New Brunswick History and Other Stuff

Table of Contents, Rev. July 20, 2016

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This blog will continue to grow, but following is a table of contents so far from the top:

  1. A Pompous Captain on the Evils of Logging – July 20, 2016
  2. The Too-Easy Life of Nova Scotians Disproved – July 13, 2016
  3. Why Not to Marry a Nova Scotia Woman, and How to Make Maple Sugar – July 6, 2016
  4. The Bloody Assault on Fort Louisbourg in 1758 – June 29, 2016
  5. The Medical Men of Saint John in its First Half Century – June 22, 2016
  6. Henry Ketchum and the Chignecto Marine Transport Railway – June 15, 2016
  7. A War Journal from Majabidwaduce on the Penobscot – June 8, 2016
  8. Mi’kmaq Magic and Medicine – June 1, 2016
  9. Thomas Wood, and His Visit to the Saint John River in 1769 – May 25, 2016
  10. The Northern Colonies: Languishing in Mediocrity – ca 1804 – May 18, 2016
  11. Fredericton’s Victoria Cottage Hospital – May 11, 2016
  12. The Passamaquoddy Wampum Records – May 4, 2016
  13. Slog on, or Die – Apr. 27, 2016
  14. Changes Nova Scotia Underwent from Discovery to 1758 When the First General Assembly Met in Halifax – Apr. 20, 2016
  15. The Disastrous Winter on St. Croix Island, 1604-05, and Other Adventures – Apr. 13, 2016
  16. Missions to the Mi’kmaq and Maliseet in the Early 1800’s – Apr. 6, 2016
  17. It Sounded Like a Residential School Philosophy – Mar. 30, 2016
  18. The Acadian Fugitives – Mar. 23, 2016
  19. Giddy, Eccentric, and Discontented Characters, or Misguided Souls, or Turncoats? – Mar. 16, 2016
  20. Indian Routes of Travel in New Brunswick – Mar. 9, 2016
  21. Historic Sites from the English Period on the Saint John River – Mar. 2, 2016
  22. How to Hunt a Moose, a Goose, and a Caribou in New Brunswick in 1791 – Feb. 24, 2016
  23. William Hubbard Complains to Edward Winslow about the Congregationalists in Sheffield – Feb. 17, 2016
  24. Good Fences Make Good Neighbours – Feb. 10, 2016
  25. WE NEED THE ACADIANS TO REMAIN: Lieut Governor, 1715 – Feb. 2, 2015
  26. Guy Carleton on the Fur Trade in Canada, 1767 – Jan. 27, 2016
  27. A Letter on Irish Immigrants – Jan. 20, 2016
  28. The Wreck of the ‘Lord Ashburton’ – Jan. 13, 2016
  29. A Ghost at Noonday – Jan. 6, 2016
  30. Silas Rand on the Mi’kmaq People – Part 3: Will Not the Bright Sun and the Blue Heavens Testify Against Us? – Dec. 30, 2015
  31. Silas Rand on the Mi’kmaq People – Part 2: To Every Thing There is a Season – Dec. 23, 2015
  32. Silas Rand on the Mi’kmaq People – Part 1: All Men From One Blood – Dec. 16, 2015
  33. Limits to the Royal Bounty – Dec. 9, 2015
  34. Nova Scotia, a Receptacle for Superfluous People? – Dec. 1, 2015
  35. From New Ireland to New Brunswick – Nov. 25, 2015
  36. The Most Gentlemanlike Government on Earth – Nov. 18, 2015
  37. I Love You for Your Plainness – Nov. 11, 2015
  38. Ward Chipman Remembers the Final Evacuation of New York – Nov. 4, 2015
  39. A Reply to “Men of Honor and Probity Run Amok” – Oct. 28, 2015
  40. A Century of Educational Progress in New Brunswick from 1800 to 1900 – Oct. 21, 2015
  41. Notes About the Earliest Public Markets in Saint John, New Brunswick – Oct. 14, 2015
  42. The Provincial Dairy School at Sussex, New Brunswick, 1900 – Oct. 7, 2015
  43. An Account of Nova Scotia in 1743 – Sept. 30, 2015
  44. The Petition of the Infamous 55 – Sept. 23, 2015
  45. Francis Sharpe’s Woodstock Apples – Sept. 16, 2015
  46. The Expulsion of the Acadians, a Military Surgeon’s Diary – Sept. 9, 2015
  47. The New Brunswick Election of 1785 – Sept. 2, 2015
  48. The Many Fires in Saint John, 1784-1877 – Aug. 26, 2015
  49. A Proposal for an Attack on N0va Scotia – Aug. 19, 2015
  50. Fredericton’s Great Flood of 1936 – Aug. 12, 2015
  51. A Letter about the Acadians and the Expulsion – Aug. 5, 2015
  52. Saint John in 1834, Before it was Forever Changed by the Great Fire – July 29, 2015
