This blog will continue to grow, but following is a table of contents so far from the top:
- Good Fences Make Good Neighbours – Feb. 10, 2016
- WE NEED THE ACADIANS TO REMAIN: Lieut Governor, 1715 – Feb. 2, 2015
- Guy Carleton on the Fur Trade in Canada, 1767 – Jan. 27, 2016
- A Letter on Irish Immigrants – Jan. 20, 2016
- The Wreck of the ‘Lord Ashburton’ – Jan. 13, 2016
- A Ghost at Noonday – Jan. 6, 2016
- Silas Rand on the Mi’kmaq People – Part 3: Will Not the Bright Sun and the Blue Heavens Testify Against Us? – Dec. 30, 2015
- Silas Rand on the Mi’kmaq People – Part 2: To Every Thing There is a Season – Dec. 23, 2015
- Silas Rand on the Mi’kmaq People – Part 1: All Men From One Blood – Dec. 16, 2015
- Limits to the Royal Bounty – Dec. 9, 2015
- Nova Scotia, a Receptacle for Superfluous People? – Dec. 1, 2015
- From New Ireland to New Brunswick – Nov. 25, 2015
- The Most Gentlemanlike Government on Earth – Nov. 18, 2015
- I Love You for Your Plainness – Nov. 11, 2015
- Ward Chipman Remembers the Final Evacuation of New York – Nov. 4, 2015
- A Reply to “Men of Honor and Probity Run Amok” – Oct. 28, 2015
- A Century of Educational Progress in New Brunswick from 1800 to 1900 – Oct. 21, 2015
- Notes About the Earliest Public Markets in Saint John, New Brunswick – Oct. 14, 2015
- The Provincial Dairy School at Sussex, New Brunswick, 1900 – Oct. 7, 2015
- An Account of Nova Scotia in 1743 – Sept. 30, 2015
- The Petition of the Infamous 55 – Sept. 23, 2015
- Francis Sharpe’s Woodstock Apples – Sept. 16, 2015
- The Expulsion of the Acadians, a Military Surgeon’s Diary – Sept. 9, 2015
- The New Brunswick Election of 1785 – Sept. 2, 2015
- The Many Fires in Saint John, 1784-1877 – Aug. 26, 2015
- A Proposal for an Attack on N0va Scotia – Aug. 19, 2015
- Fredericton’s Great Flood of 1936 – Aug. 12, 2015
- A Letter about the Acadians and the Expulsion – Aug. 5, 2015
- Saint John in 1834, Before it was Forever Changed by the Great Fire – July 29, 2015
- New Brunswick, No Country for a Mere Gentleman, 1834 – July 22, 2015
- Woodstock, the Only Village Between the Green River and Fredericton in 1834 – July 15, 2015
- On the Tamiscouta Prtage from Lake Tamiscouta to just above Grand Falls, 1834 – July 10, 2015
- Men of Honor and Probity Run Amok – July 1, 2015
- By Steamer to the So-Called City of Fredericton – June 24, 2014
- A Quiet and Business-Like Little City – June 17, 2015
- Rambles Among the Bluenoses in 1862 – June 10, 2015
- Edward John Russell, a New Brunswick Artist – June 3, 2015
- Provincial Lunatic Asylum, Report of the Medical Superintendent, 1875 – May 27, 2015
- The Saint John River and Port Royal in the Early 1600’s – May 20, 2015
- What Should We Think of Benedict Arnold? – May 13, 2015
- Diphtheria in New Brunswick in the Year 1889 – May 6, 2015
- The Official Account of the Destruction of Burnt Church – Apr. 29, 2015
- The Exchange Coffee House and Saint John’s First Club – Apr. 22, 2015
- The Wigwams and Dwellings of the Gaspesians – Apr. 15, 2015
- The Story of Brook Watson – Apr. 8, 2015
- Where Stood Fort LaTour? – Apr. 1, 2015
- Things This Morning Really Wear the Aspect of War – Mar. 25, 2015
- At Portland Point – Mar. 18, 2015
- Electrical Power From the Reversing Falls – Mar. 10, 2015
- Father Rale’s War – 1722-25; How it Ended – Mar. 4, 2015
- What Was the Big Deal About the Marco Polo? – Feb. 25, 2015
- Grand Manan to Petitcodiac, in 1786 – Feb. 18, 2015
- A Trip From St. John to Fredericton in 1870 – Feb. 11, 2015
- A Tour of St. John, N.B., in 1870 – Feb. 4, 2015
- Destruction by Fire of the First Cathedral in Chatham – Jan. 28, 2015
- Burgan the Burglar – Jan. 21, 2015
- Facts and Reasons Against Confederating With Canada – Jan. 14, 2015
- Discontent in Early Halifax in 1756 – Jan. 7, 2015
- A Trip on the ICR From Bathurst to Miramichi – Dec. 31, 2014
- Early Attempts to Introduce the Cultivation of Hemp in Eastern British America – Dec. 24, 2014
- Touring Campbellton and Dalhousie, Despite the Mosquitoes, 1876 – Dec. 19, 2014
- The Fire of 1837 in Saint John – Dec. 10, 2014
- The Cruise of the Rechab – Dec. 3, 2014
- A Night in the Deep – Nov. 26, 2014
- Robert Foulis (A Misplaced Genius) – Nov. 19, 2014
- The City Mills – Nov. 15, 2014
- The Brothers d’Amours – Nov. 5, 2014
- John Allan’s Revolutionary Mission to the Saint John River – Oct. 29, 2014
- Relics of the Acadian Period – Oct. 22, 2014
- Some Odd Old Advertisements – Oct. 15, 2014
- The Miramichi Fire – Relief of the Sufferers – Oct. 8, 2014
- Jonathan Eddy’s Account of the Attack on Fort Cumberland, November, 1776 – Oct. 1, 2014
- Which of These Two is the Wisest and Happiest? – Sept. 24, 2014
- Fredericton Bridge, a Prophetic Writing – Sept. 17, 2014
- A Speech to Distinguished Persons of Stake and Consideration – Sept. 10, 2014
- Building an Education System From Almost Nothing – Sept. 3, 2014
- Cape Tormentine to the Baye des Chaleurs in the 1600’s – Aug. 27, 2014
- The Customs of the Mi’kmaq in the 1600’s and Before – Aug. 20, 2014
- Two Documents Relating to the Fenians in New Brunswick – Aug. 13, 2014
- The Lazaretto for Lepers in Tracadie, 1862 – Aug. 6, 2014
- Thoughts About the Augustine Mound at Metepenegiag Mi’kmaq Nation – July 30, 2014
- What am I Bid for This Pauper? – July 23, 2014
- Trouble at Madawaska, 1831 – July 16, 2014
- The Great Fire at Saint John, June 20, 1877 – July 9, 2014
- The Poor Fellows Shook as if They Would Fall to Pieces! – July 2, 2014
- How to Build a Logging Camp in Around 1850 – June 25, 2014
- Risen from the Ashes, Phoenix Square in Fredericton – June 18, 2014
- Rocks and Water, Magnificence and Squalor; St. John in 1876 – June 11, 2014
- Moncton as Seen by a Journalist in 1876 – June 4, 2014
- Events Leading to the Caraquet Riots of 1875 – May 28, 2014
- A Dramatic Account of the Miramichi Fire – May 21, 2014
- Saint John in the Early 1840’s – May 18, 2014
- A Note to Subscribers, and a Memorandum for me – May 14, 2014
- The Myth that Kerosene was Invented in New Brunswick – May 7, 2014
- A Church with Military Boots and Fixed Bayonets – Apr. 30, 2014
- An Opening Salvo in an Ongoing Argument – Apr. 23, 2014
- May living worms his corpse devour – Apr. 16, 2014
- He don’t look any better than some of our own boys – Apr. 9, 2014
- The Disputed Territory Between New Brunswick and Maine – Apr. 2, 2014
- Navigation on the Saint John River – Mar. 26, 2014
- Shepody as a Hot Investment Opportunity, 1868 – Mar. 19, 2014
- To Her Majesty, RE: Reciprocity, 1853 – Mar. 12, 2014
- Diary on the Tobique, 1851 – Mar. 5, 2014
- Growing up in Fredericton in the 1820s and 1830s – Feb. 26, 2014
- Travels From Eastport, Maine, to Fredericton, 1851 – Feb. 19, 2014
- The Saint John General Public Hospital, 19th Century, Part 2 of 2 – Feb. 12, 2014
- The Saint John General Public Hospital, 19th Century, Part 1 of 2 – Feb. 5, 2014
- The Story of the Great Brothers – Jan. 29, 2014
- A Trek up the Tobique, and Onward to Bathurst – Jan. 22, 2014
- Summer Tourists. A Manual for New Brunswick Farmers – Jan. 19, 2014
- A Trek from Grand Falls to Campbellton, 1862 – Jan. 15, 2014
- A Trek From Taymouth to Boisetown, 1862 – Jan. 12, 2014
- Capt. William Owen’s Journal, Campobello, 1770-71 – Jan. 8, 2014
- The Founding of Campobello Island – Jan. 5, 2014
- New Brunswick Roads and Railways, 1855 – Jan. 1, 2014
- Grand Manan – Dec. 29, 2013
- The Shipyard Fire in Saint John, in 1841 – Dec. 26, 2013
- Christmas as it Was in Saint John, in 1808 – Dec. 22, 2013
- The Saint John Grammar School – Dec. 18, 2013
- William Wishart Blasts the New Brunswick Education System, 1845 – Dec. 15, 2013
- The Diary of Sarah Frost – Dec. 11, 2013
- Pŭlěs, Pŭlowěch′, and Beechkwěch (Pigeon, Partridge, and Nighthawk) – Dec. 10, 2014
- The Government of New Brunswick, 1837 – Dec. 4, 2013
- The Whales and the Robbers – Dec. 1, 2013
- The Ashburton Treaty – Nov. 27, 2013
- Glooscap and His Four Visitors – Nov. 24, 2013
