The Year of the Fever – Jan. 16, 2013
  321. Hanged for the Theft of 25 Cents – Jan. 9, 2013
  322. Reversing Falls – Pictures – Jan. 2, 2013
  323. Christmas as it was in 1808 – Dec. 25, 2012
  324. Nice Pictures From an Old Book – Dec. 19, 2012
  325. The Saint John Bridge Collapse of 1837 – Dec. 12, 2012
  326. The First Road Bridge Across the Reversing Falls – Dec. 5, 2012
  327. The Mystery of the First Lizzie Morrow – Nov. 28, 2012
  328. The First Murder Trial on the River St. John – Nov. 21, 2012
  329. The March of the 104th Regiment in 1812 – Nov. 14, 2012
  330. Partridge Island – Nov. 7, 2012
  331. Fredericton’s First Bridge Across the Saint John River – Oct. 31, 2012
  332. 1816, The Year Without a Summer – Oct. 31, 2012
  333. Winslow to Wentworth, 1781 – Oct. 31, 2012
  334. The Saxby Gale of 1869 – Oct. 31, 2012
  335. New Brunswick’s Third Town in 1838: Saint Andrews – Oct. 31, 2012
  336. Fredericton and York County in 1838 – Oct. 31, 2012
  337. The City and County of Saint John in 1838 – Sept. 26, 2012
  338. The St. Andrews and Quebec Railroad – Sept. 19, 2012
  339. The Studholm Report of Saint John River Pre-Loyalists in 1783 – Sept. 12, 2012
  340. Caleb Jones. Further RE: Ann, otherwise known as Nancy – Sept. 5, 2012
  341. The Wreck of the Martha – Aug. 29, 2012
  342. The Early Settlement of Maugerville and the Sheffield Parsonage Dispute – Aug. 22, 2012
  343. Lieutenant Governors of New Brunswick to Confederation, Part 2 of 2 – Aug. 15, 2012
  344. Lieutenant Governors of New Brunswick to Confederation, Part 1 of 2 – Aug. 8, 2012
  345. The Morrow House at French Lake, N.B. – New Information – Aug. 1, 2012
  346. Sound by Glen Glenn, Revision 1 – July 25, 2012
  347. Ann, otherwise known as Nancy – July 18, 2012
  348. The Fire of October 7, 1825 – Beyond the Miramichi – July 11, 2012
  349. Lemuel Allan Wilmot – July 4, 2012
  350. The Great Fire at Miramichi, October 7, 1825 – June 27, 2012
  351. Robert Rankin in New Brunswick – June 20, 2012
  352. Who Owned the Mill at Tracy, New Brunswick? – June 13, 2012
  353. Signatures of Sunbury County Ancestors – June 6, 2012
  354. Daniel Wood’s Log Cabin, and Little Field Barn at French Lake, New Brunswick – May 30, 2012
  355. Rusagonis and George Garraty – May 23, 2012
  356. Epitaph Transcriptions from a Collection – May 16, 2012
  357. Central New Brunswick Gravestones from a Genealogy – May 9, 2012
  358. Nashwaak River Pictures with Stewart Family Connections – May 2, 2012
  359. More Sunbury County Photographs from a Collection – Apr. 25, 2012
  360. An Indian Burial Ground at Oromocto; and Coal Mining on the Oromocto River – Apr. 22, 2012
  361. “Days of Old” by Katherine DeWitt and Norma Alexander – Apr. 18, 2012
  362. The Wood Cemetery at French Lake, New Brunswick – Apr. 11, 2012
  363. James Glenie in New Brunswick – Apr. 4, 2012
  364. Four Generations of the Stewart Family on the Nashwaak River – Mar. 28, 2012
  365. Three Generations of the Mersereau Family in New Brunswick – Mar. 21, 2012
  366. Three Generations of the Smith Family of Sunbury County, New Brunswick – Mar. 14, 2012
  367. Three Generations of the Wood Family of French Lake, New Brunswick – Mar. 7, 2012
  368. New Brunswick Education in 1883 – Feb. 29, 2012
  369. Riots and Demonstrations in Saint John – Feb. 20, 2012
  370. Making Better Butter – Feb. 18, 2012
  371. York County Place Names, 1896/1905 – Feb. 8, 2012
  372. Sunbury County Place Names, 1896/1905 – Feb. 1, 2012
  373. Stereoscopic slides from Fred Stewart, Part 3 of 3 – Jan. 25, 2012
  374. Stereoscopic slides from Fred Stewart, Part 2 of 3 – Jan. 18, 2012
  375. Stereoscopic slides from Fred Stewart, Part 1 of 3 – Jan. 11, 2012
  376. The Hon. Thomas Baillie: Gone, but not soon forgotten! – Jan. 5, 2012
  377. The Fort at Oromocto, 1780 – 1783 – Dec. 29, 2011
  378. The Great Fire in Fredericton, 1850 – Early Accounts – Dec. 15, 2011
  379. The Morrow House at French Lake, and More – Dec. 8, 2011
  380. The Old Woman House at French Lake, New Brunswick – Dec. 1, 2011
  381. Smith Family Photographs from a Collection, Sunbury County, N.B. – Nov. 25, 2011
  382. French Lake from Before we Remember – Nov. 20, 2011
  383. How Geary became known as Geary – Nov. 9, 2011
  384. Elizabeth (Smith) Secord; N.B.’s First Woman Registered Doctor – Nov. 4, 2011
  385. Phillips Family Photographs from a Collection, Rusagonis, N.B. – Nov. 2, 2011
  386. Mersereau Family Photographs from a Collection, Sunbury County, N.B. – Oct. 30, 2011
  387. Wood Family Photographs from a Collection, French Lake, N.B. – Oct. 25, 2011
  388. Jeremiah Tracy: Pioneer of the Village of Tracy, New Brunswick – Oct. 20, 2011
  389. Two Old Railroad-Inspired Songs – Oct. 16, 2011
  390. Ode to the Oromocto River – Oct. 10, 2011
  391. John Mersereau, Loyalist 2 – Oct. 4, 2011
  392. The Earliest American Railroads and Locomotives – Sept. 14, 2011
  393. The Mersereau Manufacturing Company of Brooklyn, New York, Notes – Sept. 3, 2011
  394. George Morrow of French Lake, New Brunswick – 1801-1868 – Aug. 26, 2011
  395. The Wood Family of French Lake, New Brunswick – Legends – Aug. 9, 2011
  396. The Baptist Church on the Oromocto River in New Brunswick – Aug. 7, 2011
  397. John Wood of French Lake, New Brunswick – 1788-1868 – Aug. 2, 2011
  398. Daniel Wood of French Lake, New Brunswick – 1764-1847 – Aug. 1, 2011
  399. Three Stewarts on the Nashwaak – July 24, 2011
  400. Bunker Genealogy – Five Bunkers – July 20, 2011
  401. Statistics From the 1851 and 1871 Sunbury County New Brunswick Census Reports – July 19, 2011
  402. Historical Development of the Beam Bending Equation M=fS – July 18, 2011
  403. Seth Noble, Maugerville and the American Revolution – July 16, 2011
  404. Columns, the Long and the Short of it – 1729-1900 – July 15, 2011
  405. The Great Saint John Steel Cantilever Bridge – July 13, 2011
  406. The Upper Oromocto River in 1847 – July 11, 2011
  407. Early Glimpses of the Rusagonis Baptist Church in New Brunswick – July 11, 2011
  408. Abraham Gesner’s 1847 Observations of Sport Hunting in New Brunswick – July 11, 2011
  409. It Sounds a bit Too Easy – July 10, 2011
  410. James Buncker – July 10, 2011
  411. Inconsistent Petitions; Changed Self-Interests – July 10, 2011
  412. Abner Mersereau and a Letter – July 9, 2011
  413. Early Glimpses of the Patterson Settlement Baptist Church in New Brunswick – July 9, 2011
  414. The Textile Mill at Geary, New Brunswick – July 8, 2011
  415. Letter of Mi’kmaq’ Chief Pemmeenauweet to Queen Victoria – 1841 – July 7, 2011
  416. New Brunswick in the 1840s – July 7, 2011


John Wood


Written by johnwood1946

November 14, 2018 at 8:25 AM

Posted in Uncategorized

The Acadian Exiles – Unwelcome in Pennsylvania

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From the blog at

The Acadians, or Neutral French, were expelled from Nova Scotia and distributed to other British colonies all along the east coast. One of these groups was landed in Pennsylvania, and the following account of them was written by Philip H. Smith in Acadia, a Lost Chapter in American History (Pawling, N.Y., 1884). I have made only minor edits to Smith’s writing. The quotations are all as-found, including what would otherwise be unacceptable language regarding the French, Natives, Catholics and others.

