New Brunswick History and Other Stuff

Table of Contents, Rev. June 19, 2019

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The blog posts follow this Table of Contents, in the sequence shown. To access a particular post, copy and paste the title, or a sufficient part of the title, to the search box to the right.

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  1. Pictures and Notes About Cape Breton in Around 1900 – June 19, 2019
  2. A Tour of Nova Scotia in 1895, with Bliss Carman and Charles G.D. Roberts – June 12, 2019
  3. Photographs from Nova Scotia, 1901 – Part 2 of 2 – June 5, 2019
  4. Photographs from Nova Scotia, 1901 – May 29, 2019
  5. Kwedechk and Wejebowkwejik, a Tale of Kidnap and Revenge – May 22, 2019
  6. Garden of the Gulf, Prince Edward Island; 1900 – Part  2 of 2 – May 15, 2019
  7. Garden of the Gulf, Prince Edward Island; 1900 – Part 1 of 2 – May 8, 2019
  8. Between Minas Basin and Shelburne: How it was in 1830 – May 1, 2019
  9. Pictures of Charlottetown in About 1903: Number 3 in a Series of Posts – Apr. 24, 2019
  10. Nova Scotia Photographs from Around 1897 – Part 2 of 2 – Apr. 17, 2019
  11. Pictures of Charlottetown in About 1903: Number 2 in a Series of Posts – Apr. 10, 2019
  12. Nova Scotia Photographs from Around 1897 – Part 1 of 2 – Apr. 3, 2019
  13. Pictures of Charlottetown in About 1903: Number 1 in a Series of Posts – Mar. 27. 2019
  14. Prelude to the Taking of Louisbourg – Mar. 20, 2019
  15. Eleven Nice Pictures of Cape Breton and Prince Edward Island in About 1882 – Mar. 13, 2019
  16. Twenty-Three Nice Pictures of Nova Scotia in About 1882 – Mar. 6, 2019
  17. Glooscap and the Megumoowesoo, a Marriage Adventure – Feb. 27, 2019
  18. Stone Tools in the Sand: Calling-Cards From Those Who Came Before – Feb. 20, 2019
  19. Race, Religion, Gender and Class: Halifax in the mid-1850’s – Feb. 13, 2019
  20. A Year of Turmoil and Mismanagement at Annapolis Royal, 1710-11 – Feb. 6, 2019
  21. Norsemen and Norsewomen in the Atlantic Provinces – Jan. 30, 2019
  22. The Fall of Port Royal to the English in 1710 – Jan. 23, 2019
  23. The Aroostook War, from a History Writer in Maine – Jan. 16, 2019
  24. It is Good to Remember Seth Noble – Jan. 9, 2019
  25. Dalhousie University, Smuggling, and the War of 1812 to 1814 – Jan. 2, 2019
  26. Another Perspective on the Battle at Majabidwaduce – Dec. 26, 2018
  27. Christmas as it Was in St. John, in 1808 – Dec. 25, 2018
  28. New Brunswick Pictures from About 1890 – Dec. 19, 2018
  29. New Brunswick Pictures, 128 Years Ago – Dec. 12, 2018
  30. New Brunswick Photographs for Prospective Tourists, 1905 – Dec. 5, 2018
  31. Sketches on the Nepisiquit in Around 1860 – Nov. 28, 2018
  32. The Acadians in Massachusetts and Other Colonies – Nov. 21, 2018
  33. The Acadian Exiles – Unwelcome in Pennsylvania – Nov. 14, 2018
  34. The Magical Coat, Shoes, and Sward – Nov. 7, 2018
  35. Thirty Nice Pictures of New Brunswick in About 1882 – Oct. 31, 2018
  36. Northern and Eastern New Brunswick in 1831 – A Neglected Territory – Oct. 24, 2018
  37. From Saint Martins to Saint John in 1843-Ships Being Built all Along the Coast – Oct. 17, 2017
  38. How to Get a Grant of Crown Land in New Brunswick, in 1884 – Oct. 10, 2018
  39. Fredericton, Saint John, and Thereabouts in 1831 – Oct. 3, 2018
  40. Immigrants to New Denmark and Andover, New Brunswick, in 1884 – Sept. 24, 2018
  41. Saint John, New Brunswick, and by Steamer to Fredericton in 1892 – Sept. 19, 2018
  42. New Brunswick’s Eastern Shore and the Moncton Area in 1894 – Sept. 12, 2018
  43. Impressions of an Officer Stationed in Halifax in 1830 – Sept. 5, 2018
  44. Let Us At Least Have a Rudimentary Education System – Aug. 29, 2018
  45. Champlain in 1605: Exploration, Adventure and Murder – Aug. 22, 2018
  46. New Brunswick in Pictures, 1920 – Part 2 of 2 Aug. 15, 2018
  47. New Brunswick in Pictures, 1920 – Part 1 of 2 – Aug. 8, 2019
  48. The Nova Scotia Question – Aug. 1, 2018
  49. Blog Post #400: Maine versus New Brunswick; Complaints and a Call for Action – July 25, 2018
  50. Remembering the Escuminac Disaster of 1959 – July 18, 2018
  51. A Sportsman’s Guide to Sunbury and Queens Counties, 1898. Who to See – July 11, 2018
  52. The Indian who was Transformed into a Megŭmoowesoo – July 4, 2018
  53. Edward Mitchell Bannister, a Prominent Artist From Saint Andrews – June 27, 2018
  54. The Historic Trappist Monastery at Tracadie, N.S., and the Antigonish Area in 1892 – June 20, 2018
  55. God is in His Heaven and All’s Well With New Brunswick – June 13, 2018
  56. Ten Years of Discord in Acadia: And so it Goes – June 6, 2018
  57. Were Taxes too Low in the 1820’s to Promote Industry? – May 30, 2018
  58. The Adventures of Ababejit, an Indian Chief and Magician of the Micmac – May 23, 2018
  59. John Gyles, His Times and How he was Captured – May 16, 2018
  60. An Illustrated Description of the Building of Stanley, New Brunswick – May 9, 2018
  61. A Proposal to Buy Canada for $85.7-million, plus Other Considerations – May 2, 2018
  62. To Fredericton, Stanley and Woodstock, on my Way to the Tobique in 1851 – Apr. 25, 2018
  63. The Principal Hotels in the Maritime Provinces, 1905, With Photographs – Apr. 18, 2018
  64. Halifax From 1749 to 1800 — Minus the Wars and Politics – Apr. 11, 2018
  65. William Brydone Jack on the Future of University Education in New Brunswick – Apr. 4, 2018
  66. Saint John: From Nothing, to Become Canada’s Winter Port – Mar. 28, 2018
  67. Saint John, New Brunswick Churches in 1910 – Mar. 21, 2018
  68. Chief Making Among the Passamaquoddy Indians – Mar. 14, 2018
  69. Canoeing Down the Restigouche River in 1895 – Mar. 7, 2018
  70. Northern New Brunswick, Heaven on Earth – Feb. 28, 2018
  71. Indian Place Names From Around Passamaquoddy Bay – Feb. 21, 2018
  72. Alexander McNutt’s Accomplishments Went Well Beyond Maugerville – Feb. 14, 2018
  73. Albert County, New Brunswick, about 170 Years Ago – Feb. 7, 2018
  74. 1865: Rise in Support of this Mighty Project! The Confederation Debate – Jan. 31, 2018
  75. The Genesis of Prince Edward Island’s Distinctive Property Laws – Jan. 24, 2018
  76. Saint John’s ‘English Period’, 1758 to 1782 – Jan. 17, 2018
  77. Education in New Brunswick in 1837 – Jan. 10, 2018
  78. The Babcock Tragedy, a Story of Madness and Murder – Jan. 3, 2018
  79. Cape Breton, from about 1000 AD to the Mid-1600’s – Dec. 27, 2017
  80. Christmas as it was in Saint John, 1808 – Dec. 23, 2017
  81. The Saint John River, the Rhine of America – Dec. 20, 2017
  82. A Veiled Threat to Invade New Brunswick – Dec. 13, 2017
  83. A Few Weeks in 1755, the Expulsion of the Acadians Begins – Dec. 6, 2017
  84. The Magical Dancing Doll – Nov. 29, 2017
  85. Immigration to New Brunswick in 1832, and Lumber Mills – Nov. 22, 2017
  86. Harvey, New Brunswick, 1837 – Nov. 15, 2017
  87. On the Road to Responsible Government in New Brunswick – Nov. 8, 2017
  88. Through the Woods in the Dead of Winter; Fredericton to the Miramichi – Nov. 5, 2017
  89. Acadia in 1720, as Seen by Paul Mascerene – Oct. 25, 2017
  90. Nova Scotia’s Sham Government in 1720 – Oct. 18, 2017
  91. Three Short Wabanaki Thunder Stories – Oct. 11, 2017
  92. Stanley, N.B., Carved from the Wilderness – in a Hurry – Oct. 4, 2017
  93. Drunkenness Yearly More Common Amongst all Classes – Sept. 27, 2017
  94. John Cabot, London Superstar and Discoverer of Cape Breton – Sept. 20, 2017
  95. Nicolas Denys, the First Proprietor and Governor of all of the Gulf Coast of Acadia – Sept. 13, 2017
  96. Promoting New Brunswick in 1832 – Sept. 6, 2017
  97. A View of Acadian History, from 30,000 Feet – Aug. 30, 2017
  98. Nova Scotia During the Revolution, an American Perspective – Aug. 23, 2017
  99. The Many Trials of Richard Valpey of Yarmouth, and his Service to the American Cause During the Revolution – Aug. 16, 2017
  100. From Saint John to Annapolis Royal, Around the Bay of Fundy in 1787 – Aug. 9, 2017
  101. Nova Scotia in 1775: “Every Spot is Inhospitable and Frigid” – Aug. 2, 2017