- The Pioneers of Saint Stephen – Nov. 20, 2013
- The Adventures of Kâktoogwâsees; a Tale of Ancient Times – Nov. 17, 2013
- The Asylum at Saint John – Nov. 13, 2013
- The Liver-Colored Giants and Magicians – Nov. 10, 2013
- Smuggling Between Calais and St. Stephen – Nov. 6, 2013
- The Two Weasels – Nov. 3, 2013
- A note to subscribers – Oct. 30, 2013
- The European and North American Railway, 1862 – Oct. 30, 2013
- The Origin of the War Between the Mi’kmaq and the Kwěděches – Oct. 23, 2013
- Trouble on the Line: The Early Telegraph in New Brunswick – Oct. 16, 2013
- The Invisible Boy; Team′ and Oochigeaskw – Oct. 9, 2013
- Transportation to and from Fredericton, 1841 – Oct. 2, 2013
- The Boy That Was Transformed Into a Horse – Sept. 25, 2013
- McAdam: Notes From the Early Days – Sept. 18, 2013
- The Magical Food, Belt and Flute – Sept. 11, 2013
- European & North American Rly. Staff, 1861 – Sept. 4, 2013
- Glooscap and the Megumoowesoo: A Marriage Adventure – Aug. 28, 2013
- The Loss of the Royal Tar – Aug. 21, 2013
- Robbery and Murder Revenged, Plus a Grand Falls Story – Aug. 14, 2013
- The St. John River From Below Fredericton to the Reversing Falls – Aug. 7, 2013
- A Proposal for a Wooden Railway – July 31, 2013
- ‘On the Early History of New Brunswick’ – July 24, 2013
- The Maugerville Settlement, 1763-1824 – July 17, 2013
- 1930 Circus Train Wreck Near Moncton, N.B. – July 10, 2013
- Horses or Oxen? Pick one – July 3, 2013
- The St. John River; Andover to Fredericton – June 26, 2013
- Origins of Some Place Names on N.B.’s Eastern Shore – June 19, 2013
- The St. John River; Grand Falls to the Tobique – June 12, 2013
- Gabriel Acquin – June 5, 2013
- The Seigniories of New Brunsiwck – May 29, 2013
- An 1841 Trek up the Oromocto River – May 22, 2013
- Fredericton’s Exhibition Palace, and Bears in N.B. – May 15, 2013
- Murder on Diamond Square Road – May 8, 2013
- Acadian Historic Sites in New Brunswick – May 1, 2013
- John C. Tracy’s Book, Part 5 of 5 – Apr. 24, 2013
- John C. Tracy’s Book, Part 4 of 5 – Apr. 17, 2013
- John C. Tracy’s Book, Part 3 of 5 – Apr. 10, 2013
- John C. Tracy’s Book, Part 2 of 5 – Apr. 3, 2013
- John C. Tracy’s Book, Part 1 of 5 – Mar. 27, 2013
- A Retrospective Look at Saint John – Mar. 20, 2013
- The Wreck of the England – Mar. 13, 2013
- The First Decade of the 1800’s in St. John, N.B. – Mar. 6, 2013
- St. John’s Poorhouse and Workhouse – Feb. 27, 2013, Rev. Sept. 9, 2015
- New Brunswick Scenes From an Old Book – Feb. 20, 2013
- Nice Pictures From Another Old Book – Feb. 13, 2013
- Life in the Backwoods of New Brunswick, Part 2/2 – Feb. 6, 2013
- Life in the Backwoods of New Brunswick, 1845 – Jan. 30, 2013
- The Works of W.O. Raymond – Jan. 23, 2013
- The Year of the Fever – Jan. 16, 2013
- Hanged for the Theft of 25 Cents – Jan. 9, 2013
- Reversing Falls – Pictures – Jan. 2, 2013
- Christmas as it was in 1808 – Dec. 25, 2012
- Nice Pictures From an Old Book – Dec. 19, 2012
- The Saint John Bridge Collapse of 1837 – Dec. 12, 2012
- The First Road Bridge Across the Reversing Falls – Dec. 5, 2012
- The Mystery of the First Lizzie Morrow – Nov. 28, 2012
- The First Murder Trial on the River St. John – Nov. 21, 2012
- The March of the 104th Regiment in 1812 – Nov. 14, 2012
- Partridge Island – Nov. 7, 2012
- Fredericton’s First Bridge Across the Saint John River – Oct. 31, 2012
- 1816, The Year Without a Summer – Oct. 31, 2012
- Winslow to Wentworth, 1781 – Oct. 31, 2012
- Oops! An explanation – Oct. 31, 2012
- The Saxby Gale of 1869 – Oct. 31, 2012
- New Brunswick’s Third Town in 1838: Saint Andrews – Oct. 31, 2012
- Fredericton and York County in 1838 – Oct. 31, 2012
- The City and County of Saint John in 1838 – Sept. 26, 2012
- The St. Andrews and Quebec Railroad – Sept. 19, 2012
- The Studholm Report of Saint John River Pre-Loyalists in 1783 – Sept. 12, 2012
- Caleb Jones. Further RE: Ann, otherwise known as Nancy – Sept. 5, 2012
- The Wreck of the Martha – Aug. 29, 2012
- The Early Settlement of Maugerville and the Sheffield Parsonage Dispute – Aug. 22, 2012
- Lieutenant Governors of New Brunswick to Confederation, Part 2 of 2 – Aug. 15, 2012
- Lieutenant Governors of New Brunswick to Confederation, Part 1 of 2 – Aug. 8, 2012
- The Morrow House at French Lake, N.B. – New Information – Aug. 1, 2012
- Sound by Glen Glenn, Revision 1 – July 25, 2012
- Ann, otherwise known as Nancy – July 18, 2012
- The Fire of October 7, 1825 – Beyond the Miramichi – July 11, 2012
- Lemuel Allan Wilmot – July 4, 2012
- The Great Fire at Miramichi, October 7, 1825 – June 27, 2012
- Robert Rankin in New Brunswick – June 20, 2012
- Who Owned the Mill at Tracy, New Brunswick? – June 13, 2012
- Signatures of Sunbury County Ancestors – June 6, 2012
- Daniel Wood’s Log Cabin, and Little Field Barn at French Lake, New Brunswick – May 30, 2012
- Rusagonis and George Garraty – May 23, 2012
- Epitaph Transcriptions from a Collection – May 16, 2012
- Central New Brunswick Gravestones from a Genealogy – May 9, 2012
- Nashwaak River Pictures with Stewart Family Connections – May 2, 2012
- More Sunbury County Photographs from a Collection – Apr. 25, 2012
- An Indian Burial Ground at Oromocto; and Coal Mining on the Oromocto River – Apr. 22, 2012
- “Days of Old” by Katherine DeWitt and Norma Alexander – Apr. 18, 2012
- The Wood Cemetery at French Lake, New Brunswick – Apr. 11, 2012
- James Glenie in New Brunswick – Apr. 4, 2012
- Four Generations of the Stewart Family on the Nashwaak River – Mar. 28, 2012
- Three Generations of the Mersereau Family in New Brunswick – Mar. 21, 2012
- Three Generations of the Smith Family of Sunbury County, New Brunswick – Mar. 14, 2012
- Three Generations of the Wood Family of French Lake, New Brunswick – Mar. 7, 2012
- New Brunswick Education in 1883 – Feb. 29, 2012
- Riots and Demonstrations in Saint John – Feb. 20, 2012
- Making Better Butter – Feb. 18, 2012
- York County Place Names, 1896/1905 – Feb. 8, 2012
- Sunbury County Place Names, 1896/1905 – Feb. 1, 2012
- Stereoscopic slides from Fred Stewart, Part 3 of 3 – Jan. 25, 2012
- Stereoscopic slides from Fred Stewart, Part 2 of 3 – Jan. 18, 2012
- Stereoscopic slides from Fred Stewart, Part 1 of 3 – Jan. 11, 2012
- The Hon. Thomas Baillie: Gone, but not soon forgotten! – Jan. 5, 2012
- The Fort at Oromocto, 1780 – 1783 – Dec. 29, 2011
- The Great Fire in Fredericton, 1850 – Early Accounts – Dec. 15, 2011
- The Morrow House at French Lake, and More – Dec. 8, 2011
- The Old Woman House at French Lake, New Brunswick – Dec. 1, 2011
- Smith Family Photographs from a Collection, Sunbury County, N.B. – Nov. 25, 2011
- French Lake from Before we Remember – Nov. 20, 2011
- How Geary became known as Geary – Nov. 9, 2011
- Elizabeth (Smith) Secord; N.B.’s First Woman Registered Doctor – Nov. 4, 2011
- Phillips Family Photographs from a Collection, Rusagonis, N.B. – Nov. 2, 2011
- Mersereau Family Photographs from a Collection, Sunbury County, N.B. – Oct. 30, 2011
- Wood Family Photographs from a Collection, French Lake, N.B. – Oct. 25, 2011
- Jeremiah Tracy: Pioneer of the Village of Tracy, New Brunswick – Oct. 20, 2011
- Two Old Railroad-Inspired Songs – Oct. 16, 2011
- Ode to the Oromocto River – Oct. 10, 2011
- John Mersereau, Loyalist 2 – Oct. 4, 2011
- The Earliest American Railroads and Locomotives – Sept. 14, 2011
- The Mersereau Manufacturing Company of Brooklyn, New York, Notes – Sept. 3, 2011
- George Morrow of French Lake, New Brunswick – 1801-1868 – Aug. 26, 2011
- The Wood Family of French Lake, New Brunswick – Legends – Aug. 9, 2011
- The Baptist Church on the Oromocto River in New Brunswick – Aug. 7, 2011
- John Wood of French Lake, New Brunswick – 1788-1868 – Aug. 2, 2011
- Daniel Wood of French Lake, New Brunswick – 1764-1847 – Aug. 1, 2011
- Three Stewarts on the Nashwaak – July 24, 2011
- Bunker Genealogy – Five Bunkers – July 20, 2011
- Statistics From the 1851 and 1871 Sunbury County New Brunswick Census Reports – July 19, 2011
