New Brunswick History and Other Stuff

Table of Contents, Rev. April 18, 2018

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The blog posts follow this Table of Contents, in the sequence shown.

To access a particular post, copy and paste the title, or a sufficient part of the title, to the search box to the right.

  1. The Principal Hotels in the Maritime Provinces, 1905, With Photographs – Apr. 18, 2018
  2. Halifax From 1749 to 1800 — Minus the Wars and Politics – Apr. 11, 2018
  3. William Brydone Jack on the Future of University Education in New Brunswick – Apr. 4, 2018
  4. Saint John: From Nothing, to Become Canada’s Winter Port – Mar. 28, 2018
  5. Saint John, New Brunswick Churches in 1910 – Mar. 21, 2018
  6. Chief Making Among the Passamaquoddy Indians – Mar. 14, 2018
  7. Canoeing Down the Restigouche River in 1895 – Mar. 7, 2018
  8. Northern New Brunswick, Heaven on Earth – Feb. 28, 2018
  9. Indian Place Names From Around Passamaquoddy Bay – Feb. 21, 2018
  10. Alexander McNutt’s Accomplishments Went Well Beyond Maugerville – Feb. 14, 2018
  11. Albert County, New Brunswick, about 170 Years Ago – Feb. 7, 2018
  12. 1865: Rise in Support of this Mighty Project! The Confederation Debate – Jan. 31, 2018
  13. The Genesis of Prince Edward Island’s Distinctive Property Laws – Jan. 24, 2018
  14. Saint John’s ‘English Period’, 1758 to 1782 – Jan. 17, 2018
  15. Education in New Brunswick in 1837 – Jan. 10, 2018
  16. The Babcock Tragedy, a Story of Madness and Murder – Jan. 3, 2018
  17. Cape Breton, from about 1000 AD to the Mid-1600’s – Dec. 27, 2017
  18. Christmas as it was in Saint John, 1808 – Dec. 23, 2017
  19. The Saint John River, the Rhine of America – Dec. 20, 2017
  20. A Veiled Threat to Invade New Brunswick – Dec. 13, 2017
  21. A Few Weeks in 1755, the Expulsion of the Acadians Begins – Dec. 6, 2017
  22. The Magical Dancing Doll – Nov. 29, 2017
  23. Immigration to New Brunswick in 1832, and Lumber Mills – Nov. 22, 2017
  24. Harvey, New Brunswick, 1837 – Nov. 15, 2017
  25. On the Road to Responsible Government in New Brunswick – Nov. 8, 2017
  26. Through the Woods in the Dead of Winter; Fredericton to the Miramichi – Nov. 5, 2017
  27. Acadia in 1720, as Seen by Paul Mascerene – Oct. 25, 2017
  28. Nova Scotia’s Sham Government in 1720 – Oct. 18, 2017
  29. Three Short Wabanaki Thunder Stories – Oct. 11, 2017
  30. Stanley, N.B., Carved from the Wilderness – in a Hurry – Oct. 4, 2017
  31. Drunkenness Yearly More Common Amongst all Classes – Sept. 27, 2017
  32. John Cabot, London Superstar and Discoverer of Cape Breton – Sept. 20, 2017
  33. Nicolas Denys, the First Proprietor and Governor of all of the Gulf Coast of Acadia – Sept. 13, 2017
  34. Promoting New Brunswick in 1832 – Sept. 6, 2017
  35. A View of Acadian History, from 30,000 Feet – Aug. 30, 2017
  36. Nova Scotia During the Revolution, an American Perspective – Aug. 23, 2017
  37. The Many Trials of Richard Valpey of Yarmouth, and his Service to the American Cause During the Revolution – Aug. 16, 2017
  38. From Saint John to Annapolis Royal, Around the Bay of Fundy in 1787 – Aug. 9, 2017
  39. Nova Scotia in 1775: “Every Spot is Inhospitable and Frigid” – Aug. 2, 2017
  40. Notes About Edward Cornwallis, Who Has Been in the News Lately – July 26, 2017
  41. Starving, Fly-Bitten, and Lost in the Woods – July 19, 2017
  42. Saint John and Saint George, New Brunswick, in 1842 – July 12, 2017
  43. The Razing of Chignecto, and the Attack on Fort Nashwaak – July 5, 2017
  44. Captain Henry Mowat’s Account of the Battle on the Penobscot – June 28, 2017
  45. Voyage of the First Fleet of 1783, and the Settlement of Kingston by a Band of Loyalists – June 21, 2017
  46. 1,500 Dead in Saint John. The Cholera Epidemic of 1854 – June 14, 2017
  47. Fishing on the Nepisiquit River in the 1870’s – June 7, 2017
  48. The Clock at Fredericton City Hall – May 31, 2017
  49. Prohibition in Saint John in the 1920’s, an Exposé – May 24, 2017
  50. Boss Gibson’s First Railroad – May 17, 2017
  51. The New Brunswick Postal Service in 1856 – May 10, 2017
  52. Defending the ‘Worthless, Unsteady and Villainous’ Cutters of Wood – May 3, 2017
  53. Tossed by the Sea Into a Frozen Wilderness-1788 – Apr. 26, 2017
  54. The King of France Cannot Have Given You Our Land, Because it Was Not His – Apr. 19, 2017
  55. Bureaucracy and the Expulsion of the Acadians – Apr. 12, 2017
  56. From Pictou, Nova Scotia to Saint John, New Brunswick via Charlottetown and Shediac in 1867 – Apr. 5, 2017
  57. A Sunday EXTRA: No Meeting of Minds Between the Acadians and the British in 1717 – Apr. 2, 2017
  58. Grand Falls, New Brunswick in 1844 – A Vast Ocean of Trees – Mar. 29, 2017
  59. Shabby Streets, Decaying Houses, and Steep Plank Sidewalks. Saint John in 1874 – Mar. 22, 2017
  60. In the Beginning – Wabanaki Creation Stories – Mar. 15, 2017
  61. Pride versus Rascals and Villains in Saint John in 1791 – Mar. 8, 2017
  62. The Trent Affair – Mar. 1, 2017
  63. A Shocking Description of Anti-Confederates in Rural Nova Scotia in 1867 – Feb. 22, 2017
  64. Surveying Through the Wilderness in 1844 – Feb. 15, 2017
  65. At the Bend of the Petitcodiac in 1844: Moncton – Feb. 8, 2017
  66. Maria Rye and Her British Home Children – Feb. 1, 2017
  67. New Brunswick’s East Coast in 1832, Following the Miramichi Fire – Jan. 25, 2017
  68. Slavery in the Loyalist Era – Jan. 18, 2017
  69. Weather and the Seasons in Micmac Mythology – Jan. 11, 2017
  70. New Brunswick’s Roads in 1832: ‘Many paths are misnamed roads’. Jan. 7, 2017
  71. Nova Scotia and New England During the Revolution – Dec. 28, 2016
  72. A Holiday Special: Christmas as it Was in Saint John in 1808 – Dec. 23, 2016
  73. Expressions from Cuffer Down plus Signs and Omens – Dec. 21, 2016
  74. From Passamaquoddy to the Petitcodiac: What it Was Like in 1832 – Dec. 14, 2016
  75. Raymond Writes About the Lives and Customs of the Mi’kmaq and Maliseet People – Dec. 7, 2016
  76. The Governor’s House was an Outrage to Good Taste – Fredericton in 1832 – Nov. 30, 2016
  77. An Unparalleled and Abominable Deception – Nov. 23, 2016
  78. Not a Metropolis, but the Largest Town in the Province – Saint John in 1832 – Nov. 16, 2016
  79. Lumber Camp Life, and Game-Wardens Poaching Moose – Nov. 9, 2016
  80. Louisbourg: It Didn’t Have to Happen. It Just Didn’t Have to Happen – Nov. 2, 2016
  81. Let Us Consider the Lowly Seagull – Oct. 26, 2016
  82. 5 – David Kennedy Completes His Travels of 1876 in Halifax – Oct. 19, 2016
  83. 4 – David Kennedy’s Tour of Nova Scotia in 1876 – Oct. 12, 2016
  84. 3 – David Kennedy’s Tour of Newcastle, Chatham and Bathurst in 1876 – Oct. 5, 2016
  85. 2 – David Kennedy’s Visit to Saint John, New Brunswick in 1876 – Sept. 28, 2016
  86. 1 – David Kennedy’s Travels from Quebec City to New Brunswick in 1876 – Sept. 21, 2016 (This blog posting was lost on Sept. 28th. I decided not to re-post, since it would clutter my subscribers’ screens.)
  87. A Short History of Early English Nova Scotia – Sept. 14, 2016
  88. Fish Wardens Described as Useless Political Appointments – Sept. 7, 2016
  89. With Indian Guides in the Wilds of New Brunswick, 1862 – Aug. 31, 2016
  90. Blog past #300: Port Royal from 1604 to 1613. Of Heritage Value to all North Americans – Aug. 24, 2016
  91. Hunting Down the Last of the Old Growth Pine – Aug. 17, 2016
  92. Dr. James Robb – Aug. 10, 2016
  93. Peace Negotiations With Pierre Tomah on the Saint John River – Aug. 3, 2016
  94. Business Opportunities on Campobello Island – July 27, 2016
  95. A Pompous Captain on the Evils of Logging – July 20, 2016
  96. The Too-Easy Life of Nova Scotians Disproved – July 13, 2016
  97. Why Not to Marry a Nova Scotia Woman, and How to Make Maple Sugar – July 6, 2016
  98. The Bloody Assault on Fort Louisbourg in 1758 – June 29, 2016
  99. The Medical Men of Saint John in its First Half Century – June 22, 2016
  100. Henry Ketchum and the Chignecto Marine Transport Railway – June 15, 2016
  101. A War Journal from Majabidwaduce on the Penobscot – June 8, 2016
  102. Mi’kmaq Magic and Medicine – June 1, 2016
  103. Thomas Wood, and His Visit to the Saint John River in 1769 – May 25, 2016
  104. The Northern Colonies: Languishing in Mediocrity – ca 1804 – May 18, 2016
  105. Fredericton’s Victoria Cottage Hospital – May 11, 2016
  106. The Passamaquoddy Wampum Records – May 4, 2016
  107. Slog on, or Die – Apr. 27, 2016
  108. Changes Nova Scotia Underwent from Discovery to 1758 When the First General Assembly Met in Halifax – Apr. 20, 2016
  109. The Disastrous Winter on St. Croix Island, 1604-05, and Other Adventures – Apr. 13, 2016
  110. Missions to the Mi’kmaq and Maliseet in the Early 1800’s – Apr. 6, 2016
  111. It Sounded Like a Residential School Philosophy – Mar. 30, 2016
  112. The Acadian Fugitives – Mar. 23, 2016
  113. Giddy, Eccentric, and Discontented Characters, or Misguided Souls, or Turncoats? – Mar. 16, 2016
  114. Indian Routes of Travel in New Brunswick – Mar. 9, 2016
  115. Historic Sites from the English Period on the Saint John River – Mar. 2, 2016
  116. How to Hunt a Moose, a Goose, and a Caribou in New Brunswick in 1791 – Feb. 24, 2016
  117. William Hubbard Complains to Edward Winslow about the Congregationalists in Sheffield – Feb. 17, 2016
  118. Good Fences Make Good Neighbours – Feb. 10, 2016
  119. WE NEED THE ACADIANS TO REMAIN: Lieut Governor, 1715 – Feb. 2, 2015
  120. Guy Carleton on the Fur Trade in Canada, 1767 – Jan. 27, 2016
  121. A Letter on Irish Immigrants – Jan. 20, 2016
  122. The Wreck of the ‘Lord Ashburton’ – Jan. 13, 2016
  123. A Ghost at Noonday – Jan. 6, 2016
  124. Silas Rand on the Mi’kmaq People – Part 3: Will Not the Bright Sun and the Blue Heavens Testify Against Us? – Dec. 30, 2015
  125. Silas Rand on the Mi’kmaq People – Part 2: To Every Thing There is a Season – Dec. 23, 2015
  126. Silas Rand on the Mi’kmaq People – Part 1: All Men From One Blood – Dec. 16, 2015
  127. Limits to the Royal Bounty – Dec. 9, 2015
  128. Nova Scotia, a Receptacle for Superfluous People? – Dec. 1, 2015
  129. From New Ireland to New Brunswick – Nov. 25, 2015
  130. The Most Gentlemanlike Government on Earth – Nov. 18, 2015
  131. I Love You for Your Plainness – Nov. 11, 2015
  132. Ward Chipman Remembers the Final Evacuation of New York – Nov. 4, 2015
  133. A Reply to “Men of Honor and Probity Run Amok” – Oct. 28, 2015
  134. A Century of Educational Progress in New Brunswick from 1800 to 1900 – Oct. 21, 2015
  135. Notes About the Earliest Public Markets in Saint John, New Brunswick – Oct. 14, 2015
  136. The Provincial Dairy School at Sussex, New Brunswick, 1900 – Oct. 7, 2015
  137. An Account of Nova Scotia in 1743 – Sept. 30, 2015
  138. The Petition of the Infamous 55 – Sept. 23, 2015
  139. Francis Sharpe’s Woodstock Apples – Sept. 16, 2015
  140. The Expulsion of the Acadians, a Military Surgeon’s Diary – Sept. 9, 2015
  141. The New Brunswick Election of 1785 – Sept. 2, 2015
  142. The Many Fires in Saint John, 1784-1877 – Aug. 26, 2015
  143. A Proposal for an Attack on N0va Scotia – Aug. 19, 2015
  144. Fredericton’s Great Flood of 1936 – Aug. 12, 2015
  145. A Letter about the Acadians and the Expulsion – Aug. 5, 2015
  146. Saint John in 1834, Before it was Forever Changed by the Great Fire – July 29, 2015
  147. New Brunswick, No Country for a Mere Gentleman, 1834 – July 22, 2015
  148. Woodstock, the Only Village Between the Green River and Fredericton in 1834 – July 15, 2015
  149. On the Tamiscouta Prtage from Lake Tamiscouta to just above Grand Falls, 1834 – July 10, 2015
  150. Men of Honor and Probity Run Amok – July 1, 2015
  151. By Steamer to the So-Called City of Fredericton – June 24, 2014
  152. A Quiet and Business-Like Little City – June 17, 2015
  153. Rambles Among the Bluenoses in 1862 – June 10, 2015
  154. Edward John Russell, a New Brunswick Artist – June 3, 2015
  155. Provincial Lunatic Asylum, Report of the Medical Superintendent, 1875 – May 27, 2015
  156. The Saint John River and Port Royal in the Early 1600’s – May 20, 2015
  157. What Should We Think of Benedict Arnold? – May 13, 2015
  158. Diphtheria in New Brunswick in the Year 1889 – May 6, 2015
  159. The Official Account of the Destruction of Burnt Church – Apr. 29, 2015
  160. The Exchange Coffee House and Saint John’s First Club – Apr. 22, 2015
  161. The Wigwams and Dwellings of the Gaspesians – Apr. 15, 2015
  162. The Story of Brook Watson – Apr. 8, 2015
  163. Where Stood Fort LaTour? – Apr. 1, 2015
  164. Things This Morning Really Wear the Aspect of War – Mar. 25, 2015
  165. At Portland Point – Mar. 18, 2015
  166. Electrical Power From the Reversing Falls – Mar. 10, 2015
  167. Father Rale’s War – 1722-25; How it Ended – Mar. 4, 2015
  168. What Was the Big Deal About the Marco Polo? – Feb. 25, 2015
  169. Grand Manan to Petitcodiac, in 1786 – Feb. 18, 2015
  170. A Trip From St. John to Fredericton in 1870 – Feb. 11, 2015
  171. A Tour of St. John, N.B., in 1870 – Feb. 4, 2015
  172. Destruction by Fire of the First Cathedral in Chatham – Jan. 28, 2015
  173. Burgan the Burglar – Jan. 21, 2015
  174. Facts and Reasons Against Confederating With Canada – Jan. 14, 2015
  175. Discontent in Early Halifax in 1756 – Jan. 7, 2015
  176. A Trip on the ICR From Bathurst to Miramichi – Dec. 31, 2014
  177. Early Attempts to Introduce the Cultivation of Hemp in Eastern British America – Dec. 24, 2014
  178. Touring Campbellton and Dalhousie, Despite the Mosquitoes, 1876 – Dec. 19, 2014
  179. The Fire of 1837 in Saint John – Dec. 10, 2014
  180. The Cruise of the Rechab – Dec. 3, 2014