Acadians at Annapolis Royal from Wikipedia

By Samuel Scott, 1751, the earliest known image of Acadians


The Acadian Exiles – Unwelcome in Pennsylvania

On the 19th and 20th of November, 1755, three vessels appeared in the Delaware, and dropped anchor below Philadelphia. They were the Hannah, the Three Friends, and the Swan—the same vessels that, over two months before, had received their living cargoes at the Port Royal landing in the Basin of Annapolis. One of them, say the newspapers of the day, came up to town but was immediately ordered back. Governor Morris, it seems, was thrown into a terrible alarm, and on the day the first cargo of them arrived, he wrote to Governor Shirley [of Massachusetts]:

“Two vessels are arrived here with upwards of three hundred Neutral French from Nova Scotia, whom [N.S.] Governor Lawrence has sent to remain in this Province, and I am at a very great loss to know what to do with them. The people here, as there is no military force of any kind, are very uneasy at the thought of having a number of enemies scattered in the very bowels of the country, who may go off from time to time with intelligence, and join their countrymen now employed against us, or foment some intestine commotion in conjunction with the Irish and German Catholics, in this and the neighboring Province. I, therefore, must beg your particular instructions in what manner I may best dispose of these people, as I am desirous of doing any thing that may contribute to his Majesty’s service. I have, in the meantime, put a guard out of the recruiting parties now in town, on board of each vessel, and ordered these Neutrals to be supplied with provisions, which must be at the expense of the Crown, as I have no Provincial money in my hands; for this service I have prevailed on Capt. Morris, who is recruiting here for Colonel Dunbar’s regiment, to postpone sending off his recruits till I could hear from you upon the head, which I hope to do by the return of the post.”

Governor Morris found at least one man who shared his misgivings touching this untoward visit of the exiles. This was Jonathan Belcher, Chief Magistrate of New Jersey, father of Jonathan Belcher, Chief Justice of Nova Scotia, and member of the Council of that Province, who had, by his stern opinion, that they were rebels and recusants, fixed the doom of that people. The elder Belcher writes Morris as follows:

“I am truly surprised how it could ever enter the thoughts of those who had the ordering of the French Neutrals, or rather traitors and rebels to the Crown of Great Britain, to direct any of them into these Provinces, where we have already too great a number of foreigners for our own good and safety. I think they should have been transported directly to old France, and I entirely coincide with your honor that these people would readily join with the Irish Papists, &c., to the ruin and destruction of the King’s Colonies, and should any attempt to land here [Elizabethtown], I should think, in duty to the King and to his good people under my care, to do all in my power to crush an attempt.”

The bitter struggle between Protestantism and Romanism, which had convulsed the Old World, and deluged it with the most noble blood of the time; the numerous and sanguinary wars between the Georges and the Louis in Europe, and which were shared by their respective colonies in America; and finally, the actual association of French Papists and savages on the frontiers of the English settlements, and who were at this time advancing in victorious array within three hundred miles of Philadelphia, had so affected the minds of the Protestant English colonists, that they looked upon Indians and French Papists alike, with a feeling of horror. A gentleman of Philadelphia gave but a mild expression of the public sentiment when he wrote,—

“May God be pleased to give us success against all our copper-colored cannibals and French savages, equally cruel and perfidious in their natures.”

A short time before the arrival of the exiles, the following was published in the Philadelphia papers, under date of Halifax:

“A few days since, three Frenchmen were taken up and imprisoned on suspicion of having poisoned some wells in this neighborhood. They are not tried yet, and it’s imagined if they are convicted thereof, they will have but a few hours to live after they are once condemned.”

The manifest hatred and prejudgment exhibited in this brief paragraph, while it argues the poor fellows stood but a poor chance whether guilty or innocent, as plainly shows the condition of public sentiment at that time. Were it not that these accounts are fully substantiated by incontrovertible evidence, they could scarcely be credited.

It appears more incredible: and unaccountable still from the fact that a complete reversion of public sentiment in this particular occurred in less than a quarter of a century. Washington had scarcely appeared in the Revolutionary camp at Boston, when he found preparations being made for burning the Pope in effigy. His memorable order of November 5th had the effect of putting an end to the custom of “insulting the religion” of brethren and co-workers. When the French fleet arrived at Newport, Rhode Island, to aid the cause of the colonists, the Legislature made all haste to repeal a law on her statute-book forbidding a Roman Catholic to put foot upon her soil under pain of death. At Boston, a funeral procession traversed the streets, with a crucifix at its head and priests solemnly chanting; while the selectmen of Puritan Boston joined in the ceremony, giving this public mark of respect to the faith of their allies.

On the 24th of November, Governor Morris made the arrival of the Neutrals the subject of a special message to the Assembly, informing them he did not think it safe to permit them to land; but that a contagious disease having broken out on board ship, some of them were sent on shore on Province Island. In the minutes of the Assembly of that Province, the following entry is made:

“Antony Benezet, attending without, was called in and informed the House that he had, at the request of some of the members, visited the French Neutrals now on board sundry vessels in the river, near the city, and found that they were in great need of blankets, shirts, stockings, and other necessaries; and he then withdrew, (whereupon) Resolved, That this House will allow such reasonable expenses as the said Benezet may be put to in furnishing the Neutral French now in the Province.”

Thus we have no less evidence than a Legislative record, that the poor exiles of Nova Scotia were suffering for the necessaries of life; that their continued close confinement had caused an alarming disease to break out on their vessels, demanding their instant removal, but that the Governor of the Province was afraid to let them land! We append a list of names from a subscription paper circulated in Philadelphia for their relief, showing how dangerous a people they were to be let loose on the town. The list runs thus:

“Widow Landry, blind and sickly; her daughter Bonny, blind; Widow Coprit, has a cancer in her breast; Widow Seville, always sickly; Ann LeBlanc, old and sickly; Widow LeBlanc, foolish and sickly; the two youngest orphan children of Philip Melangon; three orphan children of Paul Bujauld, the eldest sickly, a boy foolish, and a girl with an infirmity in her mouth; Baptist Galerm’s foolish child; Joseph Vincent, in a consumption; Widow Gautram, sickly, with a young child; Joseph Benoit, old and sickly; Peter Brassay, has a rupture; Peter Vincent, himself and wife sickly—three children, one blind, one very young, &c.”

Thus we have evidence of the intensity of their sufferings on shipboard; and, notwithstanding the charitable attentions shown them after their arrival in Philadelphia, the statement is made that more than one half of their number died in a few weeks.

But the meagre records of those early times show there was another influence at work, which was to ameliorate the condition of the exile. We refer to hereditary national sympathies, which were strong enough to assert themselves in spite of the rancor of religious animosity, and work in the cause of humanity. There were then, in Quaker garb, living in Philadelphia, men of the French race who, though Huguenots, still felt kindly to Frenchmen like themselves. The Benezets and LeFevers, of Philadelphia, came from the same soil as did the Galerms and LeBlancs of Grand Pre; and we may add, the Quaker Huguenots of Philadelphia, by their acts toward their exiled brethren, did not in the least tarnish the reputation of the followers of William Penn for Christian charity and unostentatious benevolence. The Acadians, in their first memorial to the Assembly, were constrained to say—

“Blessed be God that it was our lot to be sent to Pennsylvania, where our wants have been relieved, and we have, in every respect, been treated with Christian benevolence and charity.”

The Assembly was specially convoked early in February, 1756, and on the 11th, attention was directed to the Neutrals by a petition from one of their number, Jean Baptiste Galerm. This document contained a statement of the causes which led to their exile, an expression of gratitude for the kindness shown them, and a protestation of a passive loyalty (no one had a right to expect more) to the British Crown. It contained no prayer for specific assistance. A bill was passed for the relief, or, as its rather ambiguous title expressed it, for dispersing the inhabitants through the counties, which became a law on the 5th of March. By the provisions of this act the Acadians were to be distributed throughout the Province, in order “to give them an opportunity of exercising their own labor and industry.” They were to be provided for at the public expense, while nothing like a separation of families was hinted at.

The French Neutrals exhibited what had been termed a species of contumacy [refusal to comply with authority], though they claimed they were only asserting their just rights, which contributed not a little to their sufferings. They thought that by refusing to work they would force their recognition as prisoners of war and, as such, be entitled to be exchanged or sent back to France. This attempt failed in the object the Acadians had in view, and made the duty of kindness and protection on the part of their benefactors not an easy one. Many were unwilling to help themselves. They were offered land, and implements to cultivate, and cows to stock it with; but these they refused to accept, as they could by no means agree to settle there.

One cannot read the Acadians’ memorials without being moved by their passionate longings.

“We humbly pray,” say they to the Assembly, “that you would extend your goodness so far as to give us leave to depart from hence, or be pleased to send us to our nation, or anywhere to join our country people; but if you cannot grant us these favors, we desire that provision may be made for our subsistence so long as we are detained here. If this, our humble request, should be refused, and our wives and children be suffered to perish before our eyes, how grievous will this be!—had we not better have died in our native land?”

On the meeting of the Assembly in October, 1756, there is a sad revelation on its records of the sufferings of these poor people,—made, too, not by them, but by one of the Commissioners appointed to take care of them. Disease and death had been busy among their number. Many had died of smallpox; and but for the offices of a kindly charity, many more would have perished miserably. The overseers of the rural townships refused to receive them—they were literally the dependants of the Quaker City. The prejudice entertained at that day against those of another religion, prevented the employment of such of the Neutrals as were willing to work; and the petition says:

“Many of them have had neither bread nor meat for many weeks together, and been necessitated to pilfer and steal for the support of life.”

The Acadian farmers, who, a short year ago, were surrounded with plenty, were becoming mendicant pilferers in the streets of Philadelphia. Who can contemplate the contrast unmoved?

This appeal resulted in the passage of an Act for binding out and settling such of the Inhabitants of Nova Scotia as are under age, and for maintaining the old, sick, and maimed, at the charge of the Province. It was of this measure—the compulsory binding out of the children to learn trades—that the exiles most loudly complained, and the most elaborate remonstrance that is to be found on the records, was induced by this law. The key-note of this appeal, was as before, a prayer for deliverance from captivity;—a prayer that was destined to be answered by the death-angel alone.