- Historical Development of the Beam Bending Equation M=fS – July 18, 2011
- Seth Noble, Maugerville and the American Revolution – July 16, 2011
- Columns, the Long and the Short of it – 1729-1900 – July 15, 2011
- The Great Saint John Steel Cantilever Bridge – July 13, 2011
- The Upper Oromocto River in 1847 – July 11, 2011
- Early Glimpses of the Rusagonis Baptist Church in New Brunswick – July 11, 2011
- Abraham Gesner’s 1847 Observations of Sport Hunting in New Brunswick – July 11, 2011
- It Sounds a bit Too Easy – July 10, 2011
- James Buncker – July 10, 2011
- Inconsistent Petitions; Changed Self-Interests – July 10, 2011
- Abner Mersereau and a Letter – July 9, 2011
- Early Glimpses of the Patterson Settlement Baptist Church in New Brunswick – July 9, 2011
- The Textile Mill at Geary, New Brunswick – July 8, 2011
- Letter of Mi’kmaq’ Chief Pemmeenauweet to Queen Victoria – 1841 – July 7, 2011
- New Brunswick in the 1840s – July 7, 2011
From the blog at http://JohnWood1946.wordpress.com
John F. Kennedy’s “Good Fences Make Good Neighbors”
John F. Kennedy spoke at the Convocation ceremony of the University of New Brunswick on October 8, 1957, and a copy of his remarks is presented here.
These remarks have historical relevance even today, because they focus on international relations between the United States and Canada, which were strained at the time. It is therefore a snapshot of politics as it was at that time. I found it interesting that he was able to speak favourably (or at least politely) about John Diefenbaker while, at the same time, disagreeing with his policies. Similarly, he praised Lord Beaverbrook while disagreeing with his “views and editorial declarations”.
This was found at the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, online at http://www.jfklibrary.org/Research/Research-Aids/JFK-Speeches/Fredericton-New-Brunswick-Canada_19571008.aspx
John F. Kennedy with Lord Beaverbrook and U.N.B. President Colin B. Mackay, 1957
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Good Fences Make Good Neighbors
It is a very great honor for a New Englander like myself to come to this city and institution which represent so impressive a link between the New World and the Old. I am most grateful for the degree which you have seen fit to award me and am most honored to receive it at the hands of your distinguished Chancellor Lord Beaverbrook. For Lord Beaverbrook is today, as he has been for several decades, one of the outstanding figures of the English-speaking world, a man whose multiple careers and talents leave continuing imprints on our times.
As the faithful Cerberus of imperial interests, as the first magnate of Fleet Street, as one of the genuinely skillful controversialists of our day, as a historian cast in the mould of a modern Plutarch, as a benefactor of learning and culture- one cannot fail to give him a many-salvoed salute! Nor can any American forget the supremely gifted services which Lord Beaverbrook rendered to the cause of Freedom in the 2nd World War in partnership with Sir Winston Churchill. Lord Beaverbrook’s views and editorial declarations may often be at odds with our own individual attitudes, but one is grateful for the candor, and clear formulation of his opinions, which often act as powerful antidotes and stimulants even when they do not entirely persuade. Recently Lord Beaverbrook has published the first of a new trilogy of volumes illuminating the public events in which he has played so central a part. Many of us have read already his pungent pages of the age of Lloyd George, which are filled with fresh insights, revealing vignettes, and striking recreations of important historical episodes. In this venture too Lord Beaverbrook shares the bold vision, human understanding, and inexhaustible curiosity of his friend Sir Winston. We are fortunate that we may expect at least two more volumes on the Ages of Baldwin and Churchill from his pen. By his life and efforts he has served as a bridge between the old and new worlds, as a link between the golden past and the uncertain present.
While I am grateful for the personal satisfaction this accorded me, I know that this is simply another demonstration of the continued strengthening of the common ties that bind together Canada and the United States, New Brunswick and Massachusetts- ties of history, ties of kinship and ties of an inseparable destiny. Both New Brunswick and Massachusetts border on the Atlantic Ocean, with rich maritime and fishing traditions. Both were instrumental in the formation of their nations, New Brunswick being one of the four provinces united in the Dominion in 1867, and Massachusetts being one of the 13 united to form the American Union of 1787. Throughout the history of Massachusetts, a large proportion of its residents have traced their origins to New Brunswick and the other Canadian provinces. Indeed, of all the many residents of my state of Massachusetts who were born outside of the United States, a much larger percentage – more than one out of four – were born in Canada than in any other country.
New Brunswick, too, has many residents who can trace their ancestry back to the United States and Massachusetts – although in many instances this relates to an unhappy period in the history of our two countries. Following the Revolutionary War the so-called Tories who had remained loyal to the British crown did not fare well in America. The freshly victorious colonists were proud in their new independence, and angry at those who had not joined them during the bitter years of struggle. Their patience and tolerance, I am afraid, were limited – and so harshly were some Tories treated that they were forced to flee the country. One of the favorite havens of refuge for those coming from Massachusetts was the province of New Brunswick.
Incidentally, when the United States in cooler times offered amnesty to these exiles, one Charles Wentworth Upham, born in New Brunswick of parents who had fled from Boston, returned to the ancestral home of Massachusetts and settled in Salem. His distinguished career included service as President of the Massachusetts Senate and as one of my early predecessors in the Massachusetts delegation to the United States House of Representatives, and interestingly enough by marrying the sister of Oliver Wendell Homes, Sr., this native of New Brunswick became an uncle of one of the most distinguished sons of our commonwealth and one of the most famous of our nation’s Supreme Court’s Justices.
At the moment we see and hear much about a “new chapter” in the relations between the United States and Canada. Unquestionably the new Canadian Government under Prime Minister Diefenbaker has received a mandate to explore means by which Canada may renew a closer trade connection with Great Britain and take a new compass bearing on international economic policies. But in reading the statements made by your Prime Minister on several recent occasions, both in this country and in the United States, it is quite apparent that the main outlines of Canadian policy are but little altered. Both of our peoples delude themselves if they believe that there is some new and previously unexplored line of policy which Canada can now explore. It does no service either, to suppose that Canada has a closed option between a “pro-British” and a “pro-American” approach to foreign policy and trade. Canada can neither be an extension of the Cornish coast-line nor is she a mere northern vestibule to the United States. Canada has achieved a national strength and prestige which simply does not allow any portrayal of the country as an appendage of either Great Britain or the United States. To be sure, Canada has some special links with each of these two English-speaking nations, but it possesses most certainly a national destiny of its own to which it is well and timely to give foremost recognition.