  181. A Night in the Deep – Nov. 26, 2014
  182. Robert Foulis (A Misplaced Genius) – Nov. 19, 2014
  183. The City Mills – Nov. 15, 2014
  184. The Brothers d’Amours – Nov. 5, 2014
  185. John Allan’s Revolutionary Mission to the Saint John River – Oct. 29, 2014
  186. Relics of the Acadian Period – Oct. 22, 2014
  187. Some Odd Old Advertisements – Oct. 15, 2014
  188. The Miramichi Fire – Relief of the Sufferers – Oct. 8, 2014
  189. Jonathan Eddy’s Account of the Attack on Fort Cumberland, November, 1776 – Oct. 1, 2014
  190. Which of These Two is the Wisest and Happiest? – Sept. 24, 2014
  191. Fredericton Bridge, a Prophetic Writing – Sept. 17, 2014
  192. A Speech to Distinguished Persons of Stake and Consideration – Sept. 10, 2014
  193. Building an Education System From Almost Nothing – Sept. 3, 2014
  194. Cape Tormentine to the Baye des Chaleurs in the 1600’s – Aug. 27, 2014
  195. The Customs of the Mi’kmaq in the 1600’s and Before – Aug. 20, 2014
  196. Two Documents Relating to the Fenians in New Brunswick – Aug. 13, 2014
  197. The Lazaretto for Lepers in Tracadie, 1862 – Aug. 6, 2014
  198. Thoughts About the Augustine Mound at Metepenegiag Mi’kmaq Nation – July 30, 2014
  199. What am I Bid for This Pauper? – July 23, 2014
  200. Trouble at Madawaska, 1831 – July 16, 2014
  201. The Great Fire at Saint John, June 20, 1877 – July 9, 2014
  202. The Poor Fellows Shook as if They Would Fall to Pieces! – July 2, 2014
  203. How to Build a Logging Camp in Around 1850 – June 25, 2014
  204. Risen from the Ashes, Phoenix Square in Fredericton – June 18, 2014
  205. Rocks and Water, Magnificence and Squalor; St. John in 1876 – June 11, 2014
  206. Moncton as Seen by a Journalist in 1876 – June 4, 2014
  207. Events Leading to the Caraquet Riots of 1875 – May 28, 2014
  208. A Dramatic Account of the Miramichi Fire – May 21, 2014
  209. Saint John in the Early 1840’s – May 18, 2014
  210. The Myth that Kerosene was Invented in New Brunswick – May 7, 2014
  211. A Church with Military Boots and Fixed Bayonets – Apr. 30, 2014
  212. An Opening Salvo in an Ongoing Argument – Apr. 23, 2014
  213. May living worms his corpse devour – Apr. 16, 2014
  214. He don’t look any better than some of our own boys – Apr. 9, 2014
  215. The Disputed Territory Between New Brunswick and Maine – Apr. 2, 2014
  216. Navigation on the Saint John River – Mar. 26, 2014
  217. Shepody as a Hot Investment Opportunity, 1868 – Mar. 19, 2014
  218. To Her Majesty, RE: Reciprocity, 1853 – Mar. 12, 2014
  219. Diary on the Tobique, 1851 – Mar. 5, 2014
  220. Growing up in Fredericton in the 1820s and 1830s – Feb. 26, 2014
  221. Travels From Eastport, Maine, to Fredericton, 1851 – Feb. 19, 2014
  222. The Saint John General Public Hospital, 19th Century, Part 2 of 2 – Feb. 12, 2014
  223. The Saint John General Public Hospital, 19th Century, Part 1 of 2 – Feb. 5, 2014
  224. The Story of the Great Brothers – Jan. 29, 2014
  225. A Trek up the Tobique, and Onward to Bathurst – Jan. 22, 2014
  226. Summer Tourists. A Manual for New Brunswick Farmers – Jan. 19, 2014
  227. A Trek from Grand Falls to Campbellton, 1862 – Jan. 15, 2014
  228. A Trek From Taymouth to Boisetown, 1862 – Jan. 12, 2014
  229. Capt. William Owen’s Journal, Campobello, 1770-71 – Jan. 8, 2014
  230. The Founding of Campobello Island – Jan. 5, 2014
  231. New Brunswick Roads and Railways, 1855 – Jan. 1, 2014
  232. Grand Manan – Dec. 29, 2013
  233. The Shipyard Fire in Saint John, in 1841 – Dec. 26, 2013
  234. Christmas as it Was in Saint John, in 1808 – Dec. 22, 2013
  235. The Saint John Grammar School – Dec. 18, 2013
  236. William Wishart Blasts the New Brunswick Education System, 1845 – Dec. 15, 2013
  237. The Diary of Sarah Frost – Dec. 11, 2013
  238. Pŭlěs, Pŭlowěch′, and Beechkwěch (Pigeon, Partridge, and Nighthawk) – Dec. 10, 2014
  239. The Government of New Brunswick, 1837 – Dec. 4, 2013
  240. The Whales and the Robbers – Dec. 1, 2013
  241. The Ashburton Treaty – Nov. 27, 2013
  242. Glooscap and His Four Visitors – Nov. 24, 2013
  243. The Pioneers of Saint Stephen – Nov. 20, 2013
  244. The Adventures of Kâktoogwâsees; a Tale of Ancient Times – Nov. 17, 2013
  245. The Asylum at Saint John – Nov. 13, 2013
  246. The Liver-Colored Giants and Magicians – Nov. 10, 2013
  247. Smuggling Between Calais and St. Stephen – Nov. 6, 2013
  248. The Two Weasels – Nov. 3, 2013
  249. The European and North American Railway, 1862 – Oct. 30, 2013
  250. The Origin of the War Between the Mi’kmaq and the Kwěděches – Oct. 23, 2013
  251. Trouble on the Line: The Early Telegraph in New Brunswick – Oct. 16, 2013
  252. The Invisible Boy; Team′ and Oochigeaskw – Oct. 9, 2013
  253. Transportation to and from Fredericton, 1841 – Oct. 2, 2013
  254. The Boy That Was Transformed Into a Horse – Sept. 25, 2013
  255. McAdam: Notes From the Early Days – Sept. 18, 2013
  256. The Magical Food, Belt and Flute – Sept. 11, 2013
  257. European & North American Rly. Staff, 1861 – Sept. 4, 2013
  258. Glooscap and the Megumoowesoo: A Marriage Adventure – Aug. 28, 2013
  259. The Loss of the Royal Tar – Aug. 21, 2013
  260. Robbery and Murder Revenged, Plus a Grand Falls Story – Aug. 14, 2013
  261. The St. John River From Below Fredericton to the Reversing Falls – Aug. 7, 2013
  262. A Proposal for a Wooden Railway – July 31, 2013
  263. ‘On the Early History of New Brunswick’ – July 24, 2013
  264. The Maugerville Settlement, 1763-1824 – July 17, 2013
  265. 1930 Circus Train Wreck Near Moncton, N.B. – July 10, 2013
  266. Horses or Oxen? Pick one – July 3, 2013
  267. The St. John River; Andover to Fredericton – June 26, 2013
  268. Origins of Some Place Names on N.B.’s Eastern Shore – June 19, 2013
  269. The St. John River; Grand Falls to the Tobique – June 12, 2013
  270. Gabriel Acquin – June 5, 2013
  271. The Seigniories of New Brunsiwck – May 29, 2013
  272. An 1841 Trek up the Oromocto River – May 22, 2013
  273. Fredericton’s Exhibition Palace, and Bears in N.B. – May 15, 2013
  274. Murder on Diamond Square Road – May 8, 2013
  275. Acadian Historic Sites in New Brunswick – May 1, 2013
  276. John C. Tracy’s Book, Part 5 of 5 – Apr. 24, 2013
  277. John C. Tracy’s Book, Part 4 of 5 – Apr. 17, 2013
  278. John C. Tracy’s Book, Part 3 of 5 – Apr. 10, 2013
  279. John C. Tracy’s Book, Part 2 of 5 – Apr. 3, 2013
  280. John C. Tracy’s Book, Part 1 of 5 – Mar. 27, 2013
  281. A Retrospective Look at Saint John – Mar. 20, 2013
  282. The Wreck of the England – Mar. 13, 2013
  283. The First Decade of the 1800’s in St. John, N.B. – Mar. 6, 2013
  284. St. John’s Poorhouse and Workhouse – Feb. 27, 2013, Rev. Sept. 9, 2015
  285. New Brunswick Scenes From an Old Book – Feb. 20, 2013
  286. Nice Pictures From Another Old Book – Feb. 13, 2013
  287. Life in the Backwoods of New Brunswick, Part 2/2 – Feb. 6, 2013
  288. Life in the Backwoods of New Brunswick, 1845 – Jan. 30, 2013
  289. The Works of W.O. Raymond – Jan. 23, 2013
  290. The Year of the Fever – Jan. 16, 2013
  291. Hanged for the Theft of 25 Cents – Jan. 9, 2013
  292. Reversing Falls – Pictures – Jan. 2, 2013
  293. Christmas as it was in 1808 – Dec. 25, 2012
  294. Nice Pictures From an Old Book – Dec. 19, 2012
  295. The Saint John Bridge Collapse of 1837 – Dec. 12, 2012
  296. The First Road Bridge Across the Reversing Falls – Dec. 5, 2012
  297. The Mystery of the First Lizzie Morrow – Nov. 28, 2012
  298. The First Murder Trial on the River St. John – Nov. 21, 2012
  299. The March of the 104th Regiment in 1812 – Nov. 14, 2012
  300. Partridge Island – Nov. 7, 2012
  301. Fredericton’s First Bridge Across the Saint John River – Oct. 31, 2012
  302. 1816, The Year Without a Summer – Oct. 31, 2012
  303. Winslow to Wentworth, 1781 – Oct. 31, 2012
  304. The Saxby Gale of 1869 – Oct. 31, 2012
  305. New Brunswick’s Third Town in 1838: Saint Andrews – Oct. 31, 2012
  306. Fredericton and York County in 1838 – Oct. 31, 2012
  307. The City and County of Saint John in 1838 – Sept. 26, 2012
  308. The St. Andrews and Quebec Railroad – Sept. 19, 2012
  309. The Studholm Report of Saint John River Pre-Loyalists in 1783 – Sept. 12, 2012
  310. Caleb Jones. Further RE: Ann, otherwise known as Nancy – Sept. 5, 2012
  311. The Wreck of the Martha – Aug. 29, 2012
  312. The Early Settlement of Maugerville and the Sheffield Parsonage Dispute – Aug. 22, 2012
  313. Lieutenant Governors of New Brunswick to Confederation, Part 2 of 2 – Aug. 15, 2012
  314. Lieutenant Governors of New Brunswick to Confederation, Part 1 of 2 – Aug. 8, 2012
  315. The Morrow House at French Lake, N.B. – New Information – Aug. 1, 2012
  316. Sound by Glen Glenn, Revision 1 – July 25, 2012
  317. Ann, otherwise known as Nancy – July 18, 2012
  318. The Fire of October 7, 1825 – Beyond the Miramichi – July 11, 2012
  319. Lemuel Allan Wilmot – July 4, 2012
  320. The Great Fire at Miramichi, October 7, 1825 – June 27, 2012
  321. Robert Rankin in New Brunswick – June 20, 2012
  322. Who Owned the Mill at Tracy, New Brunswick? – June 13, 2012
  323. Signatures of Sunbury County Ancestors – June 6, 2012
  324. Daniel Wood’s Log Cabin, and Little Field Barn at French Lake, New Brunswick – May 30, 2012
  325. Rusagonis and George Garraty – May 23, 2012
  326. Epitaph Transcriptions from a Collection – May 16, 2012
  327. Central New Brunswick Gravestones from a Genealogy – May 9, 2012
  328. Nashwaak River Pictures with Stewart Family Connections – May 2, 2012
  329. More Sunbury County Photographs from a Collection – Apr. 25, 2012
  330. An Indian Burial Ground at Oromocto; and Coal Mining on the Oromocto River – Apr. 22, 2012
  331. “Days of Old” by Katherine DeWitt and Norma Alexander – Apr. 18, 2012
  332. The Wood Cemetery at French Lake, New Brunswick – Apr. 11, 2012
  333. James Glenie in New Brunswick – Apr. 4, 2012
  334. Four Generations of the Stewart Family on the Nashwaak River – Mar. 28, 2012
  335. Three Generations of the Mersereau Family in New Brunswick – Mar. 21, 2012
  336. Three Generations of the Smith Family of Sunbury County, New Brunswick – Mar. 14, 2012
  337. Three Generations of the Wood Family of French Lake, New Brunswick – Mar. 7, 2012
  338. New Brunswick Education in 1883 – Feb. 29, 2012
  339. Riots and Demonstrations in Saint John – Feb. 20, 2012
  340. Making Better Butter – Feb. 18, 2012
  341. York County Place Names, 1896/1905 – Feb. 8, 2012
  342. Sunbury County Place Names, 1896/1905 – Feb. 1, 2012
  343. Stereoscopic slides from Fred Stewart, Part 3 of 3 – Jan. 25, 2012
  344. Stereoscopic slides from Fred Stewart, Part 2 of 3 – Jan. 18, 2012
  345. Stereoscopic slides from Fred Stewart, Part 1 of 3 – Jan. 11, 2012
  346. The Hon. Thomas Baillie: Gone, but not soon forgotten! – Jan. 5, 2012
  347. The Fort at Oromocto, 1780 – 1783 – Dec. 29, 2011
  348. The Great Fire in Fredericton, 1850 – Early Accounts – Dec. 15, 2011
  349. The Morrow House at French Lake, and More – Dec. 8, 2011
  350. The Old Woman House at French Lake, New Brunswick – Dec. 1, 2011
  351. Smith Family Photographs from a Collection, Sunbury County, N.B. – Nov. 25, 2011
  352. French Lake from Before we Remember – Nov. 20, 2011
  353. How Geary became known as Geary – Nov. 9, 2011
  354. Elizabeth (Smith) Secord; N.B.’s First Woman Registered Doctor – Nov. 4, 2011
  355. Phillips Family Photographs from a Collection, Rusagonis, N.B. – Nov. 2, 2011
  356. Mersereau Family Photographs from a Collection, Sunbury County, N.B. – Oct. 30, 2011
  357. Wood Family Photographs from a Collection, French Lake, N.B. – Oct. 25, 2011
  358. Jeremiah Tracy: Pioneer of the Village of Tracy, New Brunswick – Oct. 20, 2011
  359. Two Old Railroad-Inspired Songs – Oct. 16, 2011
  360. Ode to the Oromocto River – Oct. 10, 2011
  361. John Mersereau, Loyalist 2 – Oct. 4, 2011
  362. The Earliest American Railroads and Locomotives – Sept. 14, 2011
  363. The Mersereau Manufacturing Company of Brooklyn, New York, Notes – Sept. 3, 2011
  364. George Morrow of French Lake, New Brunswick – 1801-1868 – Aug. 26, 2011
  365. The Wood Family of French Lake, New Brunswick – Legends – Aug. 9, 2011
  366. The Baptist Church on the Oromocto River in New Brunswick – Aug. 7, 2011
  367. John Wood of French Lake, New Brunswick – 1788-1868 – Aug. 2, 2011
  368. Daniel Wood of French Lake, New Brunswick – 1764-1847 – Aug. 1, 2011
  369. Three Stewarts on the Nashwaak – July 24, 2011
  370. Bunker Genealogy – Five Bunkers – July 20, 2011
  371. Statistics From the 1851 and 1871 Sunbury County New Brunswick Census Reports – July 19, 2011
  372. Historical Development of the Beam Bending Equation M=fS – July 18, 2011
  373. Seth Noble, Maugerville and the American Revolution – July 16, 2011
  374. Columns, the Long and the Short of it – 1729-1900 – July 15, 2011
  375. The Great Saint John Steel Cantilever Bridge – July 13, 2011
  376. The Upper Oromocto River in 1847 – July 11, 2011
  377. Early Glimpses of the Rusagonis Baptist Church in New Brunswick – July 11, 2011
  378. Abraham Gesner’s 1847 Observations of Sport Hunting in New Brunswick – July 11, 2011
  379. It Sounds a bit Too Easy – July 10, 2011
  380. James Buncker – July 10, 2011
  381. Inconsistent Petitions; Changed Self-Interests – July 10, 2011
  382. Abner Mersereau and a Letter – July 9, 2011
  383. Early Glimpses of the Patterson Settlement Baptist Church in New Brunswick – July 9, 2011
  384. The Textile Mill at Geary, New Brunswick – July 8, 2011
  385. Letter of Mi’kmaq’ Chief Pemmeenauweet to Queen Victoria – 1841 – July 7, 2011
  386. New Brunswick in the 1840s – July 7, 2011