In the spring of 1757, Pennsylvania was honored by the presence of the new Commander-in-Chief, the Earl of Loudon. His was the first coronet that ever shone on this distant and simple land. Doubtless there were festivities and rejoicings when he came; but all this while the poor Neutrals were pining away in misery—not the less real because self-inflicted. Say the legislative records,—the authorities were instructed by the assembly to act for their relief, “so as to prevent their perishing from want.”

This Lord Loudon remained only a few days in Philadelphia, yet long enough to show by his acts that his high position did not prevent his partaking of the bigotry of the period, and to exercise his elevated function in office in heaping a new indignity on the Neutrals. He found it necessary to ascertain the exact number of Roman Catholics in the Province, so that the terrible danger from this source might be provided against. The following answer, returned to Loudon by the priest, is found among the Colonial Records:

“Honored Sir:— I send you the number of Roman Catholics in this town, and of those whom I visit in the country. Mr. Schnieder is not in town to give an account of the Germans, but I have heard him often say that the whole number of Roman Catholics, English, Irish, and Germans, including men, women and children, does not exceed two thousand. I remain,

“Robert Hardy”

The sad remnant of the French Neutrals did not seem worth counting!

In the Colonial Records of 1757, is a sheriff’s warrant, issued by the Governor, at the request of Lord Loudon, directing the arrest of Charles Le Blanc, Jean Baptiste Galerm, Philip Melangon, Paul Bujauld and Jean Landy, as suspicious and evil-minded persons, who have uttered menacing speeches against his Majesty and his liege subjects. They are to be apprehended and committed to jail.

The following extract of a letter from Lord Loudon to William Pitt, is sufficiently curious and characteristic to sound strange at the present time; and there is something in it which looks more like the delivery of this people into slavery than anything else that Pennsylvania annals afford:

“25th April, 1757

“Sir:— When I was at Pennsylvania, I found that the French Neutrals there had been very mutinous, and had threatened to leave the women and children and go over to join the French in the back country; they sent me a memorial in French setting forth their grievances. I returned it and said I could receive no memorial from the King’s subjects but in English, on which they had a general meeting at which they determined they would give no memorial but in French, and as I am informed they came to this resolution from looking on themselves entirely as French subjects.

“Captain Cotterell, who is Secretary for the Province of Nova Scotia, and is in the country for the recovery of his health, found among those Neutrals one who had been a Spie of Cornwall is and afterwards of Governor Lawrence, who he tells me had behaved well both in giving accounts of what these people were doing and in bringing them intelligence of the situation and strength of the French forts, and in particular of Beausejour; by this man I learnt there were five principal leading men among them who stir up all the disturbance these people make in Pennsylvania, and who persuade them to go and join the enemy, and who prevent them from submitting to any regulation made in the country, or to allow their children to be put to work.

“On finding this to be the case, I thought it necessary for me to prevent, as far as I possibly could, such a junction to the enemy: on which I secured these five ringleaders and put them on board Captain Talkingham’s ship, in order to his carrying them to England, to be disposed of as his Majesty’s servants shall think proper; but I must inform you that if they are turned loose they will directly return and continue to raise all the disturbance in their power, therefore it appears to me that the safest way of keeping them would be to employ them as sailors on board ships of war.


“The Right Hon. William Pitt.”

On the strength of a report (the truth of which he took no legal pains to ascertain) that they caused all the disturbance, and had, moreover, committed the indignity of memorializing Loudon in French, he thought the circumstance sufficient to warrant their condemnation, unheard, to a prison on board ships of war. It is quite possible that the men thus exiled—whose fate is not known—may have been the leaders, the speakers, and the writers for the exiles; for, after they were sent away, there is no record of any further remonstrance on the part of the French Neutrals. They dwindled away in uncomplaining misery—pensioners on charity. They are seldom referred to in public documents.

The following is among the records of the Assembly, under date of February, 1761:

“We, the committee appointed to examine into the state of the French Neutrals … do report—

“That the late extraordinary expenses charged by the overseers of the poor, have been occasioned by the general sickness which prevailed amongst them, in common with other inhabitants, during the last fall and part of the winter; this, added to the ordinary expenses of supporting the indigent widows, orphans, aged and decrepid persons, have greatly enlarged the accounts of this year. They have likewise a number of children, who by the late acts of the Assembly, ought to have been bound out to service, but their parents have always opposed the execution of these laws, on account of their religion; many of these children, when in health, require no assistance from the public; but in time of sickness, from the poverty of their parents, become objects of charity, and must perish without it.

“Your committe called together a number of their chief men, and acquainting them with the dissatisfaction of the House on finding the public expense so much increased by their opposition to those laws, which were framed with regard to them, and tending immediately to their ease and benefit, and assured them that, unless they could propose a method more agreeable to themselves for lightening the public burden, their children would be taken from them, and placed in such families as could maintain them, and some effectual method taken to prevent the ill effects of idleness in their young people.

“They answered, with appearance of great concern, they were very sorry to find themselves so expensive to the good people of this Province; reminded us of the late general sickness as the principal cause of it, which they hoped might not occur again during their continuance here; that in expectation of lessening this expense, and of obtaining some restitution for the loss of their estates, they had petitioned the King of Great Britain, and humbly remonstrated to his Majesty the state of their peculiar sufferings, and as the Governor had been so kind as to transmit and recommend their said petition and remonstrance, they doubted not but the King would be so, where he so gracious as to grant a part of their country, sufficient for their families to settle on flatter themselves they should enjoy more health, and, free from the apprehension of their children being educated in families whose religious sentiments are so different from theirs. In the meantime they pray the indulgence of the government in suffering them to retain their children, as they find, by experience, that those few who are in Protestant families, soon become estranged and alienated from their parents; and, though anxious to return to Nova Scotia, they beg to be sent to old France, or anywhere, rather than part with their children: and they promise to incite and encourage all their young people, to be industrious in acquiring a competency for their own and their parents’ subsistence, that they may not give occasion for complaints hereafter. How far they may succeed in this, or their application to the crown, is very uncertain. We are of opinion that nothing short of putting in execution the law, which directs the Overseers of the Poor to bind out their children, will so effectually lessen this expense, unless the Governor, with the concurrence of the Commander-in-Chief of the King’s forces, shall think fit to comply with their request and transport them out of this Province.

“Nevertheless, your Committee being moved with compassion for these unhappy people, do recommend them to the consideration of the House, as we hope that no great inconvenience can arise from the continuance of the public charity towards them for a few months longer; and think it just to observe, that there are amongst them numbers of industrious laboring men, who have been, during the late scarcity of laborers, of great service in the neighborhood of the city.”

The application to the Crown referred to in the above, met with no response from the British authorities. When the agent of the Province of Massachusetts represented to Grenville, the British Minister, that his most Christian Majesty, looking upon the Acadians as of the number of those who had been his most faithful subjects, had signified his willingness to order transports for conveying them to France from the British Provinces, Grenville immediately replied, “That cannot be—that is contrary to our acts of navigation. How can the French Court send ships to our colonies?” Louis XV, touched by the appeals sent him by the Neutrals transported to Louisiana, made overtures in vain, through his ministers to those of Great Britain, to be permitted to send his ships to convey them to France.

One more record, and one only, is to be found in the Assembly Journal of Pennsylvania, and that one tells a sad tale. It is dated January 4th, 1766:

“A petition from John Hill, of the city of Philadelphia, joiner, was presented to the house and read, setting forth that the petitioner has been employed from time to time to provide coffins for the French Neutrals who have died in and about this city, and has had his accounts regularly allowed and paid by the Government until lately; that he is informed by the gentlemen commissioners, who used to pay him, that they have no public money in their hands for the payments of such debts; that he has made sixteen coffins since their last settlement, without any countermand of his former order; he therefore prays the House to make such provisions for his materials and labor in the premises as to them shall seem meet. Ordered to lie on the table.”

With this coffin-maker’s memorial, so suggestive of the terrible sufferings and mournful end of the French exiles, the authentic history of this people in Pennsylvania ends. One writer stated that “for a long time the remnant of the Neutrals occupied a row of frame huts on the north side of Pine Street, between Fifth and Sixth; and these ruined houses, known as the Neutral Huts, are remembered distinctly by persons now living.” What at last became of these poor creatures, is not easy to determine; their very names have perished from among men! It appears from the official records that there was expended for the relief of the exiles by the Pennsylvania legislators a sum not less than $25,000, exclusive of the amount donated by private benefaction—always liberal in Philadelphia.

What a strange contrast does this sad story bear to the next visit of the French to Philadelphia, when they came as welcome auxiliaries! Though less than a score of years had passed, French soldiers and French priests went about the streets, no longer regarded with fear and distrust, and then, we trust, they walked across the Potters’ Field, and looked at the moldering remains of the Neutral Huts, and traced out the crumbling mounds marking the graves of their once happy, but now sadly lamented countrymen, the exiled Acadians!

Written by johnwood1946

November 14, 2018 at 8:25 AM

Posted in Uncategorized

The Magical Coat, Shoes, and Sword

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From the blog at

Silas Rand (1810-1889) was a missionary who worked among the Native people of the Maritime Provinces for most of his life. He became expert in the Mi’kmaq and Maliseet languages and used this talent to, among other things, collect and translate their stories. The following story is from his Legends of the Micmacs, Cambridge, Mass., 1894.

Here is the tale of an odyssey to faraway places, and victory over a malevolent being accomplished by a brave man through cunning and with the assistance of magic — essential ingredients for a Mi’kmaq story.