The United States and Canada are more than ever continental partners. Not only do they share Atlantic and Pacific coastlines; they now also have a long common coast along the St. Lawrence Seaway, which is opening up new maritime centers on both sides of the border. Natural conditions decree that we share common interests in hydro-electric power, natural gas, high sea fisheries. Our defense perimeters have merged all the way to the Arctic. Our agricultural economies have common characteristics and weaknesses born of abundance. This common heritage gives strength to both of our countries, but we must frankly concede that the very closeness of our interests and national aspirations have recently brought new frictions and irritations to the surface. The resilience and buoyancy of our two economies have been accompanied by understandable collisions and misunderstandings.
For example, our natural resources should not be neatly compartmentalized nationally. We must soon resolve the disputes which have arisen over the uses to which some of the waters of the Columbia, Yukon, and St. John Rivers are to be put. There remain some unresolved questions about the St. Lawrence Sea-way, especially regarding the level of tolls. Fisheries have been a classical issue in the relations between our two countries, whereas the methods by which we dispose of agriculture surpluses have become a new source of tension. The deep penetration of American venture capital and business management into Canadian enterprises in such sectors as mining and fuels has aroused natural fears among Canadians. And there are more than a few Canadians who are appalled that the hopes for a distinctively national cultural tradition are being suffocated by a loud cacophony south of the border.
These are examples of the types of tensions which suggest that we should improve the machinery of joint consultation and management. A small beginning is being made in the business sphere by the committee on economic relations established by the National Planning Association under the chairmanship of former Ambassador R. Douglas Stuart and Mr. R.M. Fowler of Montreal. This committee will make special inquiry into the questions of U.S. domination in Canadian enterprise and the dumping of agricultural surpluses. In my judgment, however, our two nations should devise far better permanent consultative channels so that each new problem does not have to be dealt with on an ad hoc and individual emergency basis. Fortunately, our two governments are able to carry on a frank dialogue and you have been most ably represented by men such as Mr. St. Laurent, Mr. Pearson, Mr. Howe and their successors, Mr. Diefenbaker and Dr. Smith. But, in addition to “summit meetings”, we should make sure that our regular and standing organs of consultation keep abreast, in structure and outlook, with the new currents of change.
But new or reorganized agencies are of little help unless we simultaneously achieve an understanding on basic issues. Most important, we should guard against an outbreak of mutual economic retaliation and restrictionism which amount to little more than scapegoat hunting and provide at best transitory defense. If the Canadian Government is in fact able, as intimated at the recent Commonwealth Conferences at London and Mt. Tremblant, to divert a larger portion of its trade to Britain, this should not be occasion for the United States to launch a new program of economic retaliation and harassment.
Likewise, I feel that the Canadian Government would gain little by approaching the matter of American business influence in too narrow a context. There may be good grounds for requiring fuller financial statements by U. S. businesses of operations in Canada and possibly some other limitations, but this is quite different than writing into Law a long and harassing set of controls. The Canadian free enterprise system has been remarkably well balanced and liberal in recent years; all Americans envy its success when confronted with premium dollars and the record of inflation control it has made. It would be a pity to rigidify the Canadian economy merely for the sake of breaking lances with a phantom American colonialism. In return, American businessmen with substantial investments in Canada should be required by the dictates of self-preservation, if not simple equity, to increase the participation of Canadian money and personnel in the development of Canadian resources. A chain reaction of economic reprisal would greatly set back our relations without measurably helping even the narrowly conceived interests of either nation.
Today, if the United States and Canada, with their common language, common history, common economic and political interests and other close ties cannot live peacefully with one another, then what hope is there for the rest of the world? We have a responsibility to demonstrate to all peoples everywhere that peaceful and stable existence, by powerful countries side by side, can remain a permanent reality in today’s troubled world.
Today, for example, the Arabs and the Israelis would do well to recall the tense relations and boundary disputes which divided the United States and Canada over a century ago – of how finally the Webster-Ashburton Treaty of 1842 was devised to settle these differences, with some concessions by both parties – and of how unpopular that treaty was on both sides of the line, with both Mr. Webster of Massachusetts and Lord Ashburton being repeatedly denounced for having sacrificed the rights of their people. (Indeed Webster and Ashburton finally convinced the Senate and Parliament respectively, it is said, only after each had used a different map to pretend that he had in reality cheated the other.) And yet the peace and prosperity to both countries flowing from that much abused settlement for more than a century have been worth several thousand times as much as the value of all the territory that was in dispute.
I do not mean to imply that the relations between our two nations are so close as to encourage domination or subservience. This has not been a case where in terms of the old saying, “familiarity breeds contempt.” On the contrary, a co-operative friendship of such meaning and solidarity permits a full and frank discussion of issues of mutual interest, even when that discussion may jar sensitive ears on the other side of the border. Your Prime Minister, I believe, has done well to remind both countries of the issues and potential areas of conflict that our two countries must not neglect. A friendship such as ours, moreover encourages healthy competition in international trade, it requires that neither take the other for granted in international politics. “Good fences,” reads a poem by one of our most distinguished New England poets, Robert Frost, “make good neighbors.” Canada and the United States have carefully maintained the good fences that help make them good neighbors.
In the final analysis, the elimination of these various tensions and misunderstandings on both sides of the border cannot depend upon any treaty or mechanical formula or ancient statute, but must rely upon the wisdom, understanding and ability of the leaders and officials of our two nations, upon the thought and effort they are willing to give to clearing up these misunderstandings. It will require in both Canada and America political leaders of patience, tact and foresight – dedicated, responsible men who can look beyond the problems of the next election to see the problems of the next generation. Where, in the future, are those leaders to come from? Primarily from the University of New Brunswick and the University of Massachusetts, from all of the colleges and educational institutions of our two nations. In the long run, it is upon these colleges and the type of graduates they produce that the continuation of Canadian-American friendship depends.
I do not say that our international relations, or our political and public life, should be completely turned over to college-trained experts who ignore public opinion. Nor would I adopt for my own country the provision from the Belgian Constitution of 1893 giving three votes instead of one to college graduates (at least not until more Democrats go to college). Nor do I suggest that the University of New Brunswick be given a seat in Parliament as our William and Mary College was once represented in the Virginia House of Burgesses.
But I do urge that each of you, regardless of your chosen occupation, consider entering the field of politics at some stage in your career, that you offer to the political arena, and to the critical problems of our society which are decided therein – including the delicate problems of Canadian-American cooperation – the benefits of the talents which society has helped to develop in you. I ask you to decide, as Goethe put it, whether you will be an anvil – or a hammer. The formal phases of the “anvil” stage will soon be completed for many of you, though hopefully you will continue to absorb still more in the years ahead. The question now is whether you are to be a hammer – whether you are to give to the world in which you are reared and educated the broadest possible benefits of that education.
This is a great university, the University of New Brunswick. Its establishment and continued functioning, like that of all great universities, has required considerable effort and expenditure. I cannot believe that all of this was undertaken merely to give the school’s graduates an economic advantage in the life struggle. ”A university”, said Professor Woodrow Wilson, “should be an organ of memory for the state for the transmission of its best traditions. Every man sent out from a university should be a man of his nation, as well as a man of his time”. And Prince Bismarck was even more specific – one third of the students of German universities, he once stated, broke down from overwork; another third broke down from dissipation; and the other third ruled Germany. (I leave it to each of you to decide which category you fall in.)
But if you are to be among the rulers of your land, from alderman to prime minister, if you are willing to enter the abused and neglected profession of politics, then let me tell you – as one who is familiar with the political world – that our profession in all parts of the world stands in serious need of the fruits of your education. We do not need political scholars whose education has been so specialized as to exclude them from participation in current events – men like Lord John Russell, of whom Queen Victoria once remarked that he would be a better man if he knew a third subject – but he was interested in nothing but the Constitution of 1688 and himself. No, what we need are men who can ride easily over broad fields of knowledge and recognize the mutual dependence of our two worlds, men like my nation’s Thomas Jefferson, whom a contemporary described as “A gentleman of 32, who could calculate an eclipse, survey an estate, tie an artery, plan an edifice, try a case, break a horse, dance a minuet, and play the violin”.