  102. Notes About Edward Cornwallis, Who Has Been in the News Lately – July 26, 2017
  103. Starving, Fly-Bitten, and Lost in the Woods – July 19, 2017
  104. Saint John and Saint George, New Brunswick, in 1842 – July 12, 2017
  105. The Razing of Chignecto, and the Attack on Fort Nashwaak – July 5, 2017
  106. Captain Henry Mowat’s Account of the Battle on the Penobscot – June 28, 2017
  107. Voyage of the First Fleet of 1783, and the Settlement of Kingston by a Band of Loyalists – June 21, 2017
  108. 1,500 Dead in Saint John. The Cholera Epidemic of 1854 – June 14, 2017
  109. Fishing on the Nepisiquit River in the 1870’s – June 7, 2017
  110. The Clock at Fredericton City Hall – May 31, 2017
  111. Prohibition in Saint John in the 1920’s, an Exposé – May 24, 2017
  112. Boss Gibson’s First Railroad – May 17, 2017
  113. The New Brunswick Postal Service in 1856 – May 10, 2017
  114. Defending the ‘Worthless, Unsteady and Villainous’ Cutters of Wood – May 3, 2017
  115. Tossed by the Sea Into a Frozen Wilderness-1788 – Apr. 26, 2017
  116. The King of France Cannot Have Given You Our Land, Because it Was Not His – Apr. 19, 2017
  117. Bureaucracy and the Expulsion of the Acadians – Apr. 12, 2017
  118. From Pictou, Nova Scotia to Saint John, New Brunswick via Charlottetown and Shediac in 1867 – Apr. 5, 2017
  119. A Sunday EXTRA: No Meeting of Minds Between the Acadians and the British in 1717 – Apr. 2, 2017
  120. Grand Falls, New Brunswick in 1844 – A Vast Ocean of Trees – Mar. 29, 2017
  121. Shabby Streets, Decaying Houses, and Steep Plank Sidewalks. Saint John in 1874 – Mar. 22, 2017
  122. In the Beginning – Wabanaki Creation Stories – Mar. 15, 2017
  123. Pride versus Rascals and Villains in Saint John in 1791 – Mar. 8, 2017
  124. The Trent Affair – Mar. 1, 2017
  125. A Shocking Description of Anti-Confederates in Rural Nova Scotia in 1867 – Feb. 22, 2017
  126. Surveying Through the Wilderness in 1844 – Feb. 15, 2017
  127. At the Bend of the Petitcodiac in 1844: Moncton – Feb. 8, 2017
  128. Maria Rye and Her British Home Children – Feb. 1, 2017
  129. New Brunswick’s East Coast in 1832, Following the Miramichi Fire – Jan. 25, 2017
  130. Slavery in the Loyalist Era – Jan. 18, 2017
  131. Weather and the Seasons in Micmac Mythology – Jan. 11, 2017
  132. New Brunswick’s Roads in 1832: ‘Many paths are misnamed roads’. Jan. 7, 2017
  133. Nova Scotia and New England During the Revolution – Dec. 28, 2016
  134. A Holiday Special: Christmas as it Was in Saint John in 1808 – Dec. 23, 2016
  135. Expressions from Cuffer Down plus Signs and Omens – Dec. 21, 2016
  136. From Passamaquoddy to the Petitcodiac: What it Was Like in 1832 – Dec. 14, 2016
  137. Raymond Writes About the Lives and Customs of the Mi’kmaq and Maliseet People – Dec. 7, 2016
  138. The Governor’s House was an Outrage to Good Taste – Fredericton in 1832 – Nov. 30, 2016
  139. An Unparalleled and Abominable Deception – Nov. 23, 2016
  140. Not a Metropolis, but the Largest Town in the Province – Saint John in 1832 – Nov. 16, 2016
  141. Lumber Camp Life, and Game-Wardens Poaching Moose – Nov. 9, 2016
  142. Louisbourg: It Didn’t Have to Happen. It Just Didn’t Have to Happen – Nov. 2, 2016
  143. Let Us Consider the Lowly Seagull – Oct. 26, 2016
  144. 5 – David Kennedy Completes His Travels of 1876 in Halifax – Oct. 19, 2016
  145. 4 – David Kennedy’s Tour of Nova Scotia in 1876 – Oct. 12, 2016
  146. 3 – David Kennedy’s Tour of Newcastle, Chatham and Bathurst in 1876 – Oct. 5, 2016
  147. 2 – David Kennedy’s Visit to Saint John, New Brunswick in 1876 – Sept. 28, 2016
  148. 1 – David Kennedy’s Travels from Quebec City to New Brunswick in 1876 – Sept. 21, 2016 (This blog posting was lost on Sept. 28th. I decided not to re-post, since it would clutter my subscribers’ screens.)
  149. A Short History of Early English Nova Scotia – Sept. 14, 2016
  150. Fish Wardens Described as Useless Political Appointments – Sept. 7, 2016
  151. With Indian Guides in the Wilds of New Brunswick, 1862 – Aug. 31, 2016
  152. Blog past #300: Port Royal from 1604 to 1613. Of Heritage Value to all North Americans – Aug. 24, 2016
  153. Hunting Down the Last of the Old Growth Pine – Aug. 17, 2016
  154. Dr. James Robb – Aug. 10, 2016
  155. Peace Negotiations With Pierre Tomah on the Saint John River – Aug. 3, 2016
  156. Business Opportunities on Campobello Island – July 27, 2016
  157. A Pompous Captain on the Evils of Logging – July 20, 2016
  158. The Too-Easy Life of Nova Scotians Disproved – July 13, 2016
  159. Why Not to Marry a Nova Scotia Woman, and How to Make Maple Sugar – July 6, 2016
  160. The Bloody Assault on Fort Louisbourg in 1758 – June 29, 2016
  161. The Medical Men of Saint John in its First Half Century – June 22, 2016
  162. Henry Ketchum and the Chignecto Marine Transport Railway – June 15, 2016
  163. A War Journal from Majabidwaduce on the Penobscot – June 8, 2016
  164. Mi’kmaq Magic and Medicine – June 1, 2016
  165. Thomas Wood, and His Visit to the Saint John River in 1769 – May 25, 2016
  166. The Northern Colonies: Languishing in Mediocrity – ca 1804 – May 18, 2016
  167. Fredericton’s Victoria Cottage Hospital – May 11, 2016
  168. The Passamaquoddy Wampum Records – May 4, 2016
  169. Slog on, or Die – Apr. 27, 2016
  170. Changes Nova Scotia Underwent from Discovery to 1758 When the First General Assembly Met in Halifax – Apr. 20, 2016
  171. The Disastrous Winter on St. Croix Island, 1604-05, and Other Adventures – Apr. 13, 2016
  172. Missions to the Mi’kmaq and Maliseet in the Early 1800’s – Apr. 6, 2016
  173. It Sounded Like a Residential School Philosophy – Mar. 30, 2016
  174. The Acadian Fugitives – Mar. 23, 2016
  175. Giddy, Eccentric, and Discontented Characters, or Misguided Souls, or Turncoats? – Mar. 16, 2016
  176. Indian Routes of Travel in New Brunswick – Mar. 9, 2016
  177. Historic Sites from the English Period on the Saint John River – Mar. 2, 2016
  178. How to Hunt a Moose, a Goose, and a Caribou in New Brunswick in 1791 – Feb. 24, 2016
  179. William Hubbard Complains to Edward Winslow about the Congregationalists in Sheffield – Feb. 17, 2016
  180. Good Fences Make Good Neighbours – Feb. 10, 2016
  181. WE NEED THE ACADIANS TO REMAIN: Lieut Governor, 1715 – Feb. 2, 2015
  182. Guy Carleton on the Fur Trade in Canada, 1767 – Jan. 27, 2016
  183. A Letter on Irish Immigrants – Jan. 20, 2016
  184. The Wreck of the ‘Lord Ashburton’ – Jan. 13, 2016
  185. A Ghost at Noonday – Jan. 6, 2016
  186. Silas Rand on the Mi’kmaq People – Part 3: Will Not the Bright Sun and the Blue Heavens Testify Against Us? – Dec. 30, 2015
  187. Silas Rand on the Mi’kmaq People – Part 2: To Every Thing There is a Season – Dec. 23, 2015
  188. Silas Rand on the Mi’kmaq People – Part 1: All Men From One Blood – Dec. 16, 2015
  189. Limits to the Royal Bounty – Dec. 9, 2015
  190. Nova Scotia, a Receptacle for Superfluous People? – Dec. 1, 2015
  191. From New Ireland to New Brunswick – Nov. 25, 2015
  192. The Most Gentlemanlike Government on Earth – Nov. 18, 2015
  193. I Love You for Your Plainness – Nov. 11, 2015
  194. Ward Chipman Remembers the Final Evacuation of New York – Nov. 4, 2015
  195. A Reply to “Men of Honor and Probity Run Amok” – Oct. 28, 2015
  196. A Century of Educational Progress in New Brunswick from 1800 to 1900 – Oct. 21, 2015
  197. Notes About the Earliest Public Markets in Saint John, New Brunswick – Oct. 14, 2015
  198. The Provincial Dairy School at Sussex, New Brunswick, 1900 – Oct. 7, 2015
  199. An Account of Nova Scotia in 1743 – Sept. 30, 2015
  200. The Petition of the Infamous 55 – Sept. 23, 2015
  201. Francis Sharpe’s Woodstock Apples – Sept. 16, 2015
  202. The Expulsion of the Acadians, a Military Surgeon’s Diary – Sept. 9, 2015
  203. The New Brunswick Election of 1785 – Sept. 2, 2015
  204. The Many Fires in Saint John, 1784-1877 – Aug. 26, 2015
  205. A Proposal for an Attack on Nova Scotia – Aug. 19, 2015
  206. Fredericton’s Great Flood of 1936 – Aug. 12, 2015