Silas Rand, who collected and published Mi’kmaq and Maliseet stories


The Magical Coat, Shoes, and Sword

Rand’s introductory remarks: The following story embodies so many unnatural marvels that I cannot easily fix upon a title. It relates the adventures, however, all through, of one personage, a young prince, who ought therefore to be mentioned in the title of the story. As towns, intoxicating liquors, soldiers, and sentinels are referred to, the story must be of comparatively recent origin. But it is none the less interesting on that account. Its reference to transformations and magic, in general, seems clearly to point to an Indian origin, though the “invisible coat, shoes of swiftness,” and “sword of sharpness” look wonderfully like some fairy tale of European birth. It is as follows:

There was once a large town where a very rich king resided. He had so much money that a particular house was appropriated to it, which was carefully guarded by sentinels. After a time this king became intemperate, and wasted his money in rioting and drunkenness. His queen became alarmed lest he should spend the whole estate and they should be reduced to poverty. To prevent this, she gives directions to the soldiers that guarded the treasure not to allow the king to take any more. They obey her directions, and when the king applies for more money he is told that it is all gone. Thereupon he takes a turn in the fields, thinking over his situation, when a very well-dressed gentleman meets him and asks for one of his daughters in marriage. He agrees to give him his eldest daughter (he has three in all) for a large amount of money. The terms are accepted, the money paid, the girl delivered up, and taken away, nobody knows where. The king spends the money in intoxicating liquors, and keeps himself drunk as long as it lasts.

He then takes another turn in the fields, and has a similar adventure; he meets a gentleman who asks for his next eldest daughter, for whom he pays a large price, and whom he carries off, no one knowing whither. The king again expends the money in dissipation.

After a while this money is all used up; the king is obliged to be sober and keep so for a time. But a third time, as he is strolling over his fields, he meets a remarkably good-looking gentleman, bringing a cart-load of money, which he offers for the king’s youngest daughter. The offer is again accepted, and the girl is carried off, to come home no more, no one knowing whither she is taken. The king carouses until he has again exhausted his money (a matter which requires but little time at best, and especially in dreams and fictitious tales). He then becomes sober, and continues so of necessity. After a while his queen presents him with a son. The little fellow grows, goes to school, and mingles with the other children in their sports. He begins to learn something of his own domestic history. He is told that he has three sisters somewhere, but that his father has been a great drunkard, and has sold all three of the girls for intoxicating liquors — weegoopsĭbŭnegŭ kămĭskŭhŭ (a very curious expression defying translation; one word denoting that the article referred to has been sold for rum, and that the seller has drunk himself drunk upon it. This information, tauntingly bestowed by the other boys upon the young prince, is received with emotions very far from pleasant. He goes home and tells his mother what the boys have said to tease him and inquires if there is any truth in it. His mother puts him off, assuring him that the story is false. After a while he begins to believe that there is some truth in it, and he insists that his mother shall tell him all. Seeing the anxiety of the boy, she concludes to tell him, and gives him in detail all the particulars. “You had three sisters born before you, but your father sold them all for rum.” “But where do they live?” the little boy inquires. “I do not know,” says the mother. “I’ll go in search of them” says the boy. “You cannot find them,” she says. “Indeed, I can,” he rejoins; “and I will too.”

So, one day, the boy directs his servant to harness the “chariot” and put two horses to it. They start off, and drive a long distance until they come to a river which is crossed at a ford. Having crossed the river, the boy sends back the horses and the servant, and goes on alone.

He soon comes upon three robbers who are so busy talking that they do not notice him until he comes close upon them. They seem to be puzzling over some matter that they cannot decide. He inquires what the trouble is, and is informed that they have taken a coat, a pair of shoes, and a small sword, which they find it impossible to divide. He inquires about the goods in question, and learns that there is remarkable magic in them all. The coat will render the wearer invisible, the shoes will carry him with incredible swiftness, and the sword will do whatever the wearer wishes.

“Oh,” he says, “I can assist you; I can divide them in the most satisfactory manner. Give them into my hands, turn your backs towards me, stand one before the other, and don’t look around until I speak.” To this they all agree, and arrange themselves accordingly. He slips off his own shoes and slips the new ones on, puts off his coat and puts on the other, seizes the sword and wishes himself at the home of his eldest sister. In an instant he seems to awake as it were out of a sleep, and, lo! he stands at the door of a large and stately mansion. The three robbers stand still and wait without speaking a word until night gathers over them, when they look around and find to their dismay that they are deceived. Then the three great “loons” go home.

The young man knocks at the door of the house where he finds himself standing, and a lady comes to see who is there. He recognizes her, and salutes her as his sister, older than himself. But she meets him with a cold reception. “I have no brother,” she replies, “so that I cannot be your sister.” “But I am your brother,” he rejoins; “our father is a king. I was born after you and my other two sisters were sold and carried off.” This knowledge of her family history convinces her that he is no impostor, and she joyfully receives and leads him in. “But where is my brother-in-law?” he inquires. “Out at sea, hunting,” she answers, “whither he constantly goes, but turns himself into a whale when he does so. But,” she adds, “he knows you are here, and will be home in a few minutes. There, see! in the distance, throwing up a shower of spray, he comes!” This frightens the young man, and he looks around for the means of flight or concealment. But his sister calms his fears. “You need not be alarmed,” she says, “for he will not hurt you.” Forthwith up from the shore walks a well-dressed gentleman, who immediately salutes the young man as his brother-in-law, and gives him a very cordial reception.

After a few days he proposes to leave them and go to find his second sister. But he is told that the distance is great. “Still,” says he, “I will go.” His brother-in-law offers to supply him with money, but he declines the offer. After he has gone out, his brother-in-law detains him a moment, and gives him a fish-scale, carefully wrapped up, telling him that should he ever get into trouble he would be at his side to assist him if he would warm that scale a little. He takes the scale and departs. After he is out of sight, he arrays himself in his magical garb, and is in a twinkling at his second sister’s house. She receives him just as the other had done, but is convinced by the same arguments that he is not an impostor. She is exceedingly glad to meet him, as he also is to meet her (wĕledaswŏltĭilk). He immediately inquires for her husband, and is directed to a large sheep feeding in a distant field. Instantly the sheep tosses up his head, and makes a leap towards the house; he comes in upon the full run, and assumes the form of a man as soon as he arrives. This man recognizes his brother-in-law, and says, “Nŭmâktĕm, pĕgesĭnoosŭp” (My brother-in-law, have you arrived)? “Auăjŭl āā” (I have), he replies. Then they are glad to see each other, and he remains there a number of days.

After a while he announces his intention to visit his youngest sister. He is told that her residence is a long way off. “But I can reach it,” he says. His brother-in-law offers to furnish him with money for the excursion, but he declines receiving any. He can travel free of expense. Before his departure, he is asked to receive a small lock of wool, and is told to warm that a little, should he get into any difficulty, and his friend would be at his side in an instant to help him. So he departs.

When he is alone by himself, he again clasps his dagger and wishes to be at his youngest sister’s house. Instantly he awakes as it were from a sleep, and finds himself standing at the door of a splendid mansion. This time he is recognized at once by his sister, who welcomes him in, and is overjoyed to see him. On inquiring for his brother-in-law, he is shown a gray tame goose in the distance, and is told that that is he. Instantly the goose files up, makes a dart towards the house, and leaps up at the threshold into the form of a well-shaped, beautiful man. He accosts him as the others had done: “My brother-in-law, have you found your way hither?” “Alăjŭl āā” (Yes, I have), he answers. So again all three are very glad to meet each other (wĕledahsooltĭjĭk).

After a few days he intimates to his sister that it is about time for him to look after his own private affairs, and that he intends to seek a wife. “Tomorrow,” says he, he shall start. She tells him that there is a town where he may find a lady to his liking; but the distance is great. This, to a man who can travel by “telegraph” or magic, is a matter of small moment. When ready to start, his brother-in-law offers him all the money he needs; and this time he accepts it. In addition to the money, a small feather is given to him, which he is directed to warm a little in any time of trouble, and his friend will immediately be at his side to aid him.

Thus equipped, he starts and, grasping his trusty dagger, he wishes himself at the town specified, and at one of the remotest houses. There he is in a twinkling, awaking, as usual, out of a deep sleep, not having been sensible of the process of transition. The house where he stands is a mean one, of humble dimensions; he enters, and is cordially welcomed. There are two old women there, whom he found on arriving most earnestly engaged in conversation, as though the affair which they were discussing were one of grave importance. He soon finds out what it is all about. There is to be a royal wedding next day; “but,” say they, “the bridegroom will not see his bride long.” “Why not?” he asks. “Because,” they answer, “she will be immediately carried off.” “Who will carry her off?” he asks. They point out to him a very high bluff across the arm of the sea, around which a fierce storm of wind and rain is always raging, and they tell him that within those rocks is a cavern inhabited by an ogre, who cannot be killed, as he takes care to keep his “soul” and “seat of life” in some distant place where it cannot be reached; and as soon as a girl is married he instantly carries her off to his cave, and she is never heard of more.

Next day, all the town is alive with the wedding at the royal residence. The parties stand up; and no sooner are the mystic words pronounced that make them man and wife than the bride vanishes. She is gone, but no one sees how; but all know why and where. Instantly all is turned into mourning. This is the second daughter the poor king has lost; and he weeps bitterly.

The stranger’s arrival is now made known to the king. After mutual inquiries and explanations, he agrees to take the other daughter, and to fight the ogre. The wedding is arranged to come off the next day. The young man then returns to the lodge where he was first entertained, and tells the news. They assure him that he will lose his bride, and he avers that he will recover her again.