I realize that politics has become one of our most neglected, our most abused and our most ignored professions. It ranks low on the occupational list of a large share of the population; and its chief practitioners are rarely well or favorably known. No education, except finding your way around a smoke-filled room, is considered necessary for political success. “Don’t teach my boy poetry”, a mother recently wrote the headmaster of Eton; “he’s going to stand for Parliament”. The worlds of politics and scholarship have indeed drifted apart.
But it is here, I repeat, that the foundations for future Canadian-American relations must be laid, here in this citadel of learning, from which you can take with you upon graduation all the accumulated knowledge and inspiration you may need to face the future. I am assuming, of course, that you are taking something with you, that you do not look upon this university as Dean Swift regarding Oxford. Oxford, he said, was truly a great seat of learning; for all freshmen who entered were required to bring some learning with them in order to meet the standards of admission – but no senior, when he left the university, ever took any learning away; and thus it steadily accumulated.
We want from you not the sneers of the cynics or the despair of the faint-hearted. Of that we already have an abundance. We ask that you bring enlightenment, vision, and illumination to a troubled world, where the rock of our two nations’ friendship must always stand firm.
In his book, “One Man’s America”, Alistair Cooke tells the story which well illustrates this point. On the 19th of May, 1780, as he describes it, in Hartford, Connecticut the skies at noon turned from blue to gray and by, mid-afternoon had blackened over so densely that, in the religious age, men fell on their knees and begged a final blessing before the end came. The Connecticut House of Representatives was in session. And as some men fell down in the darkened chamber and others clamored for an immediate adjournment, the Speaker of the House, one Colonel Davenport, came to his feet. And he silenced the din with these words; “The Day of Judgment is either approaching – or it is not. If it is not, there is no cause for adjournment. If it is, I choose to be found doing my duty. I wish, therefore that candles may be brought.”
Students of the University of New Brunswick, we who are here today concerned with the dark and difficult task ahead ask once again that you bring candles to illuminate our way.
From the blog at http://JohnWood1946.wordpress.com
WE NEED THE ACADIANS TO REMAIN: Lieut. Governor, 1715
‘Early Acadians’, by Claude T. Picard
From the CBC online page ‘The Acadians Timeline’
The Peace of Utrecht (1713) was a set of treaties covering many issues, and one of these treaties ceded Acadia to Great Britain. There was disagreement as to what constituted ‘Acadia’, but everyone agreed that peninsular Nova Scotia, at least, was then British territory. Nearby Cape Breton remained under French control.
This blog posting includes three very surprising letters about a debate over what to do with the Acadians. The Royal instruction was that they were to be considered a defeated enemy, and the Peace gave them two choices. They could leave Acadia for French territory within a year, or remain and take oaths of allegiance to Great Britain.
In the first letter, a British colonel complained that the Acadians were a problem. There was a plan to send them to Cape Breton, but the colonel predicted that the Indians would follow and Nova Scotia would be left with no population, except for the English garrison. The garrison’s only local source of grain and beef and pork would then be gone. The Acadians were needed by the British, yet their status as a defeated people interfered with co-existence.
The situation had become even starker by May of 1715 when the Lieutenant Governor complained that the Acadians had no intention of taking loyalty oaths or of departing for Cape Breton. The situation would be dire if they were forced out, since they were the only ready source of British supplies. The Lieutenant Governor’s credits in Boston were exhausted and his only hope was to appeal to the New England Governor for more credits.
Months later, in November of 1715, the Lieutenant Governor predicted that removing the Acadians to Cape Breton would strengthen French holdings, and leave the British to the mercy of the Indians. Relations with the Indians were unlikely to improve since the British did not have a trading infrastructure. The previous Lieutenant Governor was also interfering in the management of Nova Scotia by insisting upon the Cape Breton plan and by harassing the Acadians. The Lieutenant Governor preferred to see a day when the Acadians and the English might reconcile.
Here, then, are the three letters:
Colonel Vetch to the Right Honble. The Lords of Trade
London, Novr. 24th, 1714
In answer to Your Lordships Queries, delivered to me by Mr. Secretary Popple upon the 23d of this instant, my most humble opinion is as follows:
As to the number of familys of French Inhabitants in the countrys of L’Accady and Nova Scotia, by the best account I ever could get during the space of three years and more I had the honor to command there, they were computed to be about five hundred family’s at the rate of five persons to a family; which makes two thousand five hundred souls.
As to the next how many of them it is supposed will remove; by the last advices from thence, they had obliged themselves under their hands all to remove save two family’s viz one Mr. Allen and one Mr. Gourday both of which had liv’d in New England formerly.
As to the 3d Querie, how many family’s may be upon Cape Breton is what I can’t pretend to be so exact in. But according to the best advices, I could learn they are said to be now about five hundred familys besides the Garrison, which I consider, consists of 7 companys already. The French King to encourage them to settle the place gives them eighteen months provisions, and assists them with ships, and salt, to carry on the fishery:
As to the 4th what may be the consequence of the French moving from Nova Scotia to Cape Bretton; They are evidently these, First their leaving that country intirely destitute of inhabitants: There being none but French, and Indians (excepting the Garrison) settled in those parts; and as they have intermarried, with the Indians, by which and their being of one Religion, they have a mighty influence upon them. So it is not to be doubted, but they will carry along with them to Cape Bretton both the Indians and their trade, Which is very considerable. And as the accession of such a number of Inhabitants to Cape Bretton will make it at once a very populous Colony; (in which the strength of all the Country’s consists) So it is to be considered, that one hundred of the French, who were born upon that continent, and are perfectly known in the woods; can march upon snow shoes; and understand the use of Birch Canoes are of more value and service than five times their number of raw men, newly come from Europe. So their skill in the Fishery, as well as the cultivating of the soil, must inevitably make that Island, by such an accession of people, and French, at once the most powerful colony, the French have in America. And of the greatest danger and damage to all the British Colony’s as well as the universal trade of Great Britain.
As to the next question, which relates to the time of the French’s removing from Nova Scotia, with their effects: I am informed, several of them, who have no very great substance, are already removed thither, this summer; and that the rest design to do so next summer, as soon as their harvest is over, and grain got in; As to the number of cattle, they may carry away, (if permitted) and what will be the consequences of the same, I have been informed when upon the place, that there may be about five thousand black Cattle, besides a great number of Sheep, and Hoggs, in all that country, the greater part of all which, no doubt they will carry off if permitted.
The consequences of which are evidently these: First, It will Intirely strip that Colony of the above cattle of all sorts, and reduce it to its primitive state; To replenish which at the same rate (it now is from New England the nearest Colony to it, which is one hundred and ten leagues) at a moderate computation of freight, only for the transportation of such a number of Black Cattle, and a proportionable number of Sheep and Hoggs, will cost above Forty thousand pounds; besides the long time, it will require to stock that country.
As to the last Querie, That comes under my cognizance yiz, The consequence of allowing the French to sell their lands in those parts, First, as it would entirely disappoint the settlement of that valuable country, Because it is never to be supposed, that any person will go to buy land in a new country, when in all His Majesty’s plantations abroad, there is such encouragement of land gratis, to such as will come to settle in them.