  207. A Letter about the Acadians and the Expulsion – Aug. 5, 2015
  208. Saint John in 1834, Before it was Forever Changed by the Great Fire – July 29, 2015
  209. New Brunswick, No Country for a Mere Gentleman, 1834 – July 22, 2015
  210. Woodstock, the Only Village Between the Green River and Fredericton in 1834 – July 15, 2015
  211. On the Tamiscouta Prtage from Lake Tamiscouta to just above Grand Falls, 1834 – July 10, 2015
  212. Men of Honor and Probity Run Amok – July 1, 2015
  213. By Steamer to the So-Called City of Fredericton – June 24, 2014
  214. A Quiet and Business-Like Little City – June 17, 2015
  215. Rambles Among the Bluenoses in 1862 – June 10, 2015
  216. Edward John Russell, a New Brunswick Artist – June 3, 2015
  217. Provincial Lunatic Asylum, Report of the Medical Superintendent, 1875 – May 27, 2015
  218. The Saint John River and Port Royal in the Early 1600’s – May 20, 2015
  219. What Should We Think of Benedict Arnold? – May 13, 2015
  220. Diphtheria in New Brunswick in the Year 1889 – May 6, 2015
  221. The Official Account of the Destruction of Burnt Church – Apr. 29, 2015
  222. The Exchange Coffee House and Saint John’s First Club – Apr. 22, 2015
  223. The Wigwams and Dwellings of the Gaspesians – Apr. 15, 2015
  224. The Story of Brook Watson – Apr. 8, 2015
  225. Where Stood Fort LaTour? – Apr. 1, 2015
  226. Things This Morning Really Wear the Aspect of War – Mar. 25, 2015
  227. At Portland Point – Mar. 18, 2015
  228. Electrical Power From the Reversing Falls – Mar. 10, 2015
  229. Father Rale’s War – 1722-25; How it Ended – Mar. 4, 2015
  230. What Was the Big Deal About the Marco Polo? – Feb. 25, 2015
  231. Grand Manan to Petitcodiac, in 1786 – Feb. 18, 2015
  232. A Trip From St. John to Fredericton in 1870 – Feb. 11, 2015
  233. A Tour of St. John, N.B., in 1870 – Feb. 4, 2015
  234. Destruction by Fire of the First Cathedral in Chatham – Jan. 28, 2015
  235. Burgan the Burglar – Jan. 21, 2015
  236. Facts and Reasons Against Confederating With Canada – Jan. 14, 2015
  237. Discontent in Early Halifax in 1756 – Jan. 7, 2015
  238. A Trip on the ICR From Bathurst to Miramichi – Dec. 31, 2014
  239. Early Attempts to Introduce the Cultivation of Hemp in Eastern British America – Dec. 24, 2014
  240. Touring Campbellton and Dalhousie, Despite the Mosquitoes, 1876 – Dec. 19, 2014
  241. The Fire of 1837 in Saint John – Dec. 10, 2014
  242. The Cruise of the Rechab – Dec. 3, 2014
  243. A Night in the Deep – Nov. 26, 2014
  244. Robert Foulis (A Misplaced Genius) – Nov. 19, 2014
  245. The City Mills – Nov. 15, 2014
  246. The Brothers d’Amours – Nov. 5, 2014
  247. John Allan’s Revolutionary Mission to the Saint John River – Oct. 29, 2014
  248. Relics of the Acadian Period – Oct. 22, 2014
  249. Some Odd Old Advertisements – Oct. 15, 2014
  250. The Miramichi Fire – Relief of the Sufferers – Oct. 8, 2014
  251. Jonathan Eddy’s Account of the Attack on Fort Cumberland, November, 1776 – Oct. 1, 2014
  252. Which of These Two is the Wisest and Happiest? – Sept. 24, 2014
  253. Fredericton Bridge, a Prophetic Writing – Sept. 17, 2014
  254. A Speech to Distinguished Persons of Stake and Consideration – Sept. 10, 2014
  255. Building an Education System From Almost Nothing – Sept. 3, 2014
  256. Cape Tormentine to the Baye des Chaleurs in the 1600’s – Aug. 27, 2014
  257. The Customs of the Mi’kmaq in the 1600’s and Before – Aug. 20, 2014
  258. Two Documents Relating to the Fenians in New Brunswick – Aug. 13, 2014
  259. The Lazaretto for Lepers in Tracadie, 1862 – Aug. 6, 2014
  260. Thoughts About the Augustine Mound at Metepenegiag Mi’kmaq Nation – July 30, 2014
  261. What am I Bid for This Pauper? – July 23, 2014
  262. Trouble at Madawaska, 1831 – July 16, 2014
  263. The Great Fire at Saint John, June 20, 1877 – July 9, 2014
  264. The Poor Fellows Shook as if They Would Fall to Pieces! – July 2, 2014
  265. How to Build a Logging Camp in Around 1850 – June 25, 2014
  266. Risen from the Ashes, Phoenix Square in Fredericton – June 18, 2014
  267. Rocks and Water, Magnificence and Squalor; St. John in 1876 – June 11, 2014
  268. Moncton as Seen by a Journalist in 1876 – June 4, 2014
  269. Events Leading to the Caraquet Riots of 1875 – May 28, 2014
  270. A Dramatic Account of the Miramichi Fire – May 21, 2014
  271. Saint John in the Early 1840’s – May 18, 2014
  272. The Myth that Kerosene was Invented in New Brunswick – May 7, 2014
  273. A Church with Military Boots and Fixed Bayonets – Apr. 30, 2014
  274. An Opening Salvo in an Ongoing Argument – Apr. 23, 2014
  275. May living worms his corpse devour – Apr. 16, 2014
  276. He don’t look any better than some of our own boys – Apr. 9, 2014
  277. The Disputed Territory Between New Brunswick and Maine – Apr. 2, 2014
  278. Navigation on the Saint John River – Mar. 26, 2014
  279. Shepody as a Hot Investment Opportunity, 1868 – Mar. 19, 2014
  280. To Her Majesty, RE: Reciprocity, 1853 – Mar. 12, 2014
  281. Diary on the Tobique, 1851 – Mar. 5, 2014
  282. Growing up in Fredericton in the 1820s and 1830s – Feb. 26, 2014
  283. Travels From Eastport, Maine, to Fredericton, 1851 – Feb. 19, 2014
  284. The Saint John General Public Hospital, 19th Century, Part 2 of 2 – Feb. 12, 2014
  285. The Saint John General Public Hospital, 19th Century, Part 1 of 2 – Feb. 5, 2014
  286. The Story of the Great Brothers – Jan. 29, 2014
  287. A Trek up the Tobique, and Onward to Bathurst – Jan. 22, 2014
  288. Summer Tourists. A Manual for New Brunswick Farmers – Jan. 19, 2014
  289. A Trek from Grand Falls to Campbellton, 1862 – Jan. 15, 2014
  290. A Trek From Taymouth to Boisetown, 1862 – Jan. 12, 2014
  291. Capt. William Owen’s Journal, Campobello, 1770-71 – Jan. 8, 2014
  292. The Founding of Campobello Island – Jan. 5, 2014
  293. New Brunswick Roads and Railways, 1855 – Jan. 1, 2014
  294. Grand Manan – Dec. 29, 2013
  295. The Shipyard Fire in Saint John, in 1841 – Dec. 26, 2013
  296. Christmas as it Was in Saint John, in 1808 – Dec. 22, 2013
  297. The Saint John Grammar School – Dec. 18, 2013
  298. William Wishart Blasts the New Brunswick Education System, 1845 – Dec. 15, 2013
  299. The Diary of Sarah Frost – Dec. 11, 2013
  300. Pŭlěs, Pŭlowěch′, and Beechkwěch (Pigeon, Partridge, and Nighthawk) – Dec. 10, 2014
  301. The Government of New Brunswick, 1837 – Dec. 4, 2013
  302. The Whales and the Robbers – Dec. 1, 2013
  303. The Ashburton Treaty – Nov. 27, 2013
  304. Glooscap and His Four Visitors – Nov. 24, 2013
  305. The Pioneers of Saint Stephen – Nov. 20, 2013
  306. The Adventures of Kâktoogwâsees; a Tale of Ancient Times – Nov. 17, 2013
  307. The Asylum at Saint John – Nov. 13, 2013
  308. The Liver-Colored Giants and Magicians – Nov. 10, 2013
  309. Smuggling Between Calais and St. Stephen – Nov. 6, 2013
  310. The Two Weasels – Nov. 3, 2013
  311. The European and North American Railway, 1862 – Oct. 30, 2013
  312. The Origin of the War Between the Mi’kmaq and the Kwěděches – Oct. 23, 2013
  313. Trouble on the Line: The Early Telegraph in New Brunswick – Oct. 16, 2013
  314. The Invisible Boy; Team′ and Oochigeaskw – Oct. 9, 2013
  315. Transportation to and from Fredericton, 1841 – Oct. 2, 2013
  316. The Boy That Was Transformed Into a Horse – Sept. 25, 2013
  317. McAdam: Notes From the Early Days – Sept. 18, 2013
  318. The Magical Food, Belt and Flute – Sept. 11, 2013
  319. European & North American Rly. Staff, 1861 – Sept. 4, 2013
  320. Glooscap and the Megumoowesoo: A Marriage Adventure – Aug. 28, 2013
  321. The Loss of the Royal Tar – Aug. 21, 2013
  322. Robbery and Murder Revenged, Plus a Grand Falls Story – Aug. 14, 2013
  323. The St. John River From Below Fredericton to the Reversing Falls – Aug. 7, 2013
  324. A Proposal for a Wooden Railway – July 31, 2013
  325. ‘On the Early History of New Brunswick’ – July 24, 2013
  326. The Maugerville Settlement, 1763-1824 – July 17, 2013
  327. 1930 Circus Train Wreck Near Moncton, N.B. – July 10, 2013
  328. Horses or Oxen? Pick one – July 3, 2013