So, the next day, the wedding takes place as arranged, and also, as was expected, the bride is instantly spirited away from his side. Nothing daunted or disconcerted, he returns to the lodge and relates all to his friends. “We told you so,” say the old ladies. “But,” says he, “tomorrow I shall go and bring her home again.” They doubt it.

Next morning he equips himself for the expedition. He has an ugly customer to deal with, but he goes not in his own strength. He can pit magic against magic; and in case he is worsted in the encounter, he can call his three powerful friends to his aid. Putting on his shoes of swiftness, his magical coat, and grasping the wonder-working dagger in his hand, he demands to be placed at the entrance of the ogre’s cave. There he stands in an instant of time, in spite of the roaring waves and raging storm. But the face of the rock is smooth and solid; there is no door, and no appearance of a door. He draws his wonder-working dagger, and with its point marks out a door in the face of the bluff. Immediately the door rolls open and displays a vast apartment within, with a great number of women seated in a circle, very evenly arranged. He passes in, shielded from the sight of all by his invisible coat. Even the ugly owner of the cave is outgeneralled. There sits his wife, who was yesterday carried off, and the ogre sits by her side leaning his head on her bosom. All at once he starts up, exclaiming, “There is a wedding in the city,” and darts off. In another instant he is back, bringing another woman, who takes her place in the circle. This is repeated from time to time, and in the intervals of his absence the young chief is enabled to converse in hasty snatches with his wife. “Ask him where he keeps his soul,” he says to her. She accordingly puts the question to him on his return. He replies, “You are the first one that ever made such an inquiry of me, and I will tell you.” He goes on to state that it is at the bottom of the sea, far out from land, but in an exact line perpendicular to the cave where they are. It is locked up in an iron chest, that chest being enclosed in another, and that in another, seven in all, and every one is locked. This information the “prince,” who, all invisible, is standing by, receives. He next directs her to ask him where he keeps the keys. He tells her this also. They lie in a direct line from the chests on this side.

Having obtained all the information he wants, the young man retires from the cave. First he warms the “fish-scale” given him by his eldest sister’s husband, and instantly the whale appears, inquiring what is wanted. He relates what has happened, and asks him to find and fetch the iron boxes and the bunch of keys. This he does without difficulty; and the boxes are unlocked, one after the other, until they come to the last. In attempting to open this, they fail, and break the key. Then the “lock of wool” is warmed, and instantly the ram with his twisted horns is on hand to render service. He is directed to butt open the box. This he does in a trice by butting against it, when, presto! out hops the ogre’s soul, and flies off in a trice. Then the “feather” is heated, and the gray gander comes. He is sent as a winged messenger to catch and bring back the “soul” and “seat of life” of the ogre. Away he flies in pursuit, and soon returns bringing his prisoner, and receives the hearty thanks of his brother-in-law, who then commences operations on it with his magic sword, and by dint of pounding, piercing, and hacking at the soul subdues and after a while kills the magician of the cave. Those around him know not the cause, but they see that he is growing weaker and weaker, that his voice is growing feeble and faint, until at length he ceases to breathe or to move. Then our hero walks boldly and visibly in, and after throwing the ogre out and pitching him into the sea, he crosses over to the city and directs a large apartment to be prepared. The women are then all conveyed to this apartment; proclamation is made; and every man whose wife has been carried off is called to come and pick out his own and take her away. After all the rest have found and carried home their wives, the young hero takes his, and goes over to the royal palace.

Rand’s closing remarks: Here the story ends, the reader being at liberty of course to finish it out on his own responsibility, and to imagine how the young hero was thanked, feasted, honored, and raised to the highest dignities, and lived long and well. Mine is but the humble office of translator. I add nothing essential to the story. I simply translate freely, or rather tell the story in English in my own language, guided by the Micmac original, as I wrote it verbatim in Micmac from the mouth of Capt. Jo Glode.

Written by johnwood1946

November 7, 2018 at 7:55 AM

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Thirty Nice Pictures of New Brunswick in About 1882

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From the blog at

Thirty Nice Pictures of New Brunswick in About 1882

The book Picturesque Canada, the Country as it Was and Is was published in Toronto in 1882. Each chapter was by a different author, and the chapter about New Brunswick was by Charles G.D. Roberts. The overall editor was George Monro Grant. The book was illustrated with woodcuts by various artists whose work was supervised by Lucius Richard O’Brien who was an artist himself and, at the time, was President of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts. Following is a collection of images from that work.


 1. Saint John from Portland (Artist Schell & Hogan, Engraver S. Davis):

2. Saint John, Back of Harbour at Low Tide (Artist Schell & Hogan, Engraver S. Davis):

3. Passamaquoddy Bay (Artist F.B. Schell, Engraver A. Lindsay):

4. Saint Andrews and Mount Chamcook (Artist F.B. Schell, Engraver J.E. Sharpe):

5. Wharf at Saint Andrews (Artist F.B. Schell, Engraver J.E. Sharpe):

6. Friar’s Head, Campobello (Artist F.B. Schell, Engraver A. Lindsay):

7. Beacon Light at Saint John, Low Tide (Artist Schell & Hogan, Engraver J.W. Evans):

8. Beacon Light at Saint John, High Tide (Artist Schell & Hogan, Engraver J.W. Evans):

9. Market Slip, Saint John, Low Tide (Artist Schell & Hogan, Engraver Atwood & Sylvester):

10. Salmon Weirs at Saint John Harbour (Artist Schell & Hogan, Engraver Atwood & Sylvester):

11. Salmon Weir at Saint John Harbour (Artist Schell & Hogan, Engraver Atwood & Sylvester):

12. Suspension Bridge at Saint John, Low Tide (Artist Schell & Hogan, Engraver S.S. Kilburn):

13. Fredericton from the River (Artist F.B. Schell, Engraver J.W. Laudenbach):

14. Plaster Rock, Tobique River (Artist Schell & Hogan, Engraver R. Schelling):

15. Poling Up (Artist Schell & Hogan, Engraver W. Miller):

16. Paddling Down (Artist Schell & Hogan, Engraver W. Miller):

17. Suspension and Cantilever Bridges, Saint John (Credits not given):

18. On the Tobique (Artist F.B. Schell, Engraver W. Mollier):

19. Saint John River at Newbury Junction (Artist F.B. Schell, Engraver J.W. Lauderbach):

20. Emptying Salmon Nets by Torchlight (Artist Frank Miller, Engraver J. Karst):

21 Indians Making Torches (Artist A. Kappes, Engraver E.R. Tichenor):

22. Little Tobique Lake (Artist George H. Smillie, Engraver C. Schwarzburger):

23. Making New Pole for Canoe (Artist Schell & Hogan, Engraver R.E.E. Kunze):

24. Stripping or Barking a Tree for Torches (Artist John S. Davis, Engraver W. Mollier):

25. Gorge Below Grand Falls, Saint John River (Artist Schell & Hogan, Engraver R. Schelling):

26. Spearing Salmon by Night on the Restigouche (Artist Schell & Hogan, Engraver J.A. Bogert):

27. On the Baie de Chaleurs (Artist W.C. Fitler, Engraver C. Cullen):

28. Restigouche River from Prospect Hill (Artist L.R. O’Brien, Engraver J.A. Bogert):

29. Riverfront, Chatham (Artist Schell & Hogan, Engraver C. Schwarzburger):

30. Looking Up the Southwest Miramichi (Artist Schell & Hogan, Engraver R.E.E. Kunze):

Written by johnwood1946

October 31, 2018 at 8:08 AM

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Northern and Eastern New Brunswick in 1831 — A Neglected Territory

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From the blog at

Joseph Bouchette toured America in around 1830, and described what he had seen in The British Dominions in North America, or, A Topographical and Statistical Description of …, London, 1831. The following is only slightly edited from his description of New Brunswick’s eastern and northern shores.

Bouchette found an underdeveloped territory, with “scarcely any collection of houses worthy the name of a town.” He then described the lumbering industry and its role in inhibiting progress, followed by a description of the Miramichi Fire of October, 1825.

A House Which Survived the Miramichi Fire at Douglastown


Northern and Eastern New Brunswick in 1831 — A Neglected Territory

The part of New Brunswick hitherto composing the County of Northumberland, which embraces more than one third of the whole province, is bounded north and northwest by the Bay of Chaleur and the Restigouche River, separating it from Lower Canada, east by the Gulf of St. Lawrence, south by the county of Westmoreland, southwest by its own boundary line, separating it from Queen’s and Sunbury Counties, and west by the county of York. It has recently been divided into three Counties, Gloucester and Kent being taken from it. The first of these is about 3,991 miles in superficies, stretching along its whole northern extent, and comprising Eldon, Addington, Beresford, Saumarez, and Bathurst parishes; and the latter, in surface about 1,804 square miles, comprehending Carlton, Huskisson, Dundas, and Wellington Parishes. However, for the purposes of general description it will not be necessary to adhere to these divisions. In contemplating this vast section of the Province, exceeding in the aggregate 10,300 square miles, the mind is struck no less by its extent than by the number and grandeur of the rivers by which it is watered, and the length of coast it occupies. Of the rivers, the Miramichi, opening into a spacious bay of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and stretching through the County to its south-western extremity, and communicating by easy portages with the St. John, is the most remarkable. It is navigable for large ships for more than thirty miles. There is a sand-bar off the entrance, but it is at all times covered with a sufficient depth of water to float the vessels entering its mouth. Near the sea the land is low and covered only with dwarf trees, but as we advance into the country, we soon find tracts of heavy timber. This river, at the distance of about fifty miles from the coast, separates into two branches the northwest and the southwest or main branch.