2ndly. It would be a breach of the Public faith, contained in Her Majesty’s Royal instructions, when the reduction of that place was undertaken, By which the lands are promised away to the Captors, for their encouragement to reduce the same. Nor is there any article in the treaty of peace; that entitles the French to any such privileges. Nay moreover, I am of opinion that by the treaty, the French inhabitants, are allowed either to remove if they designed it, or at least to make a demand of the same, in a year’s time after the ratification of the treaty, neither of which was done. Nor would the inhabitants have offered to goe, had they not been not only importuned but threatened by the French officers, in the French Kings name, to be treated as Rebels if they did not remove, which how far that is consistent with the Treaty, is with the foregoing particulars most humbly submitted to Your Lordships consummate Wisdom by
May it please Your Lordships
Your Lordships most humbly Devoted Servant
Lt. Govr. Caulfield to Secretary of State
Annapolis Royal, May ye 3rd. 1715
I hope by this time that mine of the 24th of Dembr. last is come safe to hand with ye account of my proclaiming his Most Sacred Majesty King Geo. Here inclosed are the transactions of Messrs. Button and Capoon, Gentlemen I sent on that occation to ye several ports and harbors in a sloop which ye season of ye year would not permit to go with my first, Save some few places to ye Eastward which have already declared for ye french King, by which you will find that ye Inhabitants of this country, being most of them french refuse the oaths, having as I am informed refused to quit this collony intirely and to settell under ye french Govrmt. and I humblie desire to be informed how I shall behave to them; The unhappy circumstances of this place obliges me to acquaint you that if some other methods be not taken than what lately have been, it will be impossible for this place to subsist the ensuing winter. The french who always maintained this Garrison with corn are most of them quitting the Collony, especially att Minos the only grain plantation, So that in all probability we have noe prospect on their side, And as I am intirely destitute of any farther Credite at Boston in New England, occasioned by Genl. Nicholson, which may at this time prove detrimental to his Majesty’s Service—having always endeavored upon my own creditt to serve ye Garrison to the utmost of my power, for I doe assure you that I have complyed with Genll. Nicholson’s orders in all respects. Inclosed is the Commisserys return of quantity and sort of provisions and to what time each specie will bring the Garrison. I am now obliged to send a vessel to ye Gov’ment of New England to solicite for provisions, therefore beg you will not take itt amiss that I apprise you of the difficulties wee labour under, that in case (which God forbid) any misfortune should happen I may not suffer,
I am Sir with all respect, Yr most obedt. Humble Servant
Lt. Govt. Caulfield to Board of Trade and Plantations
Annapolis Royall, Novr. ye Ist, 1715
I am now to lay before Your Lopps [sic., Lordships] my opinion in relation to ye french Inhabitants of this Collony, wch. if they continue in this country, will be of great consequence for ye better improvement thereof; for as you will observe their numbers are considerable and in case they quitt us will still strengthen our enemies when occasion serves, by so much; and tho’ we may not expect much benefitt from them, yet their children in process of time may be brought to our constitution. And whereas there are several well meaning people among them, We may always guard ourselves from any injury they can be able, if willing, to do us. I have always observed since my comeing here their forwardness to serve us when occasion offered And if some English Inhabitants were sent over, especially industrious labourers, tarr and pitch makers, carpenters and smiths it would be of great advantage to this Colony; but in case ye french quit us we shall never be able to maintaine or protect our English family’s from ye insults of ye Indians, ye worst of enemies, wch. ye french by their staying will in a great measure ward off for their own sakes. Your Lopps will see by ye Stocks of Cattell they have at this time, that in two or three years with due encouragement, we may be furnished with everything within ourselves. The Indians of Pennobscott, St. Johns, and Cape Sables, trade chiefly on ye several coasts with furrs and feathers, who never come here but when necessity obliges them and ye reasons they assign are that there is noe Kings Magazine here for them, as was in ye time of ye french, or as there is now at Cape Breton, wch: if there was they would bring in all their peltery to us and I believe would prove a great advantage, both in respect of trade, and as well ye chief means to bring them over to our Interest, by kindly using of them, on wch foundation their friendship is wholly founded, and great advantages would accrue thereby to ye Crown in particular and country in general. I herewith transmitt Your Lopps ye copy of a letter, I received from ye Savages of Pennobscott, and St. Johns, wrote by their Priests and translated in English with my answer to ye same.
I am now to inform your Lopps that upon ye arrival of General Nicholson our late Govr. in these parts, I received several letters from him dated at Boston containing his request of my opinion relating to ye Garrison and Country wch. I punctually answered.
At his arrival here the following Augt. he assured ye Garrison of his favour and Interest tho’ at ye same time he stopt our pay att Home, injured our creditt att Boston by his ordrs obliged some of ye french Inhabitants to quit ye country, shutt ye gates of the Garrison against those that remained and declared them traytors, tho’ he was convinced wee must subsist that Winter by them or perish; for by ye methods he took when he returned to Boston left us intirely unprovided in all respects.
My Lords were I to relate the means and methods he took when here itt would be too troublesome, there never having been anything proposed by him for either the service of country or Garrison, but a continued Scene of unpresidented methods taken to ruine Mr. Vetch or any other person who interposed on that head.
I must own ’tis with ye greatest reluctancy immaginable that I am obliged to acquaint your Lopps of ye frequent misbehaviour of Capt. Armstrong of this Garrison towards several inhabitants here and by my next shall transmitt your Lopps the several complaints in behalf of ye said inhabitants.
I shall endeavour from time to time to transmitt your Lopps the best accounts I may be able to procure relating to this Province and as well their proceedings at Cape Breton and am with great respect
My Lords Your Lordships most obedient, most obliged Humble Servt.
From the blog at http://JohnWood1946.wordpress.com
Guy Carleton on the Fur Trade in Canada, 1767
The following letter was written by Guy Carleton to the Superintendent of Indian Affairs, from Quebec City in 1767. At that time, Carleton was the Lieutenant Governor of Quebec, second in command under the Governor. The letter outlined relations with the French and with the Indians, with particular reference to the fur trade.
Carleton found that the complaints of the Canadians (the French) were so numerous that he could only speak of them in general. The Canadians were spreading rumors among the Indians to the detriment of the English fur trade, but Carleton thought that this was to be expected, and he saw no indication of subversion. The Canadians were concerned that the English trading posts for the collection of furs were too few and too small. The result was that illicit trading was taking place with the French and the Spanish on the Mississippi and at Detroit. The Canadians’ recommendation was that the embargo against using trading posts in other English colonies be lifted, so that trade toward the south would become less necessary.
The Canadians also complained that the English commissaries were violent and dishonest, and wanted this to change. They wanted to see the rules and regulations respecting the conduct of the commissaries, but even Carleton did not have a copy of these. Following, then, is the letter:
Fur traders in Canada, ca 1777 – From Wikipedia
Quebec 27th March 1767
Sir: I received the Favor of your Letter of the 27th of January, and shall allways think myself obliged to you for informing me of any irregularities committed by Persons from this Province, as by that information I may be enabled to take such Steps here, as may correct them for the future, and assist you in your Endeavors to prevent all Cause of Discontent to the Indians from hence: in Return I will communicate to you the Complaints which I receive here, as I imagine that mutual Information must be of Advantage to His Majesty’s Service, whose Intentions are, that His Servants should promote the Good of all his subjects, as well as prevent any just Cause of discontent, to those under his Protection—
That the French who must allways be our Rivals in Trade, often our open Enemies, should take every Opportunity of gaining the Affection of the Indians, and of misrepresenting us, I expect as a Thing of Course; it belongs to us to defeat their Endeavours, whether fair or fraudulent, and by wise Regulations, honest dealing, and by Kind Treatment to attach them to us, and avail ourselves of those extensive Channels of Trade, to enlarge our Commerce to the utmost—
Your Complaints of the Canadians, by which Name I distinguish the Subjects of the King our Master, acquired by the Conquest of this Province, are so general, that I can only make my Enquiries, and speak to them in as general a Manner; When I talk here of that Perfidy, false Stories, or Views of exciting an Indian War, you complain of, they appeal to Colonel Gladwyn, and all the rest of our officers, who were Spectators of the last, and are confident these will give Testimony of different dispositions in them at that Time, when such Views might have been more excusable, than at present, and that even then some of them were utterly ruined by the Indians for their Attachment to us; they very plainly shew me, that such a War must be very destructive to them, and in Case of such a Misfortune, that they then did, and would again cheerfully take up Arms, to reduce them to Peace, by Force. Ever since my arrival, I have observed the Canadians with an Attention, bordering upon Suspicion, but hitherto have not discovered in them either Actions or Sentiments, which do not belong to good Subjects. Whether they are right or wrong in their Opinion of the Indian Trade, I submit to those whom the King has appointed to direct and superintend the same, but the unanimous Opinion of all here, Canadians and British, is, that unless the present Restraints are taken off, that Trade must greatly Suffer, This Province be nearly ruined, Great Britain be a considerable Looser, and France the sole Gainer, as they must turn the greatest Part of the Furrs down the Mississippi, instead of the St. Lawrence; they compute that a very large Quantity of Merchandise, formerly passed through this Province to Nations unknown to Pondiac, and too distant to come to any of our Ports, and that so much is lost of the Consumption of British Manufactures They say that their own Interests will allways be a sufficient Reason and Motive to treat these People well, and to use their utmost endeavours to keep them in Peace, and the Canadians will engage to take some English with them in every Canoe, to acquire a knowledge of these Countries and the Language, to shew they have no Jealousy at their becoming acquainted with this Trade; Tis imagined here, that the other Provinces, who are neither acquainted with these Countries, nor so advantageously situated for this Trade are the secret Causes of their being so severely fettered; they presume to think each Province should be permitted to avail itself of its natural Situation, and acquired Advantages, and that it should be as unreasonable in us to expect the Ports to the Southward should be shut up by Regulations, as long as ours are by a severe Climate; that in this Respect all the King’s Subjects should be considered as Brothers, or one Family, and, that the Rivalship ought not to be between Province and Province, but between the King’s Subjects and those of France and Spain; some have offered to prove, that two Years ago, while they were confined to the Fort, the French or Spaniards from the Mississippi came within twenty Leagues of the Detroit, and carried off the very Furs, that were intended to clear off the Credit given the Indians the year before. They even assert tis impossible to prevent them from carrying off by far the greatest Part of that Trade, unless those Restraints are taken off; they maintain that the only possible Means of removing the Discontents of the Indians, for not being supplied with the Necessaries of Life as formerly, is to permit them to go among them, as was the Practice of this Colony, that thereby they will be enabled to undersell the Mississippi Traders, detect their Artificies, and be the Means of bringing them to Punishment, as it is their Interest and Duty so to do; but supposing the worst of them, they hope the King’s Subjects of Canada are as much to be trusted, as the French from New Orleans, and ought to have the Preference, considering they carry up the British Manufactures only. I have also had many Complaints of the Partiality and Violence of some Comissaries, but as I find by your Letters to Lieutenant Colonel Massey, you are already informed of them, I will not trouble you with a Repetition, not doubting but they will be properly punished, if they are found guilty; the British in particular request, that for the future these may all be obliged to give security for their good Behaviour, while in that Employment, that should they commit any Injustice, Partiality, or Violence, they may know how to recover proper Damages in a regular Course of Law; this they think the more reasonable, as they on their Side give Bond to observe the King’s Regulations, which, if they do amiss, subjects them to suffer for it in the same Way, and not to be left to the Mercy of a Comissary, or of those Indians he may Hullo after them. They begged of me to let them have a Copy of those Regulations, they give Security to obey, and that I would not leave them to the Information of a Comissary in those distant Parts, of whose Partiality they have already seen many Proofs, by suffering many to go out and trade abroad, they suspect for value received, while the rest were confined to the Fort; That whatever was the King’s Pleasure, they would submit to, but still it became necessary to be apprised thereof, as they must considerably lessen the Quantity of Merchandise for these Parts, and not be obliged to have them packed up, and lodged in a Warehouse without, willingly submitting to let all be confiscated, if they sold for one farthing, rather than bring them to a small Market in the Fort, exposed to all Accidents of Fire; this some of them preferred and practiced at the Detroit. Had I those Regulations, I would have given them a Copy, but I am as yet uninformed of them —
General Gage acquainted me you complain to him of seven Persons who are among the Indians without Passports, namely, Capucin, Lorain, La Mottc, Pot de Vin, Bartholomé, Bergeron, and Richarville; The six last are Canadians and have been settled among the Miamis and Ouias from fifteen to twenty years, except Pot de Vin, who has been settled as long at Detroit, but I can give you no certain Account of Capucin, who is also among the Miamis; it is supposed that is not his real Name, but a fictitious one, to conceal that of his Family—
I have given some Presents to the Indians who came to see me at Montreal, as I find it was customary on the like Occasions, and think that Attention to them must have good Consequences—
I am with Regard Sir, Your most obedient and Humble Servant
Sir William Johnson, Bart.