John Wood


Written by johnwood1946

April 18, 2018 at 8:15 AM

Posted in Uncategorized

The Principal Hotels in the Maritime Provinces, 1905, With Photographs

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From the blog at

The Principal Hotels in the Maritime Provinces, 1905, With Photographs

From the 1905 Pocket Guide

[][][][][][][] New Brunswick [][][][][][][]


ROBERTSON HOTEL — Geo. Robertson, Proprietor. Capacity 50. Rate per day, $1.50. Rate per week, $5.00. [Photograph from the Centre des études acadiennes, via the McCord Museum.]


ROYAL HOTEL — Wm. Sproul. Proprietor. Capacity 50. Rate per day. $1.50 to $2.00. Rate per week, $7.00.


ADAMS HOUSE — Thos. Flanagan Proprietor. Capacity 50. Rate per day $1.50 to $2.00. Rate per week (Special).


MURPHY’S HOTEL — Thos. Murphy. Proprietor. Capacity, 50. Rate per day. $1.50. Rate per week $7-00 to $9.00.


WINDSOR HOTEL — W. Frank Tait, Proprietor. Capacity 75. Rate per day $1.50 to $3.00. Rate per week $4.00 to $10.00. [Photograph from the New Brunswick Provincial Archives.]


BARKER HOUSE — S.L.C. Coleman, Proprietor. Capacity, 70. Rate per day $2.00 to $3.00. Rate per week (Special). [Photograph from the N.B. Provincial Archives via the York Sunbury Historical Society.]

QUEEN HOTEL — J.J. McCaffrey, Proprietor. Capacity 150. Rate per day $2.50. [Photograph of Wueen Street East with the hotel on the left, from the N.B. Provincial Archives via the York Sunbury Historical Society.]

WINDSOR HALL — A.E. Everett, Proprietor. Capacity 100. Rate per day, $2.00. [Photograph from the York Sunbury Historical Society.]


HOTEL AMERICAN — Bigelow & Co., Ltd., Props. Capacity, 75. W. B. Ganong, Manager. Rates per day, $2.00 to $3.50. [Photograph from the McCord Museum.]

HOTEL BRUNSWICK — Geo. McSweeney, Proprietor. Capacity, 200. Rate per day, $2.00. [Photograph from the Centre des études acadiennes, via the McCord Museum.]

HOTEL MINTO — P. Gallagher, Manager. Capacity, 100. Rate per day $1.50 to $2.00 Rate per week, $7.00 to $10.00. [Photograph from the McCord Museum.]


HOTEL MIRAMICHI — Thos. Foley, Proprietor. Capacity, 75. Rate per day, $2.00 to $2.50. Rate per week (Special). [Photograph from the New Brunswick Provincial Archives.]

WAVERLEY HOTEL — J.J. Pallen, Proprietor. Capacity, 40. Rate per day $1.50. Rate per week, (Special). [Photograph from the New Brunswick Provincial Archives.]


ALGONQUIN HOTEL — Canadian Pacific Railway Co. Proprietor. H.S. Houston, Manager. Capacity 175. Rate per day, $3 50 and up. Rate per week $17. 50 and up. [Photograph from the McCord Museum.]

KENNEDY’S HOTEL — A. Kennedy & Son Proprietors. Capacity 75. Rate per day $2.00. Rate per week $10.00 to $14.00.


CLIFTON HOUSE — W. Allan Black, Proprietor. Capacity, 75. Rate per day $2.00 and up. Rate per week. (Special).

THE DUFFERIN — E. LeRoi Willis, Proprietor. Chas. Campbell Manager. Capacity 150. Rate per day $3.00. [Photograph from the New Brunswick Museum.]

GRAND UNION HOTEL — W. H. McQuade, Proprietor. Capacity 75. Rate per day $1.50 to $2.00. [Photograph from the N.B. Museum via the Saint John an Industrial City in Transition website.]