On the same shore, near its southern extremity, this province has the Cocagne River, and proceeding northerly the Bouctouche, Richibucto, Kouchibouguac, and Bay du Vin Rivers, all emptying into the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and northward of the Miramichi the Tabusintac and Tracadie Rivers. On its northern side, bordering on the Bay of Chaleurs, are the Caraquet River, near its eastern extremity, falling into the harbour of the same name, and more westerly the Nepisiguit, which empties itself into the spacious Nepisiguit Bay. Still further west the Eel River and the Upsalquitch, besides almost innumerable streams of less note. The whole tract abounds with timber of the most valuable description—white and red pine, birch, spruce, hemlock, and maple, which the numerous streams afford the most easy and commodious means of forwarding to the market on the seaboard. The soil, as is attested by the quality of the timber, is of the best description, and the frequency of the streams leaves numerous valuable slips of interval—yet, notwithstanding these advantages, these Counties are the thinnest settled and the worst cultivated in the whole province. There is scarcely any collection of houses worthy the name of a town in any of them. The port of Miramichi, and Chatham on the southern side of the river, and Newcastle on the north are the principal settlements, between which are the loading establishments of Messrs. Abrahams and Co. and of Messrs. Rankin. Though many wealthy merchants are settled at these places, and each possesses a church, court-house, gaol, &c., there is nothing that can accord with the expectations that would naturally be formed from the immense resources of the country. This desolation is probably accounted for by the temptation which the lumber and timber trades furnish to the new settler, especially if possessed of any capital. These Counties produce in profusion the finest timber of America, and the convenience of transportation operates as a further inducement to settlers to confine their cares to this branch of labour and commerce, which has no doubt materially retarded the improvement of the Province generally. Originally the Americans were permitted to act at pleasure in the forests of the Miramichi—the privilege has since been confined to British subjects; but the consequence is that the finest of the timber has been destroyed, and the persons so engaged maintaining no interest in the country have wholly neglected to take any steps towards its improvement. The prospect of an immediate return still attracts persons of small capital to embark in the lumber trade, but many have been ruined by that trade in the province of New Brunswick, whilst hundreds have been gradually advancing to certain independence and prosperity by a steady attention to agriculture. The quantities of timber that have been felled, squared, and exported from this part of the colony are enormous, and yet no part of the Province presents so few symptoms of improvement. The pursuit of lumbering (perhaps a necessary evil in colonizing a wilderness) seems indeed of a demoralizing tendency sometimes depriving its followers of the inclination and even capability for consistent and steady industry. This will be more apparent from a view of the method in which a lumbering party is formed and conducted, and which we have borrowed from a cursory view of these provinces, by an intelligent and candid writer [as follows, from Historical and Descriptive Sketches of the Maritime Colonies of British America by J. M’Gregor, London, 1828]. These are composed of persons who are all either hired by a master lumberer, who pays them wages and provisions, or of individuals who enter into an understanding with each other to have a joint interest in the proceeds of their labour. The necessary supplies of provisions, clothing, &c. are generally obtained from the merchants on credit, in consideration of receiving the timber which the lumberers are to bring down the river the following summer. The stock deemed requisite for a lumbering party consists of axes, a cross-cut saw, cooking utensils, a cask of rum, tobacco and pipes, a sufficient quantity of biscuit, pork, beef, and fish, pease and pearl barley for soup, with a cask of molasses to sweeten a decoction usually made of shrubs or of the tops of the hemlock tree, and taken as tea. Two or three yoke of oxen, with sufficient hay to feed them, are also required to haul the timber out of the woods.

“When thus prepared, these people proceed up the rivers, with the provisions, &c. to the place fixed on for their winter establishment, which is selected as near a stream of water and in the midst of as much pine as possible. They commence by clearing away a few of the surrounding trees, and building a camp of round logs, the walls of which are seldom more than four or five feet high; the roof covered with birch bark or boards. A pit is dug under the camp to preserve anything liable to injury from the frost. The fire is either at the middle or at one end; the smoke goes out through the roof. Hay, straw, or fir branches are spread across or along the whole breadth of the habitation, on which they all lie down together at night to sleep with their feet next the fire. When the fire gets low, he who first awakes or feels himself cold gets up and throws on five or six billets, and in this way they manage to have a large fire all night. One person is hired as cook, whose duty is to have breakfast ready before daylight, at which time all the party rise, when each man takes his indispensable dram of raw rum before breakfast. This meal consists of bread or occasionally potatoes, with boiled beef, pork, or fish, and tea sweetened with molasses. Dinner is usually the same, with pease soup in place of tea, and the supper resembles the breakfast. These men are enormous eaters, and they also drink great quantities of rum, which they scarcely ever dilute. Immediately after breakfast they divide into three gangs, one of which cuts down the trees, another hews them, and the third is employed with the oxen in hauling the timber, either to one general road leading to the banks of the nearest stream, or at once to the stream itself. Fallen trees and other impediments in the way of the oxen are cut away with the axe.”

“The whole winter is thus spent in unremitting labour. The snow covers the ground from two to three feet from the setting in of winter till April and, in the middle of fir forests, often till the middle of May. When the snow begins to dissolve in April, the rivers swell, or, according to the lumberer’s phrase, the freshets come down. At this time all the timber cut during the winter is thrown into the water, and floated down until the river becomes sufficiently wide to make one or more rafts. The water at this period is exceedingly cold, yet for weeks the lumberers are in it from morning till night, and it is seldom less than a month and a half from the time that floating the timber down the stream commences until the rafts are delivered to the merchants. No course of life can undermine the constitution more than that of a lumberer or raftsman. The winter snow and frost, although severe, are nothing to endure in comparison with the extreme coldness of the snow water of the freshets, in which the lumberer is day after day wet up to the middle, and often immersed from head to foot. The very vitals are thus chilled and sapped, and the intense heat of the summer sun, a transition which almost immediately follows, must further weaken and reduce the whole frame.”

“To stimulate the organs in order to sustain the cold, these men swallow immoderate quantities of ardent spirits, and habits of drunkenness are the usual consequence. Their moral character, with few exceptions, is dishonest and worthless. Premature old age and shortness of days form the inevitable fate of a lumberer. After selling and delivering up their rafts, they pass some weeks in indulgence, drinking, smoking, and dashing off in a long coat, flashy waistcoat and trousers, Wellington or Hessian boots, a handkerchief of many colours round the neck, a watch with a long chain and numberless brass seals, and an umbrella. Before winter they return again to the woods, and resume the pursuits of the preceding year. Some exceptions I have known to this generally true character of the lumberers. Many young men of steady habits, who went from Prince Edward’s Island and other places to Miramichi, for the express purpose of making money, have joined the lumbering parties for two or three years, and after saving their earnings returned and purchased lands, &c. on which they now live very comfortably.”

The backward state of the settlements on the banks of the Miramichi, and thence south-easterly across the country, may perhaps be in some degree referred to the terrific conflagration which in October, 1825, devastated a tract of country upwards of 300 miles in extent. It is not an uncommon thing for fires to be lighted in the woods, sometimes for the protection which the smoke affords from mosquitoes and flies, and sometimes for the assistance it affords the lumberers in clearing the brushwood; and it appears that from some circumstance of this sort the woods on both sides of the northwest branch of the Miramichi and in the rear of Newcastle had for some time been on fire without exciting either alarm or attention. But when once these fires are fostered by the wind to a certain extent, their fury becomes boundless. The rarefaction of the air produced by the heat occasions a rush of air from all quarters, which constitutes a hurricane, and thus they are urged on by an irresistible and still increasing power. The first indication of the approaching calamity received by the settlers was a tremendous roaring in the woods, succeeded by volumes of dense smoke that darkened the face of day. Then burst forth the terrific element above the trees, stretching its flaming columns to the skies, and rolling forward with impetuous fury, till in an hour the towns of Douglas and Newcastle were enveloped in the dreadful vortex, which involved them with so unexpected a rapidity, that many of the ill-fated inhabitants contributed to the vast mound of ashes. A Miramichi paper of the 11th October, 1825, thus states the devastation:

“More than a hundred miles of the shores of the Miramichi are laid waste, independent of the northwest branch, the Bartibog and the Nappan settlements. From one to two hundred people have perished within immediate observation, and thrice that number are miserably burnt or otherwise wounded; and at least two thousand of our fellow creatures are left destitute of the means of subsistence, and thrown at present upon the humanity of the province of New Brunswick.”

“The number of lives that have been lost in the remote part of the woods, among the lumbering parties, cannot be ascertained for some time to come, for it is feared that few were left to tell the tale.”

“It is not in the power of language to describe the unparalleled scene of ruin and devastation which the parish of Newcastle at this moment presents; out of upwards of 250 houses and stores, fourteen of the least considerable only remain. The court-house, gaol, church, and barracks, Messrs. Gilmour, Rankin, and Co.’s, and Messrs. Wm. Abrahams and Co.’s establishments, with two ships on the stocks, are reduced to ashes.”

“The loss of property is incalculable; for the fire, borne upon the wings of a hurricane, rushed upon the wretched inhabitants with such inconceivable rapidity, that the preservation of their lives could be their only care. Among the vessels on the river a number were cast on shore, three of which, viz. the ships Concord of Whitby, and Canada of North Shields, together with the brig Jane of Alloa, were consumed; others were fortunately extinguished after the fire had attacked them.”