  329. The St. John River; Andover to Fredericton – June 26, 2013
  330. Origins of Some Place Names on N.B.’s Eastern Shore – June 19, 2013
  331. The St. John River; Grand Falls to the Tobique – June 12, 2013
  332. Gabriel Acquin – June 5, 2013
  333. The Seigniories of New Brunsiwck – May 29, 2013
  334. An 1841 Trek up the Oromocto River – May 22, 2013
  335. Fredericton’s Exhibition Palace, and Bears in N.B. – May 15, 2013
  336. Murder on Diamond Square Road – May 8, 2013
  337. Acadian Historic Sites in New Brunswick – May 1, 2013
  338. John C. Tracy’s Book, Part 5 of 5 – Apr. 24, 2013
  339. John C. Tracy’s Book, Part 4 of 5 – Apr. 17, 2013
  340. John C. Tracy’s Book, Part 3 of 5 – Apr. 10, 2013
  341. John C. Tracy’s Book, Part 2 of 5 – Apr. 3, 2013
  342. John C. Tracy’s Book, Part 1 of 5 – Mar. 27, 2013
  343. A Retrospective Look at Saint John – Mar. 20, 2013
  344. The Wreck of the England – Mar. 13, 2013
  345. The First Decade of the 1800’s in St. John, N.B. – Mar. 6, 2013
  346. St. John’s Poorhouse and Workhouse – Feb. 27, 2013, Rev. Sept. 9, 2015
  347. New Brunswick Scenes From an Old Book – Feb. 20, 2013
  348. Nice Pictures From Another Old Book – Feb. 13, 2013
  349. Life in the Backwoods of New Brunswick, Part 2/2 – Feb. 6, 2013
  350. Life in the Backwoods of New Brunswick, 1845 – Jan. 30, 2013
  351. The Works of W.O. Raymond – Jan. 23, 2013
  352. The Year of the Fever – Jan. 16, 2013
  353. Hanged for the Theft of 25 Cents – Jan. 9, 2013
  354. Reversing Falls – Pictures – Jan. 2, 2013
  355. Christmas as it was in 1808 – Dec. 25, 2012
  356. Nice Pictures From an Old Book – Dec. 19, 2012
  357. The Saint John Bridge Collapse of 1837 – Dec. 12, 2012
  358. The First Road Bridge Across the Reversing Falls – Dec. 5, 2012
  359. The Mystery of the First Lizzie Morrow – Nov. 28, 2012
  360. The First Murder Trial on the River St. John – Nov. 21, 2012
  361. The March of the 104th Regiment in 1812 – Nov. 14, 2012
  362. Partridge Island – Nov. 7, 2012
  363. Fredericton’s First Bridge Across the Saint John River – Oct. 31, 2012
  364. 1816, The Year Without a Summer – Oct. 31, 2012
  365. Winslow to Wentworth, 1781 – Oct. 31, 2012
  366. The Saxby Gale of 1869 – Oct. 31, 2012
  367. New Brunswick’s Third Town in 1838: Saint Andrews – Oct. 31, 2012
  368. Fredericton and York County in 1838 – Oct. 31, 2012
  369. The City and County of Saint John in 1838 – Sept. 26, 2012
  370. The St. Andrews and Quebec Railroad – Sept. 19, 2012
  371. The Studholm Report of Saint John River Pre-Loyalists in 1783 – Sept. 12, 2012
  372. Caleb Jones. Further RE: Ann, otherwise known as Nancy – Sept. 5, 2012
  373. The Wreck of the Martha – Aug. 29, 2012
  374. The Early Settlement of Maugerville and the Sheffield Parsonage Dispute – Aug. 22, 2012
  375. Lieutenant Governors of New Brunswick to Confederation, Part 2 of 2 – Aug. 15, 2012
  376. Lieutenant Governors of New Brunswick to Confederation, Part 1 of 2 – Aug. 8, 2012
  377. The Morrow House at French Lake, N.B. – New Information – Aug. 1, 2012
  378. Sound by Glen Glenn, Revision 1 – July 25, 2012
  379. Ann, otherwise known as Nancy – July 18, 2012
  380. The Fire of October 7, 1825 – Beyond the Miramichi – July 11, 2012
  381. Lemuel Allan Wilmot – July 4, 2012
  382. The Great Fire at Miramichi, October 7, 1825 – June 27, 2012
  383. Robert Rankin in New Brunswick – June 20, 2012
  384. Who Owned the Mill at Tracy, New Brunswick? – June 13, 2012
  385. Signatures of Sunbury County Ancestors – June 6, 2012
  386. Daniel Wood’s Log Cabin, and Little Field Barn at French Lake, New Brunswick – May 30, 2012
  387. Rusagonis and George Garraty – May 23, 2012
  388. Epitaph Transcriptions from a Collection – May 16, 2012
  389. Central New Brunswick Gravestones from a Genealogy – May 9, 2012
  390. Nashwaak River Pictures with Stewart Family Connections – May 2, 2012
  391. More Sunbury County Photographs from a Collection – Apr. 25, 2012
  392. An Indian Burial Ground at Oromocto; and Coal Mining on the Oromocto River – Apr. 22, 2012
  393. “Days of Old” by Katherine DeWitt and Norma Alexander – Apr. 18, 2012
  394. The Wood Cemetery at French Lake, New Brunswick – Apr. 11, 2012
  395. James Glenie in New Brunswick – Apr. 4, 2012
  396. Four Generations of the Stewart Family on the Nashwaak River – Mar. 28, 2012
  397. Three Generations of the Mersereau Family in New Brunswick – Mar. 21, 2012
  398. Three Generations of the Smith Family of Sunbury County, New Brunswick – Mar. 14, 2012
  399. Three Generations of the Wood Family of French Lake, New Brunswick – Mar. 7, 2012
  400. New Brunswick Education in 1883 – Feb. 29, 2012
  401. Riots and Demonstrations in Saint John – Feb. 20, 2012
  402. Making Better Butter – Feb. 18, 2012
  403. York County Place Names, 1896/1905 – Feb. 8, 2012
  404. Sunbury County Place Names, 1896/1905 – Feb. 1, 2012
  405. Stereoscopic slides from Fred Stewart, Part 3 of 3 – Jan. 25, 2012
  406. Stereoscopic slides from Fred Stewart, Part 2 of 3 – Jan. 18, 2012
  407. Stereoscopic slides from Fred Stewart, Part 1 of 3 – Jan. 11, 2012
  408. The Hon. Thomas Baillie: Gone, but not soon forgotten! – Jan. 5, 2012
  409. The Fort at Oromocto, 1780 – 1783 – Dec. 29, 2011
  410. The Great Fire in Fredericton, 1850 – Early Accounts – Dec. 15, 2011
  411. The Morrow House at French Lake, and More – Dec. 8, 2011
  412. The Old Woman House at French Lake, New Brunswick – Dec. 1, 2011
  413. Smith Family Photographs from a Collection, Sunbury County, N.B. – Nov. 25, 2011
  414. French Lake from Before we Remember – Nov. 20, 2011
  415. How Geary became known as Geary – Nov. 9, 2011
  416. Elizabeth (Smith) Secord; N.B.’s First Woman Registered Doctor – Nov. 4, 2011
  417. Phillips Family Photographs from a Collection, Rusagonis, N.B. – Nov. 2, 2011
  418. Mersereau Family Photographs from a Collection, Sunbury County, N.B. – Oct. 30, 2011
  419. Wood Family Photographs from a Collection, French Lake, N.B. – Oct. 25, 2011
  420. Jeremiah Tracy: Pioneer of the Village of Tracy, New Brunswick – Oct. 20, 2011
  421. Two Old Railroad-Inspired Songs – Oct. 16, 2011
  422. Ode to the Oromocto River – Oct. 10, 2011
  423. John Mersereau, Loyalist 2 – Oct. 4, 2011
  424. The Earliest American Railroads and Locomotives – Sept. 14, 2011
  425. The Mersereau Manufacturing Company of Brooklyn, New York, Notes – Sept. 3, 2011
  426. George Morrow of French Lake, New Brunswick – 1801-1868 – Aug. 26, 2011
  427. The Wood Family of French Lake, New Brunswick – Legends – Aug. 9, 2011
  428. The Baptist Church on the Oromocto River in New Brunswick – Aug. 7, 2011
  429. John Wood of French Lake, New Brunswick – 1788-1868 – Aug. 2, 2011
  430. Daniel Wood of French Lake, New Brunswick – 1764-1847 – Aug. 1, 2011
  431. Three Stewarts on the Nashwaak – July 24, 2011
  432. Bunker Genealogy – Five Bunkers – July 20, 2011
  433. Statistics From the 1851 and 1871 Sunbury County New Brunswick Census Reports – July 19, 2011
  434. Historical Development of the Beam Bending Equation M=fS – July 18, 2011
  435. Seth Noble, Maugerville and the American Revolution – July 16, 2011
  436. Columns, the Long and the Short of it – 1729-1900 – July 15, 2011
  437. The Great Saint John Steel Cantilever Bridge – July 13, 2011
  438. The Upper Oromocto River in 1847 – July 11, 2011
  439. Early Glimpses of the Rusagonis Baptist Church in New Brunswick – July 11, 2011
  440. Abraham Gesner’s 1847 Observations of Sport Hunting in New Brunswick – July 11, 2011
  441. It Sounds a bit Too Easy – July 10, 2011
  442. James Buncker – July 10, 2011
  443. Inconsistent Petitions; Changed Self-Interests – July 10, 2011
  444. Abner Mersereau and a Letter – July 9, 2011
  445. Early Glimpses of the Patterson Settlement Baptist Church in New Brunswick – July 9, 2011
  446. The Textile Mill at Geary, New Brunswick – July 8, 2011
  447. Letter of Mi’kmaq’ Chief Pemmeenauweet to Queen Victoria – 1841 – July 7, 2011
  448. New Brunswick in the 1840s – July 7, 2011