NEW VICTORIA HOTEL — S.A. McCoskery, Proprietress. Capacity 200. Rate per day $2.00 to $2.50. Rate per week, $10.00.

PARK HOTEL — C. Damery, Proprietor. Capacity 200 Rate per day $2.00 to $2.50. Commercial rate per day $1.50. Rate per week (Special).

ROYAL HOTEL — Raymond & Doherty, Props. Capacity 200 Rate per day, $3.00. [Photograph from the New Brunswick Museum.]

VICTORIA HOTEL — Victoria Hotel Co., Ltd., Props. E.W. Bowman, Manager. Capacity 200. Rate per day $2.50 to $3.00. Rate per week, $15.00 to $18.00. [Photograph from the N.B. Museum via the McCord Museum.]

INTERCOLONIAL RAILWAY — City Ticket Office 7 King Street.



WINDSOR HOTEL — W. Fred Nicholson, Proprietor. Capacity 150. Rate per day $2.00. Rate per week (Special).


BRUNSWICK HOTEL — Thos. Estabrooks, Proprietor. Capacity 75. Rate per day $1.50 to $2.50. Rate per week $4.00 to $10.00.


WELDON HOUSE — J.D. Weldon, Proprietor. Capacity 100. Rate per day $1.50. Rate per week $4.00 to $7.00.


CARLISLE HOTEL — C.J. Tabor, Proprietor. Capacity 100. Rate per day $2.00 to $2.50. Rate per week (Special).

[][][][][][][] Nova Scotia [][][][][][][]


AMHERST HOTEL — Andrew Gorman, Proprietor. Rate per day, $2.00. Rate per week, $10.50.

TERRENCE HOTEL — Wm. G. Calhoun, Proprietor. Rate per day, $1.50 to $2.00. Rate per week, $10.50.


QUEEN HOTEL —Riorden Bros., Proprietors. Capacity, 60. Rate per day, $2.00. Rate per week, (Special).


MERRIMAC HOUSE —Rufus Hale, Proprietor. Capacity, 60. Rate per day, $1.50 to $2.00. Rate per week, $4.00 to $9.00.


WAVERLEY HOUSE — C.C. Church, Proprietor. Capacity, 20. Rate per day, $1.50. Rate per week. $7.00 to $10.00.


EATON’S HOTEL — F.G. Eaton, Proprietor. Capacity, 25. Rate per day, $1.50. Rate per week, $8.00.


HALIFAX HOTEL — E.L. MacDonald, Manager. Capacity, 300. Rate per day, $2.50 to $3.50. Rate per week (Special). [Photograph of interior from the Centre des études acadiennes, via the McCord Museum.]

KING EDWARD HOTEL — Wm. Wilson, Proprietor. Capacity, 100. Rate per day, $1.50 to $2.50. Rate per week (Special). [Picture from The Original King Edward Hotel in Halifax… website.]

QUEEN HOTEL — James P. Fairbanks, Proprietor. Capacity, 200. Rate per day, $2.00 to $2.50. Rate per week (Special). [Photograph from the HalifaxPeople website.]


ABERDEEN HOTEL — H.L. Cole, Proprietor. Capacity, 50. Rate per day, $2.00. Rate per week, $10.00 to $12.00. [Photograph from the Nova Scotia Archives.]


HOTEL VENDOME — D. McDearmid, Proprietor. Capacity, 75. Rate per day, $2.00. Rate per week (Special). [Photograph from the Pictou-Antigonish Regional Library website.]


HOTEL ALBERT — W.A. Slipp, Manager. Capacity, 100. Rate per day, $1.50 to $2.00.


HOTEL WALLACE — Geo. F. Wallace & Son, Props. Capacity, 100. Rate per day, $2.00. Rate per week, $14.00.


THE SYDNEY — E. LeRoi Willis, Proprietor. Capacity, 275. Rate per day, $2.50 to $3.00.


LEARMENT HOTEL — A.H. Learment, Proprietor. Capacity, 100. Rate per day, $2.00.


VICTORIA HOTEL — T. Doron, Proprietor. Capacity, 60. Rate per day $1.50. Rate per week, $9.00.


ROYAL HOTEL — J.W. Beckwith, Proprietor. George Q. Patee, Manager. A.W. Eakins, Secretary. Capacity, 60. Rate per day $1.50. Rate per week, $5.00 to $10.00.


THE GRAND HOTEL — The Grand Hotel Co., Ltd., Proprietor. Capacity, 150. Rate per day $2.50. Rate per week, $12.00 to $20.00. [Photograph from the YarmouthHistory website.]

[][][][][][][] Prince Edward Island [][][][][][][]


HOTEL VICTORIA — R.H. Sterns, Proprietor. Capacity, 200. Rate per day, $2.00 to $3.50. Rate per week (Special).

QUEEN HOTEL — M.M. Archibald, Proprietress. Capacity, 100. Rate per day, $1.50 to $2.00. Rate per week (Special).



CLIFTON HOTEL — Miss. G.P. Mawley, Proprietress. Capacity, 30. Rate per day, $2.00 to $2.50.

Written by johnwood1946

April 18, 2018 at 8:15 AM

Posted in Uncategorized

Halifax From 1749 to 1800 — Minus the Wars and Politics

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From the blog at

Halifax From 1749 to 1800 — Minus the Wars and Politics

Following is a description of life in Halifax during the last half of the 18th century. It is not a story of politics and wars, but is a description of the everyday. It is taken from Memoir of Sir Brenton Halliburton, Late Chief Justice of the Province of Nova Scotia, by George W. Hill, published in Halifax in 1864.

I found the chapter about early Halifax to be unnecessarily long, and sometimes overly sentimental. The following version is therefore very condensed and edited—about one-third of its original length.

‘Halifax, Drawn from ye Topmasthead’

By Thomas Jefferys, 1750, from the Public Archives of Nova Scotia


Halifax has undergone great changes during its first century of existence. It has developed from a rude village into a well-planned town. In some respects, progress has been slow and inconsiderable while, in others, it has been rapid and great. Overall, however, Halifax cannot boast about its growth. In other places, towns have sprung up in the wilderness to rival the older cities of the East within the space of ten or twenty years. The rise and progress of Halifax has been nothing compared with these, however, even though it possessed advantages which ought to have resulted in marked material progress. The causes for this included the belief in Britain that the climate was severe and the soil sterile; neglect in promoting immigration; and a too-great dependence in Halifax upon the mother country.

In this commentary, I shall draw a picture of Halifax as it was during its first fifty years, that is, from its settlement under Edward Cornwallis in 1749 until about 1800. Here I will emphasize its progress which, though slow, has certainly been sure. This will hopefully give us a clearer view of the past, than a bare acquaintance with the dates of certain events.

In days of old, the limits of the town were narrow. The harbor on the east, Salter Street on the south, Jacob Street on the north, and the citadel on the west, were the boundaries, and the whole was enclosed with a palisade. Later, these limits were not so strictly observed, and the palisades fell into decay. They appear, however, to have still been there in 1760, since ceremonies proclaiming King George III were performed at the north and south gates. Everything outside of these limits was a suburb. The Dockyard, which was first established in 1758, was then quite unconnected with Halifax proper.

The small settlement of some fifteen German families who stayed in Halifax rather than following their fellows to Lunenburg, had fixed their residence in the north suburbs. So completely detached were they from the town, both by position and nationality, that a place of worship was erected in 1761 for their use, and a lot was granted for the parsonage. Two or three years afterwards the inhabitants applied to the Governor to name their town Gottingen, a name was eventually confined to one of the streets running through it. Brunswick was applied to another street in memory of their German heritage, and this became the main thoroughfare with single story houses and roofs of double pitch. The remaining street, beside that which ran along the water’s edge, seems to have been named in honor of an early settler, L. Lockman. There was a long space between this German town and Halifax, and between the Dockyard and Halifax, so that passing from either one of these to the town was quite a business.

Lamps were placed at the principal street corners between 1768 and 1777, though the condition of the streets remained poor for a long time. An irregular street ran along the water side of town, following the shore, and this is where most of the shops and stores were built, while the water lots accommodated wharves and slips. The waterside street was not named Water Street, as now, but was simply referred to as the Beach, and ran from the Dockyard in a southerly direction through the Royal Engineer Yard until it reached Point Pleasant. It became a favorite and leisurely walk, and was kept in such excellent condition that Governor Fanning made his residence just below the Tower. Another road, leading to the northern suburbs, also became a fashionable resort. Governor, Sir Andrew Snape Hammond had a house on this road, forming part of the highway to Windsor. Near the Governor’s house stood another, which became famed for breakfasts and suppers during the summer season.

Public gardens were established and largely patronized. Not far from the present Horticultural Society’s Garden, and hard by the Artillery Park, was one containing a pavilion, in which grew a great variety of fruit trees and shrubs. Another was situated near the old burial-ground of St. Paul’s or the English churchyard, as it was sometimes termed; while a third was kept by a provincial gardener, to whom the House of Assembly voted a salary.

Within the town, the Parade was a great landmark, and no buildings were erected upon it, save the Artillery Barrack. Nearby shops or houses were simply described as being on the Parade, as regular street names were seldom used in those days.

Many of the streets were lined with trees, particularly in the southern portion of the town, adding much to its appearance. Reverend Jacob Bailey described Pleasant Street in 1779 as “the most elegant street in the town, [being] much frequented by gentlemen and ladies for an evening walk in fine weather.”

Public buildings were numerous, it being a Government town. Amongst the first were the churches—St. Paul’s, for the United Church of England and Ireland, and St. Matthew’s for the Protestant Dissenting congregation. The frame and other materials for St. Paul’s was ordered from Boston, and it opened on the 2nd September, 1750. Flourishing accounts of its size, appearance, and workmanship, were sent to England by those most interested in it. It was the custom for the House of Assembly to attend St. Paul’s annually. The organ was not purchased at first, and, while waiting to send to England for it a Spanish ship was brought into harbor as a prize. On board was an organ, which was sold, and the churchwardens of St. Paul’s became its owners. The instrument was replaced by another many years later, but the case still stands unchanged. St. Paul’s was also the site for signing of an important treaty between the British and the Mi’kmaq people.

A lot was granted for the Protestant Dissenting congregation in December of 1749, and this frame was probably also imported from Boston. The church was soon erected and was called the Mather Church, no doubt, in compliment to Cotton Mather. The name Saint Matthew, appears to be a corruption of the word Mather, with the Scotch prefixing the title Saint. The first minister was Aaron Cleaveland, but the early church records were destroyed by a fire, and we are thus left without the information which would now be of interest.

In the middle of the square now occupied by the Province Building, stood the first Government House. It was described as “a low building of one story, surrounded by hogsheads of gravel and sand, on which small pieces of ordnance were mounted for defence.” This house was later replaced by a more spacious and convenient residence; and this continued to be the Government House until Sir George Prevost caused it to be taken away, and the present building erected.

The House of Assembly was first convened by Governor Lawrence on the 2nd October, 1758. It was held in a house now used as the Halifax Grammar School. This house was one of the best known in Halifax, for it did duty for various official bodies, being at one time a Court House and at another a Guard House.

One of the most noted buildings was the old Market House, on the site of the present Police Establishment. A balcony ran along the front, and it became a well-known meeting place.

Next in importance came the hotels. The first of these was The Great Pontac. This was a large building of three stories originally kept by a Mr. Willis. There were no houses or stores on the lower side of the street which skirted the beach, and a fine view of the harbor was seen from the windows. Here were held balls and all sorts of public entertainment. Hospitalities were frequent enough that the host was glad to receive assistance from the cooks of the ships of war. Steaming dishes were brought in boats from the ships, while other sailors transported them from the beach to the dining room.

One of the most remarkable concentration of troops at Halifax occurred some eight years after the settlement was established. A fleet and army arrived on their way to attack Louisburg. Lord Loudon then joined them with six thousand Provincial soldiers from New York. This attempt was unsuccessful, but some of the ships returned to Halifax for the winter. Early in the following spring, General Amherst arrived with twelve thousand men, partly provincials, enlisted in New England, and partly regulars. The whole force consisted of one hundred and fifty-seven sail, and fourteen thousand men, and did not leave Halifax until near the end of May. The assault upon the French was successful, and the fleet and army returned to Halifax and remained for some time.