“At Douglas Town scarcely any kind of property escaped the ravages of the flames, which swept off the surface everything coming in contact with them, leaving but time for the unfortunate inhabitants to fly to the shore; and there by means of boats, canoes, rafts of timber, timber-lop, or any article, however ill calculated for the purpose, they endeavoured to escape from the dreadful scene, and reach the town of Chatham, numbers of men, women, and children perishing in the attempt.”

“In some parts of the country the cattle have all been destroyed, or suffered greatly, and the very soil has been in many places parched and burnt up, and no article of provision to speak of has been rescued from the flames.”

“The hurricane raged with such dreadful violence that large bodies of timber on fire, as also trees from the forest, and parts of the flaming houses and stores, were carried to the rivers with amazing velocity, to such an extent, and affecting the water in such a manner, as to occasion large quantities of salmon and other fish to resort to land, hundreds of which were scattered on the shores of the north and south-west branches.”

“Chatham at present contains about 300 of the unfortunate sufferers, who have resorted to it for relief, and are receiving some partial assistance, and almost every hour brings with it, from the back settlements, burnt, wounded, or in a most abject state of distress; and it is reported that nearly two hundred bodies have been actually destroyed.”

This fire extended as far northward as the Bay of Chaleurs, and southeastward to Fredericton, to which town it communicated, destroying the governor’s residence and about eighty other houses. The total loss of life could not be numbered at less than 500, whilst that of property defies calculation.

The colonists met this dire calamity in the true spirit of charity, lavishing on their suffering fellow settlers every aid in their power, stimulated and encouraged by the example of the governor, Sir Howard Douglas, who immediately repaired to the spot, and assisted by a noble subscription raised in Great Britain, in the other British colonies, and in the United States.

The towns on the Miramichi have now nearly recovered from this devastation, and present as good an appearance as formerly; but the land will not soon recover from the loss of its timber, and the actual injury done it by such a combustion.

At Caraquet, near the western extremity of the Bay of Chaleur, there is a pleasant village, with a church, the inhabitants of which are descendants of the Acadians, with some admixture of Indian alloy. The land about it is good, but their principal subsistence is fishing. Along the eastern shore from Miramichi north to the Bay, the land is low, and but thinly settled, and ill cultivated, the inhabitants dividing their attention between agriculture, fishing, and hewing timber. The same remark will apply pretty generally to the whole northern shore of the province along the Bay of Chaleurs, and the Restigouche. The small settlements along their banks having been formerly principally engaged in fishing, but which they now seem disposed to abandon, for the sake of the timber trade.

An improvement which has been long in contemplation, which was strenuously urged by Colonel Cockburn, and is now in active progress, cannot but very materially assist the advancement of this County. This is the new road from Halifax to Canada, along the eastern portion of the Province, from the head of the Bay of Fundy, through Westmoreland, on the bank of the Petitcodiac River, through the county of Northumberland to Chatham, across the smaller branch of the Miramichi, and thence by Newcastle and Bathurst, on the banks of the Restigouche, till it joins the Kempt road at Matapedia, most desirable in every point of view, both as a shorter and safer communication between Halifax and Canada, and as establishing a line of communication through a chain of the most fertile settlements in the province of New Brunswick. There is not the slightest doubt that this important advantage will more than anything contribute to the rapid improvement of the hitherto too much neglected County of Northumberland.

Written by johnwood1946

October 24, 2018 at 8:44 AM

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From Saint Martins to Saint John in 1843—Ships Being Built all Along the Coast

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From the blog at 

James Buckingham was an Englishman who travelled the world and became controversial for speaking his mind to the dismay of colonial authorities. His writings were recognized as important enough to justify a Civil List pension, however.

This description of his trip from Chignecto to Saint John is from his book Canada, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and the Other Provinces of British North America…, 1843. Most of his observations were between Saint Martins and Saint John, where he discovered that ships were being built all along the coast. His interest in geology was very typical for this time because of the influence of Charles Lyell. Finally, we are treated with a description of his vulgar, drunken, and disorderly fellow passengers.

Charles Lyell

Influenced generations of people, who aspired to be knowledgeable in geology


From Saint Martins to Saint John in 1843—Ships Being Built all Along the Coast

We entered into the Bay of Fundy, the easternmost fork of which assumes the name of the Cumberland, and sometimes Chignecto Bay, from the promontory of Cape Chignecto, which divides this fork from the other of the Bay of Mines. The Cumberland fork runs up to the narrow neck or isthmus, which connects Nova Scotia with New Brunswick, and makes the former a peninsula. This neck is only eleven miles broad from the head of the Bay of Fundy to the bottom of the Gulf of St. Lawrence; so that a ship-canal of that length across it would enable ships to sail from Quebec to St. John, in New Brunswick, and so on to the United States, without passing round Cape Breton or Nova Scotia, a saving of nearly 800 miles in the whole distance.

As soon as we had got fairly out into the Bay of Fundy, we encountered a heavy sea from the westward, as the result of the late gale; and stood across to the northern or New Brunswick shore, the southern being that of Nova Scotia, to get into smoother water—the breadth of the Bay here being about 25 miles. We reached first a small place where the Indians had a settlement, called Cuaco [Quaco], but where there is now a little town called St. Martin. Four years since there were not a hundred persons there, but now there are more than a thousand. The occupation of the male inhabitants is ship-building, the beach being favourable for launching, timber abundant, and labour comparatively cheap; from the fact that many of the workmen have little farms to which they give some portion of their time, while their families assist; and other portions, when their immediate labours are not required on their farms, they can give to ship-building, and thus unite the profits of both. We saw at least a dozen ships in different stages of progress as we passed along the coast, and learnt from the captain that not less than thirty had been launched from this little town during the last year.

Just opposite to the town is a small rocky island, on which is a lighthouse, and at the town itself there is a breakwater and pier-harbour for ships. The coast is bold and steep, and the land is high and rocky, though there are several patches of cleared fields in the interior. Some of the cliffs present diagonal strata, dipping from 20° to 40° downward to the east. There is a dangerous ledge of rocks off this town, distant nine miles from the lighthouse, bearing south-east by compass, which is completely covered at high water, though it is fifteen feet above the surface at low water; but being more frequently covered than bare, this ledge has been the cause of many shipwrecks. In passing round the point of the Island, we encountered the full force of the floodtide, sweeping upward in a boiling foam, occasioned by the whirlpools, eddies, and countercurrents round the rock, so that our feeble boat staggered and rocked to and fro without making any visible progress; and we were an hour at least, with all the force of steam that could be applied, in compassing about a mile of distance by the shore. When we got in under the cliffs, and out of the range of this powerful current, we proceeded at a better rate, but it was still very slow. The lighthouse is a low octagonal tower, painted with broad alternate rings of bright red and white, reminding me of a style of decoration which I remember to have seen at the caravanserai [castle] of Adjerood, in the Desert of Suez, and some other Arabian buildings, baths and caravanserais, in Egypt and elsewhere, but quite new to me on this continent, at least.

Two miles beyond the town of Cuaco, or St. Martin, we passed round a lofty but rounded cape, called Cuaco Head, which rises abruptly from the sea to a height of about 350 feet, the height of Cape Diamond at Quebec, with perpendicular cliffs of red sandstone overhanging the sea, at least 250 feet in height, the parts above this being covered with small pine-trees and brush wood. The strata of the rocks seemed here to be thrown into the greatest confusion, as if the effect of some great convulsion; and as we passed round the pitch of the Cape, we saw a natural arch in one of the disjointed masses of rock, through which the view was complete when we got on the other side of it.

Three miles beyond this, steering westward, along the New Brunswick shore all the time, we passed the small town of Teignmouth [Tynemouth], where, though there were not more than twenty houses visible from the sea, there was a fine large ship on the stocks close to the beach. Beyond this, about a mile, we passed round a more rugged and broken promontory than any we had yet seen, where several small islets were detached from the cape, in masses of red sandstone, with verdure and stunted shrubs on the top, within which there was deep water and a good passage. This place is called The Horse Shoe when the tide is in, and the little curve in the coast is filled with the sea; but it is called The Boot, when the tide is out, and the beach is left dry. Near this also were many clearings of land under cultivation.

Beyond this, about three miles further, we passed round a cape called M’Cay’s Head, and four miles further on we rounded Cape Mispeck [Mispec], about 2 P.M., the whole coast being high and rocky, and with very few good landing places along its edge. This being the eastern cape of St. John’s Bay, we shaped our course from west to northwest, and hauled up for the town of St. John. As the ebb-tide had begun to make from the river, we saw several ships coming out to sea, and soon descried the steamer, British America, for Boston, which, on a given signal, ran down to meet us, and take out such of our passengers as were bound to that port. These being transhipped, we pursued our way, and soon obtained sight of the City of St. John, which, standing on high round, and spreading upwards from the sea, presented a fine appearance, as we drew near it. We entered the harbour about four P.M., having been therefore twenty-six hours on our passage, though the usual time is about fourteen. The fare was very little, being only five dollars each; but it was the dearest passage we had ever made, as there was not a single comfort of any kind obtained in return for the money paid. The boat was one of the worst in condition, most dirty and ill provided in every respect, both in accommodations, furniture, food, and attendants, that we had anywhere seen on the American waters; and the passengers the most vulgar, drunken, and disorderly, with two or three exceptions only, that we had ever met with in all our late tour of three years duration. We regretted, indeed, that such a vessel as the Maid of the Mist, and such persons as formed her crew and passengers, should have the British flag waving over them. But the disgrace belongs only of course to the individuals who thus dishonoured it, and not to the nation or the province to which they belonged.