John Wood


Written by johnwood1946

June 19, 2019 at 7:42 AM

Posted in Uncategorized

Pictures and Notes About Cape Breton in Around 1900

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From the blog at

Pictures and Notes About Cape Breton in Around 1900

Robert McLeod wrote a book entitled Markland, or Nova Scotia: Its History, Natural Resources and Native Beauties in 1903, and included a chapter about Cape Breton County. Following are some extracts from that book, beginning with photographs. The quality of the photographs suffered from having been microfilmed.


Caledonia Colliery, Cape Breton County (This better copy of the same photograph from N.S. Archives):

Commercial Bank, Sydney:

The Sydney Hotel:

Charlotte Street from Wentworth to Pitt, Sydney:

Saint Peters:

Steamer Passing Through the Saint Peters Canal Into Bras d’Or Lakes:

A Party of American Tourists at Saint Peters:


And now, some of the text from the book:

About the Scots:

The island of Cape Breton is pre-eminently Celtic or Highland Scotch, and I will here quote Mr. Richard Brown at the point where he tells how it all came to pass: [He quotes from Richard Brown’s The Coal Fields and the Coal Trade of Cape Breton, 1871]

“… In 1763 a great number of troops were disbanded, among the rest some of the Highland regiments which had seen service in America. Many of the Highlanders, with that prudence and foresight peculiar to their countrymen, who had noted with observant eyes the fertility of the provinces in which they had served, in every respect so much superior to the bleak and barren hills of their native land, determined to make them their future home. Those who settled in Canada, Nova Scotia, and St. John’s Island, sent home to their friends such glowing accounts of their new homes, about the year 1773, that the latter prepared to join them as soon as possible. It so happened that just at the time these accounts reached Scotland from the colonies many of the Highland chieftains, who had discovered that the raising of cattle and sheep afforded greater profits than the letting of their lands to miserable tenants, were dispossessing the latter of their farms and holdings. This harsh treatment, of course, gave a great impetus to the emigration, and thousands left almost every district in the Highlands to join their friends in the colonies. In the course of twenty or thirty years following 1773, whole baronies were turned into sheep-farms, and hundreds of families were driven across the Atlantic to look for a home in the backwoods of America. Many of these who had friends in the colonies, and knew what to expect, emigrated at once, but thousands, who had no such desire, on the contrary, the greatest repugnance to leave the land of their fathers, the familiar hills and the green slopes of Lochabar, were heartbroken at the idea of being separated from them by a thousand leagues of sea. Many, it is true, especially the young men, gladly embraced the offers of their landlords to assist them in emigrating to a country where labor was abundant and remuneration ample, and where they could with common industry soon acquire a comfortable subsistence; but the old people, who had passed all their lives in their native glens, clung to their birthplaces with a tenacity known only to the Celts.

“The Hector the first ship that arrived in Pictou with emigrants in 1773 was followed by others in such rapid succession that in the course of eight or ten years not only the country bordering on the harbor and rivers of Pictou, but also the coast to the eastward as far as Merigomish, was taken up and occupied. So far all the emigrants who had arrived at Pictou were Presbyterians, but two ships having arrived there in 1791 with Roman Catholics from the Western Islands, they were persuaded by the Rev. McEachern, of St. John’s Island, to leave Pictou and settle along the gulf shore towards Antigonish. Some of these, dissatisfied with that location, crossed over to Cape Breton and settled upon the northwest shore at several places between the Strait of Canso and Margaree, where they found a more congenial soil and greater facilities for prosecuting the sea fisheries, in which they had been engaged in the Western Islands. The favorable accounts of the country, sent home by these wanderers, induced many of their countrymen to find a passage to the western shores of the island, where they settled chiefly about Judique and Mabou. There were, of course, no roads, not even a blazed track through the forests, from the seacoast to the Bras d’Or Lakes, at that time; nevertheless some stragglers were not long in finding their way to the fruitful, sheltered shores of the lakes, whose innumerable bays, arms, and creeks offered such desirable places for settlement that the emigration agents who had furnished ships for conveying the people hitherto to Pictou or Canso were induced to send their vessels direct to the Bras d’Or Lakes. The pioneer ship on this route arrived at Sydney on August 16, 1802, with 299 passengers, of whom 104 were heads of families, the remainder children. From this time the tide of emigration gathered strength as it advanced, until it reached its highest point in 1817, when it began gradually to decline. The last emigrant ship arrived in 1828. The great influx of Scottish emigrants (said by some authorities to have exceeded 25,000 souls) gave quite a new complexion to the population of Cape Breton, if it can with propriety be said that it was, before their arrival, distinguished by any complexion whatever. The island is now decidedly Scotch, with every probability of its continuing so to the end of time.”