There were other such concentrations of military at Halifax, for in the very next year, General Wolfe arrived with another fleet and army on his way to the siege of Quebec. Though Wolfe fell on the Plains of Abraham, the ships and troops returned to Halifax, and from this date the harbor was constantly visited by the squadrons and cruisers for four years. A lull, both in the business and gaieties of the town, then set in, which continued until the breakout of the American Revolution. Activity then revived with the return of army and naval forces. The presence of so many men and their money, which was freely spent, brought prosperity and raucous behaviour in equal measure. All of this supported the Great Pontac and rendered it so prosperous that a competing hotel was opened, called the Little Pontac. Two other establishments sprung up between the Dockyard and the town, one being the Crown Coffee House, frequented mainly by country people, and the other being the Jerusalem Coffee House, a sort of halfway-house, between the Dockyard and Market.

The town was laid out in squares, each containing sixteen lots, of forty by sixty feet, and some people owned more than one lot if they could afford it. The houses were mostly small, and seldom more than a single story, but finished with an attic. Most people kept gardens, both out of necessity and for recreation. Quite a few people planted trees. Furniture in better-off homes was far more substantial and expensive than used by people of the same class today. Householders were content with far less of it then than now, however. The day’s labor began early, with the often unsuccessful attempt to produce fire from flint and steel in the open hearth.

It was the habit to take supper between eight and nine o’clock. The fashionable dinner hour was three o’clock, and on some occasions it was made as late as four. As a consequence, business ceased, at least by the public offices, soon after mid-day. It was then too late to return when the somewhat lengthened meal was over. There was much to hinder and very little to promote education. Opportunities for instruction were few and far between.

The market offered much less variety of foods than today. When the troops were present, they would invade the town by thousands and almost produce a famine. On one occasion beef rose to two shillings and sixpence per pound, and butter to five. Except in these extreme cases, the necessities of life were abundant enough. Corned beef, pork, and salted codfish, far more frequently formed the dishes of all classes than fresh meat. The same species of meat was dressed in many ways; and preserved fruits were a favourite during the winter season. For vegetables, each household was either dependent upon their own garden or, if they could not, there were always the public gardener.

Thus were the original settlers supplied with food. Unfortunately, however, there was no shortage of things to drink. Wines and liquors were bought in quantity at the market, which had a baneful influence upon people of all ages and ranks.

Carriages were owned only by a few, and even up to the end of the century carriage owners paid a special tax. There was only one covered carriage, owned by a former Government official.

The gentry were served by slaves in some cases, owned as goods and chattel. A slave sale was advertised in the newspaper as early as 1769, and a reward was offered for the capture of a runaway in 1790.

The police force was very small, with only two or three constables under the direction of a Chief Magistrate. The military sometimes lightened their task. The townsmen would turn out to patrol the streets when there were thieves or housebreakers to be dealt with. Punishments for minor offences were similar to those in use in older countries: the stocks for drunkenness, and whipping at the public post for theft.

The Nova Scotia Chronicle and Weekly Gazette was first published in January, 1769. Papers were modelled after the usual pattern, the principal feature being news from English and American newspapers. Editorials were few and brief, and there was rarely any attempt to influence or reflect public opinion. The space devoted to local news, even including the shipping lists, and notices of deaths and marriages, seldom exceeded half a column.

Communication with England was uncertain, and sometimes infrequent. There was either a constant succession of ships arriving and departing, or an almost total absence of them. When ships did arrive, people who were anxious to cross the Atlantic often found passage on board. Accommodations were poor, and a schooner was often the style of vessel in which they were compelled to sail.

Those days in Halifax were very irreligious. Lack of regard for the doctrines of the Gospel were manifest. There were exceptions, but the record is unanimous, that religion was treated with indifference and scorn by some, and with reverence by but few. [George W. Hill provides no examples, but] the first Bishop was so impressed with the moral conditions, the general tone of society, and the debasing tendencies that he wrote a letter bewailing it and urged that steps be taken to erect barriers against the impetuous torrent which threatened to overwhelm morality.

Such was the condition of Halifax, material and moral, during the first half century of its history. With the exception of events which are mentioned as belonging to the infancy of the town—such as its limits and defenses— the details belong almost as much to the middle and close of the fifty years, as to the commencement.

Written by johnwood1946

April 11, 2018 at 8:24 AM

Posted in Uncategorized

William Brydone Jack on the Future of University Education in New Brunswick

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From the blog at

King’s College, later the University of New Brunswick, was a liberal arts institution which slowly transformed itself to also teach the sciences. James Robb was a notable addition to the faculty when he became a lecturer in natural sciences in 1836, for example. Similarly, there was no degree program in Civil Engineering until 1862, though some courses were taught at an earlier date.

Enrollment at the College was always low, and many people thought that the tuition was too high. There were complaints that the curriculum did not prepare the students for the regular occupations by which most people made a living. There were also complaints that the curriculum promoted the Anglican faith — and therefore favoured the old Loyalist elite. In short, it was not a people’s university.

William Brydone Jack became a Professor in mathematics, astronomy and surveying in 1840, and was President between 1861 and 1885. This was a critical time, because complaints were mounting. There were calls for the annual grant to be discontinued, and also that the College be turned into an agricultural school. A Commission was established to make recommendations and, eventually, the University became a secular institution with a more diverse curriculum.

Following is Jack’s address to the University, given on June 25, 1857. It is clear that all of these issues were forefront in his mind. I have decided to present the address without editing, since William Brydone Jack’s work deserves to be read as-found. You will see, however, that he used long complicated sentences.

William Brydone Jack

From Wikipedia

William Brydone Jack on the Future of University Education in New Brunswick

The Statutes of this University require that an Annual Oration be delivered within these walls, in praise of the Founders and Benefactors of the Institution. This year the duty thus prescribed devolves upon me; and after others have so often and so eloquently addressed you upon the subject, you will readily give me credit for sincerity when I say, that I now appear before you with no small degree of diffidence.

In every civilized community,—in every country wherein man’s proper place in creation and the dignity of his mission are understood and appreciated,—it is perceived that, apart from the divine inflatus whereby he becomes a living soul, his power and superiority over the rest of the animal creation are due to the peculiar gifts of reason and of language. By means of the former he is enabled to trace the mutual relations of things and their influences upon one another, and to speculate upon the mysterious connection between cause and effect: by means of the latter he can make known his motives, his thoughts and his feelings to his fellow-men. These peculiar faculties are possessed in different degrees by different individuals, but in all they are susceptible of great and marked improvement by cultivation. Seeing, then, that from and through them originate all advancement in knowledge, all pre-eminence in art, all the blessings of government, and all national changes, whether for the better or the worse, it is clearly of the utmost importance that every effort should be made not only to increase their efficiency, but also to give to their powers a beneficial and suitable direction. Hence it comes that in all nations which have occupied a prominent place in the world’s history and been instrumental in promoting human progress, Schools for intellectual discipline and instruction have received generous encouragement and support. Everybody has heard of the Schools of the ancient Grecian Philosophers; and although these sages, for the most part, scorned that simply useful knowledge which is now too generally regarded as the only knowledge worth possessing, yet who would venture to assert that such illustrious men did not exercise a beneficial influence in their day and generation, and that their lofty speculations have not most materially contributed to the elevation of the human race?

Permanent and well-appointed establishments for imparting instruction in the higher branches of learning exert an advantageous and wholesome influence in many ways. In them are found embodied the wisdom and intellectual advancement of the age; and they serve as resting and rallying points, from which fresh inroads are to be made into the dark regions of the unknown. In them mind acts upon mind, and the intellect is not only invigorated, but prompted to take loftier and bolder flights. The student who has the high privilege of resorting to such an institution feels, on entrance, that he is not merely to acquire a certain portion of information, but that he is admitted a member of a learned community;—that he has become connected with that which is substantial and lasting, not merely with that which is artificial and transitory. He finds around him men who can appreciate his cravings for intellectual superiority, and the spirit of emulation fires him with the noble ambition to excel. Even if he cannot stand pre-eminent, it becomes a point of honor with him to strive to be no disgrace to the venerated body in whose ranks he has been enrolled.

If in these respects this University has hitherto failed in achieving aught that is great or glorious, the fault does not lie with the founders. To them still belongs the merit, and to them be accorded the praise of founding in New Brunswick an Institution with such high objects in view. The principle that in this country provision should be made for affording its sons an education not inferior to the demands of the age, was a sound one, and one worthy of the good men who succeeded in establishing it. This was the fundamental principle contained in their work, and one which they believed would live and bear fruit after they were dead and forgotten; and I trust it will long be regarded as a principle of such inestimable value that it ought never to be abandoned. If experience has proved some parts of their scheme to be faulty, these it becomes the duty and the privilege of their successors to amend; if it has been found that there are other parts which cannot be realized at once, but which require to be modified to suit persons, places and times, it may be an act of true wisdom, as well as of prudence, to alter these in conformity to such requirements. But, throughout every change, let the grand principle I have spoken of be preserved, and New Brunswick may yet have good reason for glorying in her University.

Every day of life supplies the means of self-culture and improvement to the wise; and the boundaries of human knowledge seem capable of almost indefinite extension, as mankind advance in their destined course of civilization and proficiency. Hence an education, such as that afforded by Colleges and Universities, is becoming every day more and more indispensable; and all thoughtful and clear-sighted men regard it as a mark of sound policy in a nation to establish and foster such Institutions, and provide them with the means of directing and encouraging in their onward career of study, those whose talents and acquirements promise to contribute to human progress.

Looking at the matter from the narrowest point of view, and taking into consideration only one department of study pursued within these walls, I beg you to consider for an instant how much really valuable information our young men may acquire from an experienced and able teacher regarding the Flora and the Fauna of our Province; and how much profit might accrue to them from a knowledge of its geological formations, and from an intimate acquaintance with the nature and properties of the minerals underneath its surface; and then, I would ask you, whether you can have any sympathy with those, who in their blind zeal for the total subversion of the College, virtually say to the youth of the Province, we will allow you no opportunity in this your native land of obtaining instruction on these subjects,—so far as it depends upon us, the great book of nature with all its wonders shall remain to you an illegible book,—so far as it depends upon us, your minds shall never be elevated, nor your reverential feelings excited by a systematic study and an intelligent contemplation of the marvelous beauty, the harmonious adaptation, and glorious majesty of the Works of Him whose kingdom ruleth over all. It is sheer folly or shallow pretense, in the would-be-destroyers of the College, to say that our young men can acquire all the needful information on these and other useful subjects at our Academies or Grammar Schools. This, I am certain cannot be accomplished, unless in these as ample provision be made for the purpose of giving special instruction in the different departments of study as is at present enjoyed by this Institution. To obtain the higher, and therefore the most efficient and useful instruction in the various subjects comprehended in a liberal education, it becomes absolutely necessary to make a division of labour among the teachers; and science has now penetrated so deeply into the mysterious laws of nature, and can show by so many examples how these may be made subservient to the objects of art, or rendered available for practical purposes, that even the most clamorous for only useful learning are obliged to acknowledge the value of this higher teaching. Many arts and professions owe their very existence to Chemical Science alone; and their onward progress towards perfection is dependent on the rapid flow of the tide of discovery in that science. That these are really useful matters on which instruction is needed, inasmuch as they can be made directly available and turned to profitable account in the ordinary business of life, the so-styled practical man will in all probability admit; but then, he may perhaps be ready to ask, with a triumphant air, what benefit society is likely to derive from the vain theories and empty speculations of philosophers; and of what possible use the study at College of the loftier and painfully accessible branches of learning can be to mankind in general. This question could be most readily and satisfactorily answered by an appeal to facts;— by showing that most of the grand discoveries, which have contributed so largely to the advancement of the age, and which form at once its glory and its boast, have been the fruits of purely theoretical investigations. To these we owe the discovery of Electro-plating and gilding, and the beautiful art of Photography: to these the Miner is indebted for his Safety Lamp, which preserves him from harm while surrounded by an element of destruction, apparently uncontrollable by human power: and the discovery of the Electric Telegraph itself,—the most wonderful invention of modern times—can be traced, by a process of pure deduction, from the fundamental principles of abstract science.