Superintendent of Indian Affairs in the Northern District—
From the blog at http://JohnWood1946.wordpress.com
Building the Illinois Central Railroad, 1854, from the BMWE Journal online
Following is a letter written in Philadelphia in 1838 about unscrupulous labour practices and the suffering of Irish labourers in particular.
This is generally relevant to conditions in New Brunswick also. I am reminded, for example, of the St. Andrews and Quebec Railroad where 100 Irish labourers were imported in rags in 1848 and put up in shacks. They were not paid, and after a few weeks they were unemployed and thrown onto the charity of the Parish. By 1862, this same railroad had been built to Richmond Corner, just short of Woodstock. Unpaid labourers rioted, tore up some track, and seized three locomotives, while unpaid farmers also demonstrated. A hundred soldiers were sent from Fredericton to maintain order.
This is taken from Letter on Irish Immigrants Addressed to the Right Reverend Bishop Hughes, with no publication data indicated except for the year ‘1838’ at the foot of the letter.
Letter on Irish Immigrants
Right Rev. Sir,
This letter has been long delayed in the expectation of procuring, from two gentlemen, in writing, information of the operations of the Irish Labourers on the Wilmington and Baltimore Rail Road, which they communicated orally some months since, and which I wished to present in the form of an authentic document; but having been disappointed, and being unwilling to wait any longer, I have resolved to depend on my memory.
The important facts of the case are, that this road was contracted for by two Irishmen, of whom each had about 500 labourers employed, who were, with few exceptions, Irishmen; that it was in progress for two years; and that during that time there was no riot, nor outrage, nor disorder. The business was managed with as much order and regularity as ever prevailed among such a number of men in any country.
I believe, but am not certain, that there were no alcoholic liquors allowed on the line. This, if true, may account for the order, regularity, and subordination that prevailed.
The disorders that occasionally occur among the labourers on canals and rail-roads, and other public works, arise in many, perhaps I might say, in most cases, from two disgraceful practices, which cannot be too severely reprobated, and to which remedies ought to be applied as far and as promptly as practicable.
The first is the vile, debauching custom, by which some of the contractors dole out to the labourers, a deleterious liquor, which they denominate whiskey. Even were it genuine whiskey it would be highly pernicious, and the practice would be deserving of severe reprehension; but the evil is greatly aggravated by the pernicious quality of the liquor they give—a vile compound, of which, we are assured, some of the ingredients actually, in a greater or less degree, endanger human life. It is said that in many cases this liquid poison is carried round five or six times a day in buckets among the labourers, each of whom has a small measure, which he fills, and pours the poisonous draught down his throat, thus burning his entrails. The labourers, being most of them among the most excitable of the human species, are thus maddened, and their early prejudices, as Orangemen, Defenders, Terry Alts, &c., which would otherwise have continued in peaceful slumbers in their breasts, are revived, breaking out into riots and disorder. The cost of this deleterious drug makes a serious inroad on their wages.
It would be highly laudable if the trustees or managers of railroads and other public works, were to introduce clauses into their engagements with the contractors, prohibiting the distribution of ardent spirits to the labourers. He that would set the example would deserve the grateful thanks of the community.
There is another circumstance which causes manifold oppression on the labourers, and excites them, occasionally, to riot and outrage. The competition among contractors frequently produces, by underbidding, the effect of reducing the prices to such a degree that the successful competitor is often not only not compensated for his labour, time, and talents, but hardly indemnified for his actual expenditures. In such cases he sometimes absconds in debt to his labourers, who are thus rendered desperate by being bereft of the reward of their hard labour and honest industry.
These abscondings are said, in some cases, not to arise from lowness of price, but from sinister intentions, and that now and then contracts are made by persons not intending to complete their engagements, who calculate on absconding with the wages of their labourers in their pockets. It is to be hoped that this is a calumny, or, if at all correct, that it is but of rare occurrence.
I now resume the consideration of the extraordinary and almost incredible sacrifices made in the shape of remittances, on the altars of parental, filial, and sisterly affection,—three times out of four, probably by persons in needy circumstances and depending upon scanty wages for support.
Cases have fallen under my observation, of Irish female domestics, earning a dollar and a quarter per week, yet saving enough to pay the passages of brothers and sisters, one after another, in succession.
Of the sums remitted to Ireland through four houses, to parents, children, husbands, wives, and other relations, in 1835 and 1836, I have given an account in a former letter; but now repeat the particulars in order to show the total: [The writer tabulates money transfers to a total of $596,220, through six banks.]
This large sum has been remitted thro’ six houses; and there are probably a dozen others in different parts of the United States, some of them doing an equal amount of this business. Assuming only one-third as much for all the others, it amounts to the enormous sum of $800,000 in two years, remitted by poor people, in sums varying from three dollars to 50 or 100, and in some few cases to 150.
Let us here pause for a moment to reflect on this glorious display of the sweetest and most ennobling of the charities of life. Let us ask, if a nation, the poorer and least-cultivated classes of which make such a highly honourable exhibit of some of the most exalted virtues of our nature, be not entitled to the esteem and respect of the fair and candid of every description? And will not those who have lavished vituperation on the Irish generally, blush crimson red for this vituperation, when, laying aside their prejudices, they duly appreciate this exalted feature of the Irish character?
How immeasurably are these considerations enhanced, when (consideratis considerandis) we reflect on the oppressions, the degradations and the prostration of its industry, under which this people has writhed for centuries, and which might have been supposed likely to stifle in their bosoms the germs of the social virtues? Can any Irishman, not destitute of feeling for the honour of his country, ponder on these statements without a laudable pride?
I am assured by gentlemen who have taken no small pains to investigate the subject, that a very considerable portion of the deposits in the saving fund institutions in our cities, probably one-half or two-thirds, belong to poor labouring Irishmen, who are often stigmatized as reckless and improvident. I have tried to ascertain the fact, but have been unable to procure the necessary data.
There is another point of view in which the Irish character may be regarded, which redounds greatly to the credit of the parties concerned; I mean the continence of poor females, exposed as they are, to so many and such strong temptations to aberration. One of our most eminent physicians, who for sixteen or seventeen years had the superintendence of the syphilitic wards in the almshouse during winter, declares that during that long period, he had not met with more than eight Irish females in that department!