About Sydney, and Coal:

The following extract is taken from the Cape Breton edition of the Halifax Herald of August, 1901, being a portion of an article contributed by G.H. Dosson, Esq.:

“The nearest first-class harbor to Europe is Sydney, which comprises the ports of Sydney and North Sydney. It is one of the most spacious and safest in the world. Its arms are five and seven miles long respectively, and the average depth of water is fifty feet. At Sydney are the coal piers of the Dominion Coal Company, which are of the largest and most modern type, fully equipped with machinery and chutes, with a loading capacity of 20,000 tons per day. In addition to the facilities provided for rapid loading of large steamers, there is also an auxiliary equipment of buckets which are worked by hydraulic towers, and are so placed that ships of any height or draught are loaded at any time of the tide. These piers have been so planned as to meet the requirements up to a capacity of 40,000 tons per day, whenever the output of the collieries will warrant the increase of force and the additional machinery. In fact the International piers are among the largest in the world, and with one exception, the largest on the Atlantic seaboard. Steamers of 6,000 tons capacity are loaded within twenty-four hours of docking. At North Sydney are the piers of the Nova Scotia Steel and Coal Company. Here new piers of modern equipment for the largest class of shipping are being designed. The Dominion Coal Company has also splendid shipping facilities at Louisburg, which is used for shipment to the United States, and also for Southern trade during the winter months. The Louisburg pier is also of the largest and most modern type, and has a conveyor and storage bins for loading slack at the rate of 750 tons per hour, or 18,000 tons per day. Steamers drawing twenty-four feet of water carry this coal to Boston, making two trips per week.

“The Sydney & Louisburg Railway, which is owned by the Dominion Coal Company, has a total length, including branches, of forty-six miles. This line connects Sydney and Louisburg with the six large collieries now in operation.”

From the same edition of the Herald the following paragraph is extracted:

“North Sydney is centrally situated, with a splendid harbor in front, and the agricultural sections of Bras d’Or and Boulardarie in the background. Only two miles away are the famous Nova Scotia Steel and Coal Company properties. The shipping piers of the coal company are in the center of the town, which is connected with the railway system of the continent by the Intercolonial Railroad. It is the Canadian terminus of the Newfoundland railway and steamship system. North Sydney has advanced in trade and population more rapidly than any other town in the Province which has not experienced a boom. The census figures, showing an increase of 84 per cent in ten years, speak for themselves. The assessor’s books show a corresponding increase.”

About Glace Bay:

Glace Bay is the name of a place that is central to the mining operations near Sydney, and within a very short time has grown to comparatively large dimensions. The following extract from the Glace Bay Gazette of January 18, 1901, gives an idea of the prosperity of this town that has come to stay:

“It is the town’s first birthday. One year ago we were a struggling, straggling, muddy village. Today we are a town of at least 10,000 people, with streets, sidewalks, electric lights, a fire department. We have our own town, government, we have a board of trade, we are to have a water supply.

“Apparently there is nothing the matter with Glace Bay, and it is bound to grow by virtue of natural laws. It is the headquarters of the Dominion Coal Company in Cape Breton, the center of the extensive collieries of that concern. In the vicinity are the Bridgeport, Reserve, Caledonia, Dominion and other mines, employing several thousand men. The pay roll of the company has amounted to $125,000 in one month. The town is located on the Sydney & Louisburg Railway. It is impossible within my limited space to even mention the localities beyond a few of the most importance. Scores of places might be described that are either beautiful for the eye to rest upon or inviting as points of economic interest. Cape Breton County, by virtue of its mineral wealth, its geographical position, and scenic beauties, has no equal on the American continent within the same area. It was first discovered four hundred years ago, but within ten years it has been rediscovered by capitalists, and henceforth it will be heard from throughout the civilized world.”

Written by johnwood1946

June 19, 2019 at 7:42 AM

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A Tour of Nova Scotia in 1895, with Bliss Carman and Charles G.D. Roberts

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From the blog at

Douglas Wheelton-Sladen was an Englishman who was educated at Trinity College, Oxford, and relocated to Australia while still in his twenties. He became a lecturer in history at the University of Sydney and was also a writer of novels and anthologies. He travelled widely later in life and wrote about these wanderings also.

One of his books was On the Cars and Off, London, 1895, which described his journey from Halifax to Victoria. The following description of Nova Scotia is taken from that book, with moderate to heavy editing. His elaborate prose has been abbreviated, and some of his 19th century old-Tory social and political views have been omitted.

The Acadian Memorial Park, Grand Pré, about 1923

From the McCord Museum

A Tour of Nova Scotia in 1895, with Bliss Carman and Charles G.D. Roberts

What a change it was, from luxury to sturdiness, when I boarded the Halifax, after having sailed in smaller sips around Boston. Not that the Halifax is not as luxurious as an ocean-going boat of her size need be—she has a delightful saloon—but that she is essentially an ocean-going boat which all the winter through has had to face the wildest weather in the world. She is the model of a ship for such a line, built of steel, with tremendously powerful engines; and in moments of danger the face of the Canadian who commands her takes on a grim, undaunted expression.

A fair passage brings us to the City of Halifax, and as we glide between the formidable batteries which guard this harbour our eyes gladden at the sight of the beautiful white ensign, which guards the commerce of England, and the Union Jack shining over the citadel. Uncle Sam, like St. Michael, is good to strangers; but it is better to stand in one’s own country.

It was in June when we made our entry into Nova Scotia. The steamer went its fourteen knots past the sparsely inhabited coast, and the once important Shelburne, to Halifax. The sea was rough, and black semi-submerged reefs showed their teeth all the way. There are few more dangerous coasts in the world, and Halifax is a veritable harbour of refuge, protected by its narrow mouth. Inside are ten square miles of deep water and large ships can lie alongside the wharves.

Halifax is a beautiful city full of turf and trees, clustered round the citadel like a mediaeval town grown under the shelter of its castle. It has a charmingly laid-out public park, yet more charming because it is not laid out at all, but simply faithfully preserved Nature; and delightful villas located along the woody banks of The Arm. The city is enlivened, moreover, with naval and military pomp. Stately men-of-war ride in the harbour, while British officers capture the feminine hearts of their respective grades in society; for Halifax is as particular about its society as an English garrison town. We spent a day in Halifax to drive through its pleasant streets, admire its court-house and one or two other fine old mansions, go over the seat of the Provincial Legislature and Supreme Court, and wander reverently round its old church, full of monuments to young scions of noble English families. The Provincial Government is anything but enthusiastic in the matter of patriotism, but Haligonians remind me with pride that the Knight of Kars, and Sir Provo Wallis, and Stairs, the companion of Stanley, were Nova Scotians; as was the founder of the Cunard Line.

I was struck with the happy combination of public Houses of Parliament, the Post-office, and the leading museum. There is, however, plenty of room for them all, for the Council contains but seventeen members and the Assembly thirty-eight.

We left Halifax by train for Windsor, while enjoying the beauty around us. The magnificently wooded Arm presented an array of lake and forest and hill views, rivalling Norway.

Windsor is a flourishing town of four thousand inhabitants, without anything apparently for so many to live on. But one learns that the real industry of the place is ship-owning, in which only two ports of Canada exceed it. One can hardly find a village on the Bay of Fundy that is not building its barque or schooner of Nova Scotia spruce, much cheaper and easier to work than oak. And when these are not owned in St. John, they are owned in Windsor for the most part.