Without, however, wearying you with illustrations of the value of theoretical science, even in a merely commercial and practical point of view, I may be permitted to ask, what could be apparently more remote from any useful application than the investigation of the curious phenomena of polarized light? Who could have believed that the narrow track of observation opened up by Malus, a young French officer of Engineers, as he looked through a prism at the windows of the Palace of the Luxembourg, would have taken such a direction as to furnish the Navigator with the means of detecting rocks and shoals in the depths of the ocean, and thereby preserving him from their lurking dangers,—as to enable the Chemist with unerring certainty and a rapidity previously undreamt of, to tell the amount of Sugar in the Cane, Beet, and Parsnip juice, at different stages in the growth of the plant, and thus to point out to the manufacturer when and on what article he can most economically bestow his labour,—as to assist the Engineer to discover the laws of tension in beams, and thereby give additional security to life and property,—as to provide the Astronomer with a new method of measuring unapproachable objects, and even of marking the passage of time, as well as of deciding whether yon far distant shining speck which has just burst upon his astonished vision, owes its brilliancy to the light proceeding from itself, or borrowed from other bodies?

These facts in the history of physical science, and others which might be adduced in almost endless profusion, afford incontrovertible evidence of the value of theoretical investigations; and prove that it would be presumption in any one to assert that such investigations are unworthy of attention, because being to all appearance of a purely speculative character, they can never lead to any useful result, or be brought to bear upon matters connected with the ordinary concerns of life. In this particular, the tide of public opinion seems now to be setting in the proper direction; and, it is beginning to be recognized at last, that in an advanced stage of civilization a competition in industry must be a competition in intellect; and that more and more encouragement must be given to the cultivation of theoretical science, as forming the basis and ground-work of all true progress.

It thus appears that instruction in the highest and most abstruse branches of learning ought not to be neglected, even though we should agree to measure the value of all knowledge by the standard adopted by those who maintain that science is only useful insofar as it can be rendered applicable to practice. This unit of measure is undoubtedly of great value; and affording as it does outward and visible manifestations of its worth, which can be appreciated equally by the learned and the ignorant, it has in our times, and more especially on this side of the Atlantic, come to be looked upon as the true and only standard. In the teachings at this University, every disposition has been shown to acknowledge its merits, by employing it as often as occasion permits. Nevertheless a very little reflection will be sufficient to convince us that it is partial and imperfect. For, independent of the transitory things of this world, knowledge is valuable for its own sake. In the acquisition of it we are following the dictates of both nature and revelation, since we are cultivating that special talent which God has entrusted to our keeping, and through which he has been pleased to give us superiority and dominion over the rest of his animal creation on this terrestrial globe. In all systems of education which pretend to educate man as man, it ought never to be forgotten that he is an intellectual and moral, as well as physical being; and that he has been so constituted by his Maker as to have wants and pleasures of a far more refined and exquisite kind than those which merely concern the body.

I have indulged in these somewhat trite remarks, because it is a very common thing in this Province, more especially in its chief commercial City, for parents, even in affluent circumstances, to excuse themselves for not giving their sons anything beyond a common Grammar School education, by saying that, as they are intended for men of business, this is quite sufficient for all their requirements; and that it would be folly, or at least an utter waste of time, to send them to College, since they could there gain nothing which would enable them to rise faster or higher in the world. Now this is a very erroneous and mischievous view to take of this very important subject, and one which every educated and right-thinking person ought to condemn; inasmuch as it ignores the intellectual and moral nature of man, excepting so far as conducive to his self-gratification and mere worldly aggrandizement. It in truth owes its origin to the same spirit of mammon as that which renders man a foe to godliness; and against which the earnest and pious minister of religion finds too much and too just cause for incessant complaint. It behooves us, therefore, to unite our efforts with those of the Clergyman, and resolve to check as far as lies in our power the far too prevalent idea that wealth is the real measure of worth; that professions and trades exist merely for the sake of the riches which they draw in their train; that the acquisition and accumulation of money is the grand end and aim of our existence; and that for this purpose we are to toil and moil and waste our energies and even our lives. Such ideas tend to the degradation of man’s higher and better nature, and of all those pursuits which are immediately connected with mind;— they stifle the feelings of his spiritual existence, and deaden the consciousness of his belonging to a nobler and more excellent economy than that which is conversant with money-making, or the manufacture or sale of commodities. A taste for literature and science, so far from being incompatible with the necessary business of life, serves to relieve and sweeten its toil; and the man who, happily for his own sake, has been imbued with it in early days, finds that he possesses within himself many sources of pleasure and enjoyment, which are unknown to and untasted by others who have been less fortunate in their education.

Before I conclude, it may be expected that I should offer a few remarks upon the Bill relating to King’s College, which has been recently laid before the public, under the auspices of the College Council. This Bill merits attention, not only on account of the source from which it emanates, but also for the important alterations which it contemplates in the administration of the Institution. The scheme which it embodies may not probably correspond with the ideal which many of us may have formed; but we ought to bear in mind that the Council may have considered the existence of the College at stake; and that at a crisis when decided changes were expected, it would be well for the honor and educational prosperity of New Brunswick, if these could be so controlled as to prevent their assuming an excessive and violent character. Such being the position of affairs, it might be matter for grave consideration whether it would not be sound policy to concede some of our predilections and opinions in order that the vital principle, which acknowledges the necessity for such an institution, might be preserved, and the interest of the higher branches of education continue to be represented within the Province.

It would be out of place in me, on the present occasion, to examine in detail the various provisions of the Bill. The advantages likely to be derived from some of these, might be questioned; while of the measure as a whole, all circumstances considered, a favourable opinion may be entertained, as calculated to be productive of good. At all events, it seems to contain the germs of such a measure as ought to be generally acceptable, and as is most likely to secure for the College that fair and impartial hearing, which has long been denied it, and the want of which has stood so much in the way of its popularity and usefulness. Could public confidence be established, the inducements held forth by the Bill to all the young men of the Province, without distinction of rank or creed, to resort hither for a sound and liberal education, are of such a free and generous nature, as to lead one to anticipate from them the best and most satisfactory results. And if the different branches enumerated in the schedule of instruction, can be well and successfully taught within the specified time, sure I am that the Alumni of this University would rank second to those of few in the world.

I am aware that the scheme has been objected to in certain quarters, as having the effect of turning the College into what has been denominated a Godless Institution. The originators of the Bill, however, expressly declare that religious instruction is indispensable to a collegiate course of study, and that no youth can be well-educated who is not instructed in Religion as well as in Science and Literature. They quote with approbation, and emphatically endorse the sentiments of Professor Sedgwick, when he says:— “A Philosopher may be coldhearted and irreligious, a Moralist maybe without benevolence, and a Theologian may be wanting in the common charities of life. All this shows that knowledge is not enough, unless feelings and habits go along with it, to give it meaning, and to carry it into practical effect. Religion reaches the fountainhead of all these evils, and she alone gives us an antagonist principle whereby we may effectually resist them.” It is, therefore, not only conceded by the framers of the Bill that man is a spiritual and accountable being, but also that all education is good, only so far as it proceeds upon this supposition; and they lay down the doctrine that “the Government, if not as representing the collective sentiments of all religious persuasions, yet as being at least the guardian of their equal rights, should require that the evidences, the truths, and the morals of Christianity should be at the foundation of all public Collegiate instruction, and the spirit of Christianity pervade its whole administration. As to the teaching of what is peculiar to each religious persuasion, this clearly appertains to such religious persuasion and not to the Government.”

The objection which I have been considering, would probably be deprived of any weight which it may still have in the minds of some religious and conscientious persons, if every Christian denomination—and be it observed that all are respectfully recognized in the Bill—were allowed the option of connecting with this University a School of Divinity for the purpose of teaching its own peculiar religious tenets;— each of these schools to enjoy all the advantages and privileges conferred by such connection, but to be supported by the denomination which it represents. It might also be allowable for the Professor, or Professors, in each of these schools, to have a voice in conferring degrees in Divinity, on distinguished members of their own persuasion. Moreover, such an arrangement as that just mentioned, has something like a precedent to recommend it to favour. In the Scotch Universities, although the Established Church is alone admitted into immediate union, yet there the Faculty of Arts is wholly untrammeled by that of Theology, and its course of study is altogether independent, since it not only works apart, but owes its maintenance to funds drawn from an entirely separate source. Now, to the general, literary, and scientific curriculum, students of all religious persuasions are freely admissible, and the scheme and mode of instruction therein pursued would continue equally unaffected by having in legalized connection ten Schools of theology belonging to as many different Christian denominations, as by having one. It is true that in these Universities the Professors in even the Faculty of Arts are required to subscribe some religious test more or less stringent; and even in this land of latitudinarian principles it may still be permitted to doubt whether it would not be better that the Professors should, before instalment in office, be obliged to declare their belief in, at least, the inspiration and authenticity of the Holy Scriptures.

Whatever changes may be at any time effected, let us hope that the necessity for maintaining in New Brunswick an institution for affording its youth such instruction in the higher branches of learning as is commensurate with the demands of the civilization of the age, will never be overlooked; and let us who are in any way connected with this University, Students as well as Professors, each in his place and to the best of his ability, strive to make it a worthy and lasting monument of the enlightened policy of its Founders.

Written by johnwood1946

April 4, 2018 at 7:51 AM

Posted in Uncategorized

Saint John: From Nothing, to Become Canada’s Winter Port

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From the blog at

Saint John: From Nothing, to Become Canada’s Winter Port

Saint John, Canada’s National Winter Port, 1920

From the N.B. Museum

The earliest railways in Canada did not include a connection to the Maritime Provinces. The Grand Trunk Railway had been built from Sarnia to River du Loup, but no further. Another line had been built from Montreal to Portland, Maine, but it was not desirable for the British provinces to rely upon the United States and not to have a winter port of their own.

Following Confederation, it was agreed that there should be a rail connection between Ontario and Quebec and the Atlantic Ocean through the Maritime Provinces. What route should be taken was a matter of bitter debate, however. Some argued that Saint John should be the terminus of the Intercolonial, with the Halifax traffic being carried across the Bay of Fundy by ferry. It was also proposed that the line should go up the Saint John River in order that that the river could benefit from the rail line. Finally, the decision was made that the Intercolonial Railway would begin at Halifax and extend up the east coast of New Brunswick by the shortest possible route to the Saint Lawrence. Saint John had lost the argument, and this was why an early New Brunswick railway line was built between St. John and Shediac — to intersect the Intercolonial and allow Saint John at least some connection to the Canadas. One consequence of this was that Halifax would be Canada’s winter port, leaving Saint John as a minor provincial port.

In 1902, someone wrote a history entitled The Winter Port, the Great Achievement of the People of St. John. This was a bitterly political account of Saint John’s fight to become a major winter port, and blamed the Conservative Party for all of Saint John’s woes, while praising the Liberal Party for every success. It included a lot of good history, however, and following is a severely condensed and edited version of the paper. The author is unknown, but it is the sort of document that a partisan organization might produce.


During discussions of the railway question, following completion of the line between St. John and Shediac, the late Hon. John Boyd delivered a speech full of optimism regarding the future of St. John in which he said “Looking at our position with regard to Lower Canada, St. John must yet become the winter port of that country … Portland has already taken from us a portion of that trade… We look forward to the early action of Great Britain in adopting as her own the contemplated scheme of uniting tie eastern and western hemispheres by the Atlantic and Pacific railroad. Our connection with Canada will place us in a direct line with this great work, and Saint John in a few years may thus rise to the position of the Liverpool of America.” Mr. Boyd had thus coined a new term The Liverpool of America.

The Pain of Isolation

Disappointment ensued, however. It had been argued that the Intercolonial be built up the St. John River, but the political influences against the valley route were too powerful for Sir Leonard Tilley. The adoption of the military route by the Conservative government was a great blow to the city and delayed the progress of St. John for a quarter of a century. Two years after the completion of the railroad the Liberal government, which had been in power three out of the nine years the Intercolonial had been under construction, and which had built the Courtenay Bay branch of the railway and constructed the deep water terminus at the southern extremity of the city was replaced by a Conservative administration. For seven years following the election of 1878, the Intercolonial was controlled by Sir Charles Tupper, the first Minister of Public Works, and afterwards as Minister of Railways. During this period, freight was loaded at Halifax and carried over the Intercolonial at a loss to the country. The long haul and the many delays made the Halifax route more unpopular each year, and notwithstanding that the subsidized steamers carried the mails between Canada and Great Britain still made weekly calls at Halifax, little or no freight was landed and they went on to Portland Maine to deliver and receive cargoes of Canadian goods. The adoption of the military route did neither Halifax nor St. John any good. Meanwhile, maps were being printed showing the Intercolonial with Halifax marked as the Winter Port of Canada.