This feature of character, so highly honourable, they brought from their own country, as may be seen in the Report of the Commissioners of Investigation, appointed by the Melbourne Administration to investigate the situation of the poorer classes in Ireland.
The subject of Irish Immigrants is susceptible of being placed in various other important points of light, on which I cannot at present touch. One, however, forces itself on my attention, which I offer to the consideration of the candid. Among the thousands and tens of thousands of Irishmen who reach our shores, a great proportion go back to labour on turnpikes, canals, &c. Of those that remain behind—probably not five per cent, of the whole—some are dissipated. These are constantly in the public eye, and draw attention from the myriads who are promoting the national prosperity by the exercise of their brawny arms in the advancement of internal improvements; labours which few Americans undertake. Thousands and tens of thousands also go back to cultivate the soil, and thus in an equal degree advance the public prosperity. The merits of these are overlooked; while Prejudice, with jaundiced eye, applies the microscope to the follies and vices of the ill-fated few who become victims of their sociable dispositions and the facility with which liquid poison is to be procured here.
There ought to be an association in New York and one in Philadelphia, to protect immigrants of all nations from the horrible frauds and seductions to which they are exposed, and to which so many of them fall victims. As this is an affair which more immediately concerns the Irish than any other nation—the Irish immigrants being probably equal to all the rest in number—they ought to take the lead in it; but as it regards the morals and happiness of immigrants of all nations, the natives of other countries ought to combine in the undertaking.
It would be a useful portion of the business of such associations to publish an address to persons disposed to immigrate into this country from the different nations of Europe, pointing out the real inducements the country holds out to particular descriptions of persons—and the extreme disadvantage to others, so as to disabuse them of the fraudulent el dorado expectations excited by the pompous and deceptive advertisements of the agents of the passenger vessels. This would be a signal act of charity to hundreds, who are annually seduced to dispose of the little property whereon they live, and might continue to live, in tolerable comfort, and who, when they arrive in this country, find themselves unexpectedly reduced to penury and distress.
Yours, very respectfully,
Philadelphia, August 20, 1838.
From the blog at http://JohnWood1946.wordpress.com
The Wreck of the Lord Ashburton
The Wreck of the Lord Ashburton by Joseph Heard
The Lord Ashburton was a 1,009 ton ship built near Saint Andrews, and named in recognition of the Baring family, headed by William Baring, the 2nd Baron Ashburton. He was a political figure who represented Britain in negotiating the border between Maine and New Brunswick, and for whom the Webster-Ashburton treaty was named.
The Lord Ashburton had left Toulon, France destined for Saint John, but the winds were so strong upon approaching the Bay of Fundy that it was forced to avoid attempting a landing. She was buffeted about for days during which time it came in sight of Grand Manan, and even Partridge Island before, at night and in the midst of a snowstorm on January 18, 1857, it struck the rocks off Eel Brook on Grand Manan. The masts were soon lost and ship was clearly breaking up. The crew gathered on deck and were either washed into the sea or jumped for their lives.
The best estimate of the number of people on board is 29 including Captain Owen Creary, his three officers, and a crew of 25. Some reports are a little confused as to whether the 29 included the captain and officers.
Several of the men made it to the beach alive, but most of them froze in the cold. One of the few survivors was James Lawson who managed to make it up the rock face and to take refuge in a barn at Long’s Eddy. The others were found in the morning, some still sitting in the posture in which they had died. Stories vary, and according to one account Lawson remained on the beach overnight and only made it up over the rocks in the morning. It sounds a little fantastic that anyone could survive overnight, soaked to the skin, in a snowstorm in January. In any case, he was found in the barn and taken in by a local family. He and six others ended up in the Marine Hospital in Saint John in February. Both of Lawson’s feet and possibly a leg were amputated and he remained in the hospital for five years. He was a native of Denmark but, after staying in Saint John for an additional three years, returned to Grand Manan, married, and became a shoemaker.
A wooden memorial was erected at the graveyard at North Head and, in 1910 the present permanent marker was erected reading “In Memory of 21 Seamen drowned on the Northern Head of Grand Manan, January 19, 1857, … to the ship Lord Ashburton.”
The 1910 Memorial
Dark volcanic stones can be found on the beach at Eel Brook Cove, and these stones are different from the native stone. These are assumed to be from the ballast of the Lord Ashburton.
From the blog at http://JohnWood1946.wordpress.com
This blog was dedicated, four years ago, to New Brunswick history and other stuff, and this posting definitely falls under the heading of other stuff. The following ghost story was published in the London Pall Mall Gazette in 1881. The New Brunswick connection is only that it was reprinted in the Fredericton Evening Capital on November 17 of that year. It’s a classic, in that the story is simple and about half of the text is dedicated to convincing the reader that it must be true.
A Ghost at Noonday
We have received the following extraordinary narrative from a correspondent whose good faith and professional acuteness of observation we can vouch. He substantiates his story with full details of dates, names, and places, which, however, for the sake of the survivors he does not wish to be published. Without any further preface we lay his letter before our readers:
As my wife and I were sitting at breakfast with a guest whom I will call Mr.— then on a visit for the first time to our house and neighborhood, our maid-servant passed out of the room on her way to the kitchen. As she passed by the door Mr. A— started me by saying; “I saw a spirit of a man following that woman, who, as he passed, said distinctly in my hearing, ‘God judgeth not as man judgeth. I was innocent of the murder for which I was hanged. I was there but I did not strike the blow.’” “What is it like?” I asked. He replied by describing a young Irishman whom I recognized at once as the husband of my domestic, who a year or two before had been executed on the charge of murder. Mr. A—, a complete stranger to the locality, had only met me for the first time two days before, and he was totally ignorant of the crime in which my servant was so deeply interested. For obvious reasons the subject was never alluded to in our household where the widow was regarded with feelings of sympathy which led us to avoid as much as possible all reference to her husband’s fate. I had previously good reason to doubt whether the evidence against him justified his execution. He had died protesting his innocence. His family and friends were firmly convinced that, although he had been in the fight, it was not by his hand the fatal blow had been dealt. In addition to this, I had good reason to believe that the real murderer was still at large. You can easily imagine my surprise when Mr. A— thus suddenly ventured upon forbidden ground, and abruptly declared that the spirit of a man who had suffered the capital penalty, and whose personal appearance exactly coincided with that of the unfortunate Irishman, was actually following the servant about the house proclaiming his innocence in accents which, although inaudible to me, my guest declared were perfectly audible, to him. I had heard that Mr. A— was a “seer,” but I was not a little startled at the striking illustration of his particular facility. I remarked that it was very strange, and informed him that the woman whom he had just seen for the first time with her ghostly companion was really the widow of an executed felon. Some time afterward he exclaimed: “There he is again, repeating the same words!”
Intensely interested by this sudden and apparently supernatural confirmation of my suspicions, I determined to put the seership of my guest to what I regarded as a crucial test. I told Mr. A— that shortly afterward I was going into the town, and as I should be passing the spot where the murder was committed, perhaps his ghostly visitant might indicate the place where the dead man lay. Sometime afterward we started for the town. When we left the house Mr. A— remarked, “There he is following us,” alluding to the spirit. When we had proceeded part of the way along the road, which was quite unknown to my friend, I made a detour to a business call and went along another street, Mr. A— following me. Just as, without a word on my part, we were turning out of the main road, Mr. A— said, “The spirit is standing at the corner. We are not going in the right way toward the place where the murder was committed, and which he has promised to point out to me.”
I replied, “Oh, we shall come out on the main road by-and-by we reach the spot. We proceeded on about a quarter of a mile and having done my business and struck the main road again, which differed, I may remark, from none of the other roads we had travelled, Mr. A— soon afterward declared, “There is that man out there waiting for us.” As we continued our walk, I purposely refrained from uttering a word or even from thinking, as far as I could of the murder, so as to prevent any possibility of my companion obtaining any clue. As we were passing through one of the lowest parts of the town, Mr. A— suddenly exclaimed, “He tells me it was here the murder was committed. It was just there (pointing at the place where the murder was committed). I see the hubbub and confusion rise up before me as a picture, with the people round. He however, tells me again he did not strike the fatal blow. He does not excuse himself from being morally guilty, as being mixed up with those who accomplished the death of the man, but strongly maintains that he was not the murderer.” I will only add in relation to the last incident, that Mr. A— described the exact spot where the murder was committed, and the circumstances in connection therewith. How can you account for that? Mr. A— had never been in the town before; he had never lived within a couple of hundred miles of it; he did not know until a day or two before he arrived that he would ever visit it; he could not by any possibility have known that the poor woman in my employ was the widow of a man who was hanged. He had no conceivable interest in deceiving me, nor was he concerned to prosecute the matter any further.