At Windsor we were, of course, a good deal taken up with the venerable University, which celebrated its centenary a few years ago. King’s College, as it is called, is a bit of old Oxford, looking exactly like one side of an Oxford quadrangle sheathed in wood. Behind the college are its woods, a grove of spruce and pine, and a clear pool fringed with bulrushes, and fleur-de-lys or golden water-lily, according to the season. In front are deep aromatic meadows. Windsor, Grand Pré, and all the places round are one vast dyked meadow. The limestone hills above the dykes are full of deep pots, as they are called in Yorkshire, down one of which a stream disappears. These meadows, hill and dyke alike, are glowing with ox-eyes, self-heal, and St. John’s wort, with here and there an orchid, or pools full of the purple Fleur-de-lys iris—and what berries! Wood and meadow alike are carpeted with strawberries, and every little hollow is a tangle of raspberries, blueberries, pigeonberries, and mitchella. Over this Paradise we wandered with the poets, Bliss Carman and Charles Roberts, the University Professor of Literature, bathed in sunshine all day and sleeping at night at the college, where we had large, airy rooms, and lived for a sovereign a week.

Oh, what a delicious country! No wonder that Roberts’ nature-poems are so lovely. Charles Roberts lives in a pretty house in the croft behind the college. He has instilled in the undergraduates a regard for poetry, which has resulted in a more literary atmosphere than I ever remember finding in a university. Roberts is a well-knit man, a little below middle height, with large brown eyes, spectacled from overwork, and of genial appearance. He is devoted to literature, hospitality, and sport. He is not mystical like Mr. Carman, the other nature-poet of the Maritime Provinces.

I had almost forgotten the Avon, where Roberts and I watched the building of a ship—a spruce schooner of seven hundred tons that was being put together by the labour of a handful of men. The Avon at low tide is a valley of red sand and mud; but at the turn of the mighty tides it becomes as great as the Thames at London Bridge. As we sailed down it to the basin of Minas to pay our respects to mighty Blomidon, we found a ship building at every little town, some as large as two thousand tons.

Nor must I leave Windsor without mentioning the dear old country house, embowered in trees, where Judge Haliburton, himself a King’s College graduate, and the only Canadian novelist who has a world-wide reputation, wrote Sam Slick, and the queer old beetling block-house fort, that was standing when the Acadians sailed away to their southern exile.

From Windsor we several times went to Grand Pré the inconspicuous Acadian village, made hallowed ground by the genius of Longfellow. Grand Pré is a deep aromatic meadow dyked in from the basin of Minas and its tributary rivers, and rising on the land side to a gently swelling horseshoe hill, on the declivities of which stand what remains of a village. One can still trace not a few cellars, more or less filled in with loose stones by the present owners, in the hopes of winning a yard and a half more for cultivation. These sites are generally marked by thickets of raspberries, and are found, as a rule, near the lines of stunted willows planted by the Acadians, and cut down in vain by their conquerors. The willow is astonishing: the closer they are polled the thicker they grow. Here and there are pathetic little touches. By one cellar or foundation a footworn threshold-stone is still in situ, and round it cinnamon roses, once in its garden, run wild. Down in the river meadow is a well, and at the hill-foot the debris of a forge. From the bottom of this well the other day were dredged a number of articles, some of which in all probability were flung into it by Colonel Winslow’s New Englanders when they were rendering the village uninhabitable for stragglers. Two well-bucket chains, three or four hatchet heads of an old-fashioned pattern, a queer clasp knife, a knife and fork, undoubtedly old French, a bucket handle or two, and the like, are the principal relics; and they are preserved, as they should be, at the house of the gentleman who is now “The wealthiest farmer in Grand Pré.” The well is fondly called Evangeline’s Well.

Grand Pré is delightfully pretty. The meadow itself, like all Acadian meadows, is deep with hay, aromatic with clover, and glowing with wild flowers; above all marguerites, evening primroses, and St. John’s wort; and there are not a few purple Canterbury bells. There are thickets of exquisite wild roses of an unusually deep crimson. Dotted about the hills are picturesque farmsteads embowered in orchards; and when one climbs the hill the prospect is magnificent. At one’s feet, according to the tide, is broad red sand or broad red sea; and across the basin on opposite sides are the stately promontories of Blomidon. In the blue haze of the distance are the Five Islands and the fine bluff of Partridge Island, and nearer home the winding estuary of the famed Gaspereau.

When I was there, Nova Scotia rejoiced in the funniest of legal fictions the Scott Act, prohibiting the sale of liquors. It was openly disregarded. In the larger towns hotels sold liquor as if the Act did not exist, and in the smaller ones it was merely a case of finding out whether the milkman, or the milliner, or the fancy stationer, would oblige you. I inquired of Professor Roberts how they managed things so comfortably. “Oh, juries won’t convict, so it’s no good prosecuting.” At Windsor the farce was at its height.

The Windsor and Annapolis Railway runs through some of the most famous scenery in Canada, for after passing Halifax, with its citadel and its park effects, and Windsor, with its meadowy hills, and Evangeline’s Grand Pré, one comes to the valley of the Gaspereau, the Annapolis Valley, and Annapolis itself, every one of them halting-places to the pilgrim in quest of the picturesque. The direction of the line is admirably chosen, following the water where the water scenery is best, then running right down the central ridge of the Annapolis Valley, and returning to the water in the outskirts of Annapolis.

It makes a very pleasant feature in a day at Grand Pré to skirt the cellar-strewn fields, which were the site of the old French village, and make one’s way to the very English-looking little town of Wolfville, with its important Baptist university the Acadia College. Wolfville gardens are full of old English cottage flowers tall larkspurs, Canterbury bells, and homely creeping roses.

Not far from Wolfville is the famous valley of the Gaspereau, with its clear mountain stream, amid tangles of goose-grass, lady’s slipper, goldenrod, crimson yarrow, evening primroses, and glorious clusters of crimson wild roses. The gently swelling sides of the valley are admirably adapted for fond lovers to descent, as are the planks which span the tributaries of the river.

As one approaches Annapolis, the view is made more interesting by some fine old Loyalist houses. Annapolis, or as it is called by its inhabitants, Annapolis Royal, in proud remembrance that it is the original Port Royal of the Ordre de Bon Temps, Lescarbot, Charnisay, and others, is the oldest town on the continent north of Florida; a quaint old town, with dear old wooden colonial houses overgrown with creepers. It amply makes up in picturesqueness for the tamer scenery of the rich valleys, which are its avenues from Halifax.

The oldest part of the city is across the river. Three or four miles from the present Granville rose the original forts of De Monts and Poutrincourt, immortal for the genius of Champlain and the wit of the merry Lescarbot. From the fifteen gentlemen of the colony Champlain organized the most famous dining club that has ever been on New World soil. He organized them, says Hannay, “into a society which he called the Ordre de Bon Temps. Each guest in his turn became steward and caterer for the day, during which he wore the collar of the order and a napkin, and carried a staff. At dinner he marshalled the way to the table at the head of the procession of the guests. After supper he resigned the insignia of the office to his successor, with the ceremony of drinking to him in a cup of wine. It became the point of honour with each guest, as his day of service came, to have the table well supplied with game, either by his own exertions or by purchase from the Indians. It is painful, however, to be obliged to record that, although bread and game were abundant, the wine of those festive Frenchmen fell short, so that before spring they were reduced from three quarts a man daily to the inconsiderable allowance of a pint.” A quaint old place is Granville, with its fast-decaying wooden wharves, once lined with shipping from the East and West Indies. Annapolis then did a brisk trade in what the Germans call colonial wares, sugar and spice, etc., and even now a considerable register of wooden shipping hails from this port.

Of the original Port Royal, founded in 1606, hardly a stone remains, though there is a fine old fort on the Annapolis side, with its turf ramparts abandoned to wild flowers, but its block-house of massive masonry still intact. It was in this very block-house, with its steep-pitched roof, that the citizens of 1781 were locked up while the town was being looted by two American war ships, which had taken it by surprise. Old as it is, Annapolis has unsubdued wilds within a drive of it, where the beaver still builds and the trout fishing is in plenty.

There are a good many Mi’kmaq in the vicinity, and they are famous for the magnificent birch-barks they manufacture; and also their sea-going canoes, staunch enough to navigate the great basin and coast along the shores of Fundy.

Written by johnwood1946

June 12, 2019 at 7:51 AM

Posted in Uncategorized

Photographs from Nova Scotia, 1901 — Part 2 of 2

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From the blog at

Photographs from Nova Scotia, 1901 — Part 2 of 2

This collection of photographs is from the booklet Beautiful Nova Scotia, by the Yarmouth Steamship Company, Boston, 1901.