I had no sooner landed on the wharf, than I was accosted by two individuals, who had known me in other parts of the world; one was a naval officer who had met me at Bombay in 1816, when I wore the Arab costume and a long beard, after my journey from Egypt, through Palestine, Mesopotamia, and Persia; and another was an officer of the army who had known me in Egypt the year before I set out on the journey named. As these gentlemen had both resided here for some years, their influence, and the letters of introduction with which we were abundantly supplied, soon brought around us a number of the residents of the City, who had been for some days expecting my arrival, and by these we were escorted to the St. John Hotel, where we found excellent accommodations prepared for us. The attentive proprietors of this establishment keep their house in the manner of an English, and not an American hotel, and are therefore not above their station, but take great personal pains to see that everything is done which can contribute to the comfort of their visitors. We had here, as at Halifax, the luxury of private sitting-rooms, and a private table, so rarely to be obtained in the hotels of the United States; and we enjoyed it the more highly, no doubt, from our long privation of the domestic quiet, and entire freedom from restraint, which this retirement within the bosom of one’s family can alone ensure; so that we felt ourselves to be nearer home, in a manner, by this return to the habits of our native land.


Buckingham continues with a description of Saint John, already included in this blog on May 18, 2014 and entitled Saint John, N.B., in the Early 1840s. It may also be accessed via


Written by johnwood1946

October 17, 2018 at 8:10 AM

Posted in Uncategorized

How to Get a Grant of Crown Lands in New Brunswick, in 1884

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From the blog at

How to Get a Grant of Crown Lands in New Brunswick, in 1884

Following are instructions on how to get a grant of Crown Lands in New Brunswick in 1884, from New Brunswick as a Home for the Farmer Emigrant, published by the Canada Department of Agriculture, Ottawa, in 1884.

A Farm in Southampton, N.B., ca 1890-1900
From the N.B. Museum, via the McCord Museum


How to Obtain a Farm

The farmers of New Brunswick are almost without exception the owners of the farms they cultivate. If a man rents a farm he only does so for a short period and for the purpose of employing his time until he can do better. Every man can become a land owner if he wishes, and therefore the relations of landlord and tenant, so far as they apply to farmers, are almost unknown.

If a man comes to New Brunswick with sufficient capital he will have no difficulty in providing himself with a suitable farm, for there are always farmers who are ready to sell their farms, and take a fresh start in the wilderness, while in other cases farms are thrown into the market owing to the death of their owners and other causes. Farms can be purchased with from 30 to 200 acres of cleared land and provided with buildings, at prices varying from £300 to £2,000 sterling. The latter sum will purchase a first class farm, and an excellent farm can frequently be bought for half the money. To persons who desire to settle in the Province and who have money, the only advice it is necessary for us to give is to look well about them until they find a farm in the market that suits them, and then to buy it.

All men who wish to emigrate do not, however, possess enough money to buy a farm, or even to stock it if it was bought. To such the free grants and labor acts passed by the New Brunswick Legislature offer an easy way for them to become land owners, and in the end farmers of independent means.

Ten years ago the free grant system of settlement was introduced, and it was found a great success. There are now about fifty free grant settlements in the Province, settled by thousands of industrious men who had no means of purchasing farms, but who will soon be in prosperous circumstances. The aggregate value of the improvements in those settlements which have been thus carved out of the wilderness within the past ten years is probably not less than one million dollars.

The Free Grants Act

The Free Grants Act authorizes the Provincial Government to select and set apart lands suitable for settlement and cultivation, and to cause public roads to be made to and through the same. These tracts are surveyed and laid off in lots of one hundred acres each, having a front on such roads. The conditions necessary to enable any person to obtain a free grant of one hundred acres are as follows:— The applicant must be of the age of eighteen years or upwards; he must be possessed of no other real estate; and he must be prepared to make affidavit that he desires such land for his own benefit and for the purposes of actual settlement or cultivation. He must also:—

First.— Commence chopping, clearing and improving on the lot assigned to him within one month after publication of his approval, and shall within three months after the publication of such approval, improve as aforesaid on his lot to the value of twenty dollars;

Secondly.— Within one year from such publication build a house thereon, fit for habitation, of not less dimensions than sixteen feet by twenty, and shall chop down and cultivate not less than two acres by sowing or planting the same;

Thirdly.— Chop down, cultivate and clear not less than ten acres within three years from such publication, and shall each year actually and continuously cultivate all the land chopped down during such three years;

Fourthly.— Reside actually and continuously upon such land for the term of three years next succeeding such publication, and thence up to the issue of the Grant, except that absence during the months of July, August, January, February and March, in any year, shall not be held to be a cessation of such residence, provided such land be cultivated as aforesaid;

Fifthly.— Compliance with the first, second and third conditions above mentioned within a less period than three years, and actual residence up to the time of such compliance, shall entitle such Allottee to a grant. On failure in the performance of any of the Settlement Conditions and duties in this section mentioned, the allotment shall be forfeited, and all right of the Allottee or any one claiming under him in the land cease.”

The trees on lands so allotted under this Act remain the property of the Province until the grant issues; and the person in possession, until he receives his grant, is only entitled to cut such trees as he needs for building, fencing, fuel and for the bona fide clearing of the land; but after complying with the first and second conditions named he can obtain a license to cut on his lot beyond the limits of his clearing. The object of this regulation is to prevent persons who have no intention of becoming bona fide settlers from stripping the land of its timber.

All the forms necessary to enable the emigrant to make application for a free grant under this Act can be obtained either at the Crown Land Office, Fredericton, or the Emigration Office, St John, so that they need not be given here. Every facility will be given the intending settler at these offices.

How Land is Obtained Under the Labor Act

Under what is called the Labor Act, any person who has obtained the age of eighteen years can apply for a lot not exceeding one hundred acres, in any part of the Province, but he must become a bona fide settler thereon. Should the land he selects be unsurveyed, he must he must forward to the Crown Land office with his petition the sum of one dollar, when an order of survey will issue to the Land Surveyor in whose district the land may lie. The surveyor then makes the survey at the expense of the applicant, and submits a return of the same to the Crown Land office, which, if found satisfactory, entitles the applicant for an approval in the Royal Gazette. This gives him possession of the lot. If the land he selects be already surveyed at the time of the application, at the expense of the Government, he is required to forward with his petition the sum of three dollars as the survey fee; and if the land be vacant his application is gazetted in the usual form. Having secured his approval, it is necessary for him to immediately comply with the conditions of the Act and the regulations thereunder. Compliance with all the conditions entitles the Applicant to his grant. These conditions are as follows:—

Payment of twenty dollars cash in advance, to aid in the construction of roads and bridges in the vicinity of his location, or the performing of labor on such roads or bridges to the extent of ten dollars per year for three years, as may be directed by the Governor in Council or officer appointed to superintend the same.

He shall commence improving his location immediately after obtaining permission to occupy the same, and shall within two years thereafter satisfy the Governor in Council that he has built a house thereon of not less dimensions than sixteen by twenty feet, and is residing thereon, and that he has cleared at least two acres of said land;

He shall continue to reside on said land for three consecutive years, at the expiration of such time, provided he had cleared and cultivated at least ten acres of the said land, and performed the labor in the manner hereinbefore prescribed, or paid twenty dollars in advance, a grant shall issue to him of the one hundred acres so located; provided always, that shall the means of such person so locating as aforesaid be limited, he may from time to time, and for reasonable periods, absent himself from said land in order to obtain the means of support for himself and family, without forfeiting his claim to constant residence.

Such person so located may, after having built a house and cleared and cultivated two acres of said land, and paid the twenty dollars advance, or performed labor on the roads and bridges to the extent of ten dollars or upwards, cut and haul lumber and timber from and off the said lot; but he shall not sell or otherwise dispose of the standing timber until he has obtained a grant of said lot.

Every actual settler who is indebted to the Crown on account of a lot so occupied by him, provided such lot do not contain more than one hundred acres, and if he owns no other land, and has resided on such lot for three years next preceding, and has cleared and cultivated ten acres thereof, and had paid twenty dollars in cash, or performed thirty dollars’ worth of labor on the roads as herein provided, shall be entitled to a grant of said lot.

Land Sold at Public Auction

Under Act Consolidated Statutes, p. 1015, application maybe made for Crown Lands without any conditions of settlement. All applications are made subject to a claim of present value for any improvement which may have been made to the lot applied for, to be determined by the Surveyor General in such manner which he may deem advisable, and if surveyed at Government expense, for a claim of three dollars for each one hundred acres applied for. If the land applied for be unsurveyed, one dollar must accompany each application to purchase, to secure an order to survey to the District Surveyor; and no single application will be received for more than two hundred acres of land. The application must be in the name of one individual, no applications being recognized which are made in the name of a company, firm or partnership.

Should the Governor in Council favorably consider the application, the sale of the land applied for is advertised in the Royal Gazette for at least twenty-one days. All sales of land under this Act take place at the Crown Land Office, at noon on the first Tuesday in each month.

The upset price is eighty cents per acre, (except in special cases determined by the Governor in Council), in addition to value of improvements and survey fee.

If the purchaser, at the time of sale, purchase the land at the upset price, he is allowed fourteen days in which to pay the purchase money, but if the land be sold at any advance upon the upset price, the whole amount of the purchase money must be immediately paid, or the land is again offered for sale. No conditions of settlement or residence are required under this form of application, so soon as the purchaser has paid for the land bought, the grant thereof is issued to him.

Written by johnwood1946

October 10, 2018 at 8:31 AM

Posted in Uncategorized