The Canadian Pacific Railway was under construction, but it had its eastern terminus at Montreal. For years, the people of St. John had discussed the question of a short line between St. John and Montreal by the Megantic route, and an agitation was kept alive to extend the Canadian Pacific to St. John. In 1884 the question came up in parliament and, finally, a bill was passed granting a subsidy of $250,000 for 20 years for the construction of a railway to connect the Maritime Provinces with the west. This departure from the usual course of granting so much a mile was due to much of the proposed railway being through the State of Maine. When this measure was up for consideration the Conservative government still wanted to prevent St. John from obtaining full advantage of her geographical position, and a provision was inserted in the bill requiring the construction of a railway from Harvey in York County to Salisbury in Westmorland County, which would sidetrack St. John and parallel the existing line between St. John and the Intercolonial. The Senate withdrew the clause concerning the Harvey-Salisbury section, a policy which was endorsed by everyone except the people of Halifax. Canadian Pacific then undertook the construction of the Megantic route and, on June 2, 1889 the first Montreal train reached St. John. The distance between the two points was now reduced from 740 by the Intercolonial to 481 miles by the Canadian Pacific route.

St. John’s economy stagnated. Between 1871 and 1882 the population hardly grew at all. Then, in 1877, the great fire brought devastation and the population actually dropped. All of this was due to the Conservative administration which controlled affairs from 1867 to 1873 and which promoted Halifax as Canada’s winter port. St. John had lived in the vain hope that steamships would be placed on the St. John to Liverpool route, but none came. The railway was completed and trains made daily trips over it, but the Conservative government gave no assistance the railway to do the business through Canadian ports.

The opening of the Megantic line again brought hope to the city, but 1889-90 passed and no move was made to utilize St. John for anything but local traffic. There were also rumors that the Canadian Pacific were seeking traffic arrangements through Portland, Maine and Boston. In 1890, negotiations were undertaken with Canadian Pacific to have something done and, as a result, the Union wharf was constructed at Sand Point. In 1892, the city negotiated with the Conservative government for the purchase of the Carleton Branch rail line which had been made useless through the construction of the Falls railway bridge. The Conservatives nonetheless demanded $40,000 for it, and extracted another $40,000 in order to help build the first grain elevator on the west side.

By 1902, the city had expended about $250,000 in terminal facilities to handle winter trade but none had come. The subsidized steamers which made Montreal their summer port used Portland, Maine during the winter, and no effort was made by Ottawa to bring about a change. The flag had been waved during the general election of 1891, but after the people had voted the flag was put away. The slogan Canada for the Canadians was forgotten and subsidies continued to flow to American ports.

Making a Beginning

Mayor George Robertson and Council appointed a committee in 1895 with authority to confer with any and all government and business authorities and to find a solution to St. John’s economic problems.

It was only days after that that a representative of the Beaver shipping line met with Mayor Robertson, and said that they were unhappy with their arrangements at Portland, and asked for a $20,000 subsidy to make shipments through St. John on a trial basis during the following winter. He was told that the request should be made to Ottawa and a few days later the Committee, and the Beaver line people, and a collection of politicians and business people went to Ottawa to press the case with George Foster, Minister of Finance and representative for York County. Foster agreed that the subsidy would be paid by Ottawa and that a confirming telegram would be sent by the time that the delegation got back to St. John. The telegram was not forthcoming, however, and it was only after several New Brunswick MP’s threatened to resign that it was finally provided.

The subsidy for the Steamship line secured, the next thing to be done was to make preparations for the first winter. The wharf was without a warehouse and there were no railroad tracks nor cattle sheds. The railway and the city agreed to extend the rails to Union Wharf and city engineers prepared plans for the warehouse which was completed two months later. Enthusiasm was born in the people and old and young thronged to the West side to see the work that was being done. The facilities were far from complete, but the experiment proved a success.

The first steamship to arrive was the Lake Superior, which sailed up the harbor amid a general salute of tug boat whistles and moored at the Sand Point wharf in Decembers, 1895. Canadian Pacific had a large quantity of freight, not only in the yards at Sand Point, but also on every siding and railway yard between Montreal and St. John. So energetic was Canadian Pacific that the goods were delivered in Toronto and Montreal hours in advance of those shipped through Portland, Boston and New York, and St. John had made a good start in her winter trade. The holds of the Lake Superior were soon emptied and the loading commenced. This was accomplished and the Lake Superior sailed away again on the 13th of December, having been in port 10 days. The next arrival was the Concordia of the Donaldson line which reached port on December 20th from Glasgow and discharged her cargo at the same berth as the Lake Superior.

One steamship after another arrived, and all were given quick dispatch, and the record made in the delivery of western freight exceeded the best expectations. From the very inception of the trade it was evident that St. John could meet the competition of any of the United States ports which had hitherto enjoyed a monopoly of the winter trade of Canada. By the end of the season, 22 steamships had been discharged and loaded. With this experience, St. John was more than ever determined to become the Winter Port of Canada.

Scaling Up the Trade

St. John was determined that the experiment should be continued on a larger scale. Negotiations were commenced and it was agreed, in 1896, that the city was to build additional wharves and Canadian Pacific would contribute $56,500. Following this, the Leary leases were acquired and other properties obtained, giving the city entire control of the wharf property north of Protection Street. Houses and sheds were then razed, a dredge was brought in, and plans for new wharves extending west to Union Street were prepared. Construction commenced early in July and was completed for the winter trade of 1897-8. The facilities were thus improved so that there was a new terminal for three steamships to load or discharge at the same time. During the initial season there were but 22 steamers loaded at St. John, while in 1896-7 the number was increased to 46. The average tonnage was also increased by 151 tons.

Mail Subsidies Continued

There was agitation to stop subsidizing the mail-steamship lines which did not also patronize Canadian ports for freight. A recent call for tenders had specified that Halifax should receive all of the mails from England, which would have continued the diversion of freight to Portland. This became an issue in the 1896 election, and the parties supported the change. This was forgotten, however, as soon as the Conservative Party won the election. St. John was very dissatisfied with this result, and with the Conservatives in general. There was even talk that the Harvey to Salisbury proposal would be resurrected. This campaign ended in the defeat of the Conservative candidates in St. John and also ended the political career of Sir Charles Tupper. The Conservative government was defeated and the Laurier government came to power with A.G Blair representing New Brunswick in cabinet as Minister of Railways. While the policy of the Laurier government was to pay Canadian subsidies only to steamships using Canadian ports it was not possible to carry out this policy since the mail contract was already awarded.

When the mail contracts expired the two companies which had the contract did not tender. They thought that the government would have no option but to accept their terms and extend the contract, but they were wrong and arrangements were made with the Beaver line to carry Canadian mails for a year. This was a distinct notice to these companies that it was the intention of the government to adhere strictly to the policy of subsidizing only the lines using Canadian ports all the year around. The persistency of this Liberal policy was responsible for a large share of the success which followed the adoption of St. John as Canada’s Winter Port. Had the government yielded to the steamship companies, then St. John would not have been able to attract so large a share of the Canadian winter trade as she now does.

Continues Growth

The development of winter trade through St. John was rapid and nearly every year has shown an increase over its predecessor. Liberal government subsidies were extended to several new steamship lines and the handling of the increased traffic severely taxed the facilities of the port, demonstrating the necessity for more wharves.

Harbor improvements continued apace, with help from the Liberal government. The Conservatives had always refused to contribute to dredging, even though the buildup of silts were from up the federally regulated river, because they claimed that St. John was a local port and not a federal port. St. John was unique in this situation since the city’s charter of 1785 had vested control of the harbor with the city. The Liberals took a different view which was important because of the high cost of dredging. Very little has been said in the press regarding this most important work at the inception of effort to make St. John the Winter Port of Canada.

Memorable projects included improvements at the Long Wharf at the northern end of the harbor which was acquired and replaced by a modern structure and warehouse. This wharf and the grain elevator which was built on the site of the Harris car works, which the Conservative party had been instrumental in removing from St. John to Amherst, cost upwards of half a million of dollars. The Conservative press had complained that the elevator was a waste of money and would never be used.  Yet during the winter season of 1907-8 over 1,000,000 bushels of grain were loaded, which grain could not have been exported at St. John if the elevator had not been constructed. Between January, 1901 and July, 1908 there have been 598 vessels berthed at the new Intercolonial pier.

By 1905, additional wharfs were required if some of the steamship 1ines were not to move their business elsewhere. An appeal was made to Ottawa and it was agreed that the federal government would undertake dredging for other sites, while the city would build the wharves. An additional wharf and warehouse were completed at a cost the city $150,000 while the government paid $250,000 for dredging. Yet another wharf was required and, again, the Liberal government agreed to pay for dredging.

This is how St. John came to be Canada’s Winter Port, and how useful the Liberal government was in achieving this.

Written by johnwood1946

March 28, 2018 at 8:30 AM

Posted in Uncategorized

Saint John, New Brunswick Churches in 1910

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From the blog at

Saint John, New Brunswick Churches in 1910

Following is a catalogue of churches, and a synagogue in Saint John in 1910, taken from St. John, New Brunswick: What to See in the City and Vicinity and How to See It, compiled by the New Brunswick Tourist Association. The text comes from that publication, but I have substituted better photographs.


Church of England

Trinity Church — a beautiful stone edifice in the late early English Gothic style, is situated between Germain and Charlotte Streets, fronting on Germain. First founded of all Churches in the City, it traces its descent from the Loyalists, and has within its walls an interesting memento of its origin—the Royal Arms, which once adorned the old State House in Boston, and sat in mute judgment upon the famous Tea Debates. Few Tourists visit St. John without seeing this historic relic. Situated in the midst of the most prominent hotels, Trinity is thronged with summer visitors. The new organ, considered the finest in the Maritime Provinces, and the strong surplice choir, render the services bright and musical. Not new, but of lasting influence on the inhabitants of St. John are Trinity Chimes. They have struck the hours and played their tunes over our forefathers, and their sweet notes recall potent memories, and ever invite the thoughts of men to high and holy things.—Rev. R.A. Armstrong, M.A., Rector; Rev. J.W.B. Stewart, M.A., Curate.

Trinity Church

St. John’s Church, known as the Stone Church — was for many years the only Church structure not of wood in the City. It is finely situated, fronting the northern termination of Wellington Row and Germain Street. It was erected in 1824 as a Chapel of Ease to Trinity Church, and was served by the Rectors and Curates of that Church until 1853, when it became the Parish Church of the newly erected Parish of St. Mark. The Rev. George Mortimer Armstrong, the first Rector, held the position until October, 1887, and in 1888 the Rev. John de Soyres became the Rector, and remained in office until his death in February, 1905. The Rev. Gustave Adolf Kuhring, the present Rector, took charge in the month of June following. The large stone schoolhouse adjoining was completed in 1891. The view from the tower of this Church is one of the finest in the city. This is the oldest church standing in St. John, with the exception of St. George’s Church, on the West side of the harbor.—Rev. G. A. Kuhring, Rector.

Stone Church

St. James (Broad Street) — Rev. R.A. Cody, Rector.

St. Luke’s (Main Street) — Rev. R.P. McKim. Rector.

St. Paul’s (Valley) — Rev. E.B. Hooper, B.A., Rector.

St. Mary’s (Waterloo Street) — Ven. Archdeacon Raymond, M.A., LL.D., Rector.

St. George’s (West End) — Rev. W. H. Sampson, B. D., Rector.

Mission Church of St. John Baptist (Paradise Row) — Rev. D. Convers, Priest in charge. Holy Eucharist, 8; Mattins, 10: 15; High Celebration, 11; Choral Evensong, 7; Seats free. Phone M2181.

St. Jude’s (West End) — Rev. G.F. Scovil, M.A., Rector.

Church of England Institute, also S.P.C.K. Depository — 119 Germain Street, open 8 a.m. to 10 p.m.

Christian [Disciples of Christ]

Coburg Street — Rev, E.C. Ford.

Douglas Avenue — Rev. J. Chas. B. Appel.

First Church of Christ Scientist

First Church of Christ Scientist — Services Sunday, 11 a.m. Wednesday, 8 p.m. A Reading Room is connected with the Church, open daily, (Saturday and legal holidays excepted) from 3 until 5 p.m.