Bedford Basin:

Windsor Since the Fire:

Gaspereau Valley:

Wolfville and Grand Pré Dike:

Parrsboro Pier Showing Partridge Island:

Pareaux River:

Old Blomidon & Century Grim Stands Out to Stud the Deep (Blow-me-Down):

Nictaux River:

Bridgewater, Looking Up the River:

Mahone Bay:

Looking Towards Chester Basin:

Annapolis River:

Bear River Village, Between Annapolis and Digby:

Old House, Round Hill, 1760:

Point Prim Light Near Digby:


Digby From Mouth of Bear River:

A Part of Weymouth:

Written by johnwood1946

June 5, 2019 at 7:37 AM

Posted in Uncategorized

Photographs from Nova Scotia, 1901

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From the blog at

Photographs from Nova Scotia, 1901

This collection of photographs is from the booklet Beautiful Nova Scotia, by the Yarmouth Steamship Company, Boston, 1901.

An interesting cover page:

A Busy Day at Lewis Wharf, Where the Steamers Start from Boston:

Yarmouth Harbour:

Yarmouth Light:

Grand Hotel, Yarmouth:

Picnic Scene:

Fishing Scene, Yarmouth:

Tusket River Bridge on Line of Halifax & Yarmouth Railway:

Barrington Pier:

Regatta Day at Shelburne:

Round Bay Beach near Shelburne:

Main Street Shelburne:

Lockport Beach:

Liverpool, Looking Toward the Pier:

The Elms on Main Street, Liverpool:

Milton, on the Liverpool River:

Entrance to Mount Pleasant Park, Halifax:

Military Halifax:

Fort Cambridge:

The Park, Halifax:

Written by johnwood1946

May 29, 2019 at 8:05 AM

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The Kwĕdĕchk and Wĕjebowkwĕjĭk, a Tale of Kidnap and Revenge

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From the blog at

Mi’kmaq Wigwam and Canoes

From the Canadian Encyclopedia

Silas Rand was an expert on the Mi’kmaq and Maliseet languages and collected traditional stories in Legends of the Micmacs, 1894. Following is one of the tales, to which Rand has added notes and additional information.

The Kwĕdĕchk and Wĕjebowkwĕjĭk, a Tale of Kidnap and Revenge

[The following incident in the wars that were waged between the Micmacs and their enemies was related to me by a old Indian named Michael Snake. I did not write it down, and have not the original before me. I tell the story from memory; but the facts were of a nature to make an indelible impression upon my mind.]

There was war between the Kwĕdĕchk and Wĕjebowkwĕjĭk, or Micmacs. A party of the former had attacked a village in the absence of the men, and had carried off the chief’s wife. The men returned soon after, and learned what had transpired; the chief, taking another warrior with him, went in pursuit of the retreating war party, intending to recapture the woman. He came upon their trail, and following on night and day, finally overtook them. They were encamped for the night in a large wigwam which they had constructed, and in which they had built two fires, — one at each end. The two men waited until night; they approached the wigwam cautiously, and as there was no sentry keeping guard, they were able to come near enough to see that the place was filled with sleeping men, and that the woman was sitting up, mending the moccasins that the men had taken off. They noticed, too, that there were two boochkăjoos (large vessels of birch bark) filled with water standing just inside the wigwam, — one near each door. Having reconnoitred the position, they proceeded to action. The chief went round to the point where the woman was sitting at her work, and unclasping his belt quietly, slipped it under the bark of the wigwam by her side. She sees it, recognizes it, and readily reads the despatch. She does not scream, but gets up quietly and goes out to meet her husband. She informs the two men of the numbers and condition of the warriors, and they proceed to plan and execute their mode of attack. First, the woman goes in and gathers up all the moccasins, brings them out, and hides them. In case of pursuit, this will delay the pursuers somewhat, as they will find deep snow an impediment to bare feet. Next, they tie a stout string across each door, just high enough to trip any poor fellow up who should undertake to rush out in the darkness. Then they dash the water from the boochkăjoos over the fire and extinguish it, thus leaving the men in total darkness. As soon as this is done, they shout and make the most unearthly yells, putting on all the force that their lungs can afford to increase the noise. The warriors are awakened, and start to their feet; every man grasps his weapons. Supposing that the wigwam is full of enemies, they strike about them in the darkness and confusion, knocking each other down at every blow. The two men, with hatchets in hand, are stationed outside at each door; and when any one attempts to go out, he trips over the string that has been stretched across the door, and is instantly despatched by a blow from the hatchet.

The tragedy soon ends. They are all killed except two or three, who are wounded and overpowered. These are informed of the number of the attacking party, and are directed to return to their own country, and to tell their people that tahboo Wĕjebowkwĕjĭk (“two Micmacs are a match for a whole army of Kwĕdĕchk”).

= = = = =

[Rand was aware of the story similar to the following, but involving Grand Falls. He nonetheless thought that this was a separate story about the Reversing Falls at Saint John.]

Another incident may be here related. I have forgotten who was the author. The scene was laid somewhere above the falls on the Oolâstook (St. John River), New Brunswick. The chief actor was a woman, who had been, as in the preceding story, taken possession of and carried off by the enemy; she had been so long with them that they had begun to place confidence in her. Once they were coming down the river on a large raft, and being unacquainted with the geography of the place, they knew nothing of the falls. But she knew, and wished to make her knowledge subservient to the interests of her own people. The day was fine, and the men were all asleep; but she kept watch, and managed to get the raft well out into the middle of the river. She then slipped off and swam ashore, leaving the raft with its precious freight to go over the falls, and be dashed to pieces and destroyed.

Addition to Legend [By Rand]

I learned a few particulars from Andrew Paul, of Dartmouth, respecting this legend. He gave me the following beginning of the story:—

The Mohawks and Micmacs both once inhabited these lower Provinces. They quarrelled and fought, and ultimately the latter drove out the former. They did not usually fight in open field, but their plan was to waylay their enemies, surprise them, creep upon them, and kill or take captive the women and children while the men were away.

On one occasion two Micmacs were hunting, and they remained away in the woods, at a distance from their wigwam. One night one of them had a dream that alarmed him, as it led him to think there was trouble at home, where their wives were, one of whom had a child, a small boy. In the morning he told his dream to his comrade, and they concluded to lose no time in reaching home. When they arrived, they discovered that a war party had been there. Both the women were gone, and the child was dead; a stake had been run through his body and stuck up in the ground close by the fire, so that the flesh of the child had been roasted, and left there on purpose to harrow up the feelings of the father and enrage him to the utmost. It was winter, and the tracks of the snowshoes indicated to what tribe the enemy belonged, their numbers, and also the road they had taken. Roused and maddened beyond all endurance, the two men determined on pursuit. That night they reached the place where the war party had encamped for the night. They had erected a large lodge, and built two fires. The next day they came up to the second night’s encampment, and found the same indications. The third day they overtook them, but waited until night before they approached. When they had reason to believe all were asleep, they crept up quietly and found only the two women awake; they were sitting, one at one end of the long wigwam and the other at the opposite end, each near a door, mending the men’s moccasins. One of the men outside crept up to the door, and thrusting in his belt, dropped it by his wife’s side. She recognized it instantly, took it up, and went out. He directed her to communicate with the woman at the other end of the lodge; they both went out, and all together arranged their plans. The women brought each a bark of water; the men sent them on towards home, and waited for them to get a good start before they attacked the sleeping warriors. Then, tying a string across the door, and dashing the water over the fires, they gave the war-whoop, and the contest began. The Mohawks sprang to their feet, seized their tomahawks, and supposing the wigwam full of enemies, hacked each other down, the two men standing outside killing everyone who attempted to go out. All were killed but two. They took these, and running a knife under the cords of their wrists, they inserted a string under the cords, and thus bound their hands behind them; and fettering them with cords inserted under the sinews of their heels, they let them go to carry the tidings home and provoke another attack by way of revenge [?]. The two Micmacs, having recovered their wives and destroyed their enemies, returned leisurely to their homes in triumph.

Written by johnwood1946

May 22, 2019 at 7:59 AM

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The Garden of the Gulf, Prince Edward Island; 1900 — Part 2 of 2

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From the blog at

The Garden of the Gulf, Prince Edward Island; 1900 — Part 2 of 2

The Garden of the Gulf, Prince Edward Island was a pamphlet published in Toronto and Charlottetown in 1900. It was part of the Toronto publisher’s series known as Scenic Canada Photo Album. Following is the second installment of images from that pamphlet.

The Tracadie Fisheries:

Old Government House Avenue:

In the Surf at Tracadie:

A Picturesque Rock at Cavendish, near Rustico:

The Island’s Lovely Beaches at Cavendish:

Fifty Miles of White Sand Dunes:

Abegweit Cradled by the Wave:

Warren Farm, the Site of the Old French Capital Port La Joie:

A Harvesting Scene in the Land of Sunshine:

The Government Steamer Stanley Breaking Through the Ice:

The Winter Journey at the Capes — the Ice Boats:

The Ice Boats and Their Crews:

Written by johnwood1946

May 15, 2019 at 8:31 AM

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