St. Andrew’s Church — situated on Germain Street, between Princess and Duke Streets, is the oldest Presbyterian Church in New Brunswick, being founded in 1784. The present beautiful Gothic building, with its imposing freestone front, was erected in 1877, at a cost of $75,000. It is generally regarded as one of the finest Presbyterian edifices in Canada. Besides the main auditorium, which seats a thousand, there are two large lecture rooms and numerous class rooms. The large pipe organ built by Hook & Hastings, is one of the most excellent in the city. The first settled pastor was Rev. George Burns, D.D., who was inducted in 1817. Rev. David Lang, M.A., B.D., is at present the pastor.

Saint Andrew’s Church

St. David’s Church — situated on Sydney Street, between Princess and Duke Streets, has the largest Presbyterian congregation in the City. The edifice is a large pressed brick structure, with stone trimmings, and seats 1,050 people. A large number of tourists worship in St. David’s during the summer, and strangers are always cordially welcomed. Rev. A.A. Graham, B.D., Minister.

Saint David’s Church

St. John (King Street East) — Rev. J.H.A. Anderson, Minister.

Calvin (Corner of Carleton Street and Wellington Row) — Rev. L.A. MacLean, Minister.

St. Stephen’s (City Road) — Rev. Gordon Dickie, Minister.

St. Matthew’s (Douglas Ave.) — Rev. J. James McCaskill, Minister.

Carleton — Rev. H. R. Read, B.D., Minister.

Fairville — Rev. W.M. Townsend, M.A., Minister.

United Baptist

Germain Street Baptist House of Worship — stands at the corner of Germain and Queen Streets, facing on Germain. It is a brick structure, with stone trimmings. Its interior is bright and pleasing, seating about 750. The present building was erected on the site of one destroyed by the great fire of 1877. The Germain Street Church is the oldest of the Baptist Churches in St. John, being founded in 1810. Other churches have gone out from it and are now worshipping in different parts of the city, Main Street Church, at North End, having a very large and still increasing membership. In this old mother Church, in earlier days, labored some of the Germain St. Baptist Church fathers of the Baptist denomination in the Maritime Provinces. Of these we mention Theodore Harding, Chas. Tupper, father of Sir Charles Tupper, and Samuel Robinson, all men of precious memory. Rev. W.W. McMasters, Pastor.

Original Germain Street Baptist Church, Following the 1877 Fire

Main Street —Rev. D. Hutchinson, Pastor.

Waterloo Street — Rev. F.H. Wentworth, Pastor.

Brussels Street

The Tabernacle — Rev. G.D. Milbury, M.A., B.D. Pastor.

Carleton (Charlotte Street) — Rev. M.E. Fletcher Pastor.

Victoria Street, N.E. — Rev. B.H. Nobles, Pastor.

Leinster Street — Rev. W. Camp, M.A., B.D., Pastor.

Fairville — Rev. F.E. Bishop, B.A., Pastor.

Carleton (Ludlow Street) — Rev. W.R. Robinson, M.A., B.D., Pastor.


Synagogue (Hazen Avenue) — Bernard L. Amdur, Rabbi, Louis Green, President. Services.— Friday, 8 p.m., summer; 7 p.m., winter. Saturday, 9 a.m. Lectures.— Friday night (English). Saturday morning (Hebrew). Progressive Orthodox. Semi-Reform Ritual. Hebrew School attached to Synagogue. Sunday School in English.

Shaarei Zedek Synagogue


Queen Square Church — is a very handsomely built Gothic structure of native stone. Visitors are much impressed by the beauty of its design and admirable acoustic properties. The congregation worshipping in this imposing edifice was organized on the first Sunday in October, 1791, and it is consequently the oldest congregation in St. John. Its membership at the present time being a particularly large and active one. Rev. Wilfred F. Gatez, Pastor.

Queen Square Methodist Church

Centenary Church — occupies a commanding site at the corner of Princess and Wentworth Streets, in an attractive residential portion of the City. This stately and impressive Gothic edifice is built of gray limestone, and is the largest, as well as one of the finest, churches in the City. Its Chapel, admirably adapted for all Sunday-school and congregational work, is one of the most beautiful on the continent. This Church is the home of a large and influential congregation. Rev. C.R. Flanders, D.D., Pastor.

Centenary Church

Exmouth (Exmouth Street)

Portland Street — Rev. H.D. Marr, Pastor.

Carleton — Rev. Jacob Heaney, B.A., Pastor.

Carmarthen Street — Rev. C.W. Squires, Pastor.

Zion — Rev. J. Crisp, Pastor.


Roman Catholic

The Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception — This exceptionally attractive building is situated on Waterloo Street, a few minutes’ walk from King Square in the centre of the City. Near the Cathedral is the residence of the Bishop of St. John.

Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception

Cathedral — Right Reverend T. Casey, D.D., Bishop of St. John. Reverend Fathers A.W. Meahan, D.S. O’Keefe, W. Duke and M. O’Brien. Sunday Services — Mass, 7, 9, 11 a.m. Vespers, 3.15 p.m.

St. John the Baptist (Broad Street) — Very Rev. W.F. Chapman, V.G., and Rev. J.W. Holland. Sunday Services — Mass, 8, 10 a.m. Vespers 7 p.m.

St. Peter’s — Rev. J.A. Duke, C. SS. R., and Reverend Fathers Borgmann, Maloney, Holland and P. O’ Regan. Sunday Services—Mass, 6, 7.30, 9, 10.30 a.m. Vespers, 7.30 p.m.

Holy Trinity (Canon Street) — Rev. J.J. Walsh. Sunday Services — Mass, 8, 10 a.m. Vespers, 7.15 p. m.

St. Rose, Fairville — Rev. C. Collins. Sunday Services — Mass, 8, 10 a.m. Vespers, 3.30 p.m.

Church of the Assumption, Carleton — Rev. J.J. O’Donovan. Sunday Services — Mass, 8, 10 a.m. Vespers, 7 p.m.


Union Street — Rev. Silas W. Anthony, Pastor.


Christadelphian Hall — 162 Union Street. Services at 11 a.m. and 7 p.m. All are welcome.

Written by johnwood1946

March 21, 2018 at 8:01 AM

Posted in Uncategorized

Chief-Making Among the Passamaquoddy Indians

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From the blog at

Several accounts are available of how the Passamaquoddy Indians, and related groups such as the Maliseets, went about choosing a new chief in days gone by. These accounts vary significantly, but the following one is from a good source and should be included in any comparative study. It is from Chief-Making Among the Passamaquoddy Indians, as published in the Journal of American Folklore by (Mrs.) W. Wallace Brown in 1892.

Big Chief Thunder, Maliseet, 1907

From the Abenaki/Wabanaki and Maliseet Culture and People website


Chief-Making Among the Passamaquoddy Indians

It has been said that it is difficult to induce individuals to abandon old customs and habits, and nearly impossible to prevent them from relapsing into these from time to time. Naturally, however, constant intercourse with white neighbors has had its influence over the Wabanaki, and has changed nearly all of their customs, as it has their costumes. The ceremony which has undergone the least change as observed among the Passamaquoddies is the Rite of Chief-making, as the election and inauguration of governor is called. The government is a tribal assembly, composed of chief, subordinate chief, Po-too-us-win, captains, and councillors. The latter are appointed by the chief from among the old men of the tribe. They do not make the laws, for the law is usage transmitted by tradition. They settle all matters of dispute by the decision of the majority, receiving the chief’s sanction. A new captain is chosen on the resignation of another, and is installed in office at the inauguration of the chief.

The name or duty of Po-too-us-win is not easily defined. He is the “keeper of the wampum,” he is the installing officer, he is the envoy extraordinary, sent with presents or wampum, on visits of importance to other tribes; the Po-too-us-win is really the mouthpiece through which the chief speaks.

Five days are usually devoted to the ceremony of chief-making, though the festivities often last for one or even two weeks.

The office of chief is never hereditary, and until recently it was only on the death of a chief that a new one was chosen. If there were two candidates, the matter was decided by the candidates joining hands over a mark drawn between them, their adherents forming two lines by each clasping his arms around the waist of the one in front of him. The party which succeeded in pulling the opposition candidate across the mark had the right to elect the chief. This method seems to have been unsatisfactory, for in later years they tried the expedient of each one placing his hat at the feet of the preferred candidate. This was brought into disrepute by the hats often numbering more than the heads. At the present time they vote by ballot and the election is held every four years. Of the five days devoted to chief-making the first is entirely given to electioneering and voting. On the second day a council is held by the newly elected officers and their friends. Funds are contributed to defray contingent expenses, and minor preparations made for the feast. The inauguration is held on the third day. Formerly it was customary to use the flesh of a moose or caribou, but on the occasion a description of which I subjoin, a young ox was killed, and the meat boiled in some large kettles over an open fire.

This meat is a very important factor in the rites and is called Ges-ā-ta-gā-ben. The heart and some of the entrails, along with savory herbs, were put in another kettle, and a soup made; no condiments were used in either case.

While the meat was cooking, the old men, the officers, and visiting officers went into a wigwam which is built for the purpose and proceeded with the rites which no women or young men are allowed to witness.

A stand held the tribal wampum, the silver gorgets, and the chief’s hat. The new chief was told where to sit, and, after a silence lasting several minutes, the Po-too-us-win arose, and advancing to the chief, gave the following salutation: “You are now a great man; you have been chosen to lead us. You must have the dignity becoming to a chief. You must look after the welfare of your people. You must not let one do another an injury. You are now a great man. Chief, I salute you;” at the same time placing the hat on the chief’s head.

Each of the captains then saluted him in much the same words. The Po-too-us-win hung a silver gorget on the chief’s neck, while outside of the wigwam the report of a gun announced to the tribe that the new chief was installed in office. After this the subordinate officers were installed and advised. Then the meat was brought in large wooden bowls, and placed near the centre of the wigwam; the Indians, sitting or kneeling about the bowls, ate the meat with their hands, and drank the soup from rudely shaped dishes made of birch-bark.

[The meat and soup left from this repast was apportioned out to each head of a family, who took the food to his own wigwam, where, with much reverence, it was eaten in silence by the women and children.]

The Po-too-us-win sang:

Chiefs, I greet you with a song; I greet you, captains; I greet you all,

at the same time shaking hands with each one in turn. He improvised a song in praise of the meat. This song is called Sāchem-sca-wint-wagen.

The captains also improvised songs to the meat. After this part of the ceremony, which is called Weck-we-bal-ten, meaning “the people’s supper to the officers,” they again arranged themselves in a circle around the room. A drum was beat with short, sharp taps, very slowly at first; each beat of the drum was accompanied by a “honk-honk-honk” from those in the circle. Then the door was burst open, and six women, chosen from among the visitors, entered dancing. As they passed before the chief, he threw a shawl over the head of the first one, the captains throwing shawls over the others. They danced three times around the room, still covered; then all present joined in the dance, the women leading. This is called Moee-mayic-hapjic, or “women thanking for the chief.” The shawls become the property of the women who dance, and are treasured as trophies. The old custom was to place masks over their faces. There are none of these masks in preservation, so they use shawls instead.

Until after the women’s dance, the rite was conducted with all the solemnity of mysticism. At that point, however, the doors were opened, the chief sang a long salutation, in which all were invited to join the dancing. These dances defy description, and they seem interminable, it is so difficult to see where one ends and the next begins. There are the tribal dances, the Micmac, the Mohawk, and the Snake dance. The Mohawk is more properly a war-dance; it is executed with much energy and is very fatiguing.

On the fourth day a secret council was called by the new officers; they held one long session, eating nothing until it was over. That day the supper was provided by the subordinate chief, and was nearly a repetition of the day before, including the same dances.

The fifth was a general holiday. Complimentary speeches were made, flattering adieus were spoken by the guests, though some of them remained through the succeeding week. That night the women gave the eswe-mās-woc-hapijic, consisting of nuts, candy, fruit, tobacco, and pipes. Nearly all, men, women, and children, smoked during the dance, which was continued to a late hour. This ended the inauguration proper; but there are many customs pertaining to etiquette, relevant to the ceremony. After the adieus are spoken, it is customary for the tribe to get together in council, and there decide how much longer a time the guests must remain, and though the visitors are about to embark on their canoes, the captains are expected to forcibly detain them.

This is the occasion for more feasting, and usually the Wā-bāp (wampum) is read. Wampum reading is the reciting of records or of traditions which the Wā-bāp commemorates.

Written by johnwood1946

March 14, 2018 at 8:28 AM

Posted in Uncategorized