  53. New Brunswick, No Country for a Mere Gentleman, 1834 – July 22, 2015
  54. Woodstock, the Only Village Between the Green River and Fredericton in 1834 – July 15, 2015
  55. On the Tamiscouta Prtage from Lake Tamiscouta to just above Grand Falls, 1834 – July 10, 2015
  56. Men of Honor and Probity Run Amok – July 1, 2015
  57. By Steamer to the So-Called City of Fredericton – June 24, 2014
  58. A Quiet and Business-Like Little City – June 17, 2015
  59. Rambles Among the Bluenoses in 1862 – June 10, 2015
  60. Edward John Russell, a New Brunswick Artist – June 3, 2015
  61. Provincial Lunatic Asylum, Report of the Medical Superintendent, 1875 – May 27, 2015
  62. The Saint John River and Port Royal in the Early 1600’s – May 20, 2015
  63. What Should We Think of Benedict Arnold? – May 13, 2015
  64. Diphtheria in New Brunswick in the Year 1889 – May 6, 2015
  65. The Official Account of the Destruction of Burnt Church – Apr. 29, 2015
  66. The Exchange Coffee House and Saint John’s First Club – Apr. 22, 2015
  67. The Wigwams and Dwellings of the Gaspesians – Apr. 15, 2015
  68. The Story of Brook Watson – Apr. 8, 2015
  69. Where Stood Fort LaTour? – Apr. 1, 2015
  70. Things This Morning Really Wear the Aspect of War – Mar. 25, 2015
  71. At Portland Point – Mar. 18, 2015
  72. Electrical Power From the Reversing Falls – Mar. 10, 2015
  73. Father Rale’s War – 1722-25; How it Ended – Mar. 4, 2015
  74. What Was the Big Deal About the Marco Polo? – Feb. 25, 2015
  75. Grand Manan to Petitcodiac, in 1786 – Feb. 18, 2015
  76. A Trip From St. John to Fredericton in 1870 – Feb. 11, 2015
  77. A Tour of St. John, N.B., in 1870 – Feb. 4, 2015
  78. Destruction by Fire of the First Cathedral in Chatham – Jan. 28, 2015
  79. Burgan the Burglar – Jan. 21, 2015
  80. Facts and Reasons Against Confederating With Canada – Jan. 14, 2015
  81. Discontent in Early Halifax in 1756 – Jan. 7, 2015
  82. A Trip on the ICR From Bathurst to Miramichi – Dec. 31, 2014
  83. Early Attempts to Introduce the Cultivation of Hemp in Eastern British America – Dec. 24, 2014
  84. Touring Campbellton and Dalhousie, Despite the Mosquitoes, 1876 – Dec. 19, 2014
  85. The Fire of 1837 in Saint John – Dec. 10, 2014
  86. The Cruise of the Rechab – Dec. 3, 2014
  87. A Night in the Deep – Nov. 26, 2014
  88. Robert Foulis (A Misplaced Genius) – Nov. 19, 2014
  89. The City Mills – Nov. 15, 2014
  90. The Brothers d’Amours – Nov. 5, 2014
  91. John Allan’s Revolutionary Mission to the Saint John River – Oct. 29, 2014
  92. Relics of the Acadian Period – Oct. 22, 2014
  93. Some Odd Old Advertisements – Oct. 15, 2014
  94. The Miramichi Fire – Relief of the Sufferers – Oct. 8, 2014
  95. Jonathan Eddy’s Account of the Attack on Fort Cumberland, November, 1776 – Oct. 1, 2014
  96. Which of These Two is the Wisest and Happiest? – Sept. 24, 2014
  97. Fredericton Bridge, a Prophetic Writing – Sept. 17, 2014
  98. A Speech to Distinguished Persons of Stake and Consideration – Sept. 10, 2014
  99. Building an Education System From Almost Nothing – Sept. 3, 2014
  100. Cape Tormentine to the Baye des Chaleurs in the 1600’s – Aug. 27, 2014
  101. The Customs of the Mi’kmaq in the 1600’s and Before – Aug. 20, 2014
  102. Two Documents Relating to the Fenians in New Brunswick – Aug. 13, 2014
  103. The Lazaretto for Lepers in Tracadie, 1862 – Aug. 6, 2014
  104. Thoughts About the Augustine Mound at Metepenegiag Mi’kmaq Nation – July 30, 2014
  105. What am I Bid for This Pauper? – July 23, 2014
  106. Trouble at Madawaska, 1831 – July 16, 2014
  107. The Great Fire at Saint John, June 20, 1877 – July 9, 2014
  108. The Poor Fellows Shook as if They Would Fall to Pieces! – July 2, 2014
  109. How to Build a Logging Camp in Around 1850 – June 25, 2014
  110. Risen from the Ashes, Phoenix Square in Fredericton – June 18, 2014
  111. Rocks and Water, Magnificence and Squalor; St. John in 1876 – June 11, 2014
  112. Moncton as Seen by a Journalist in 1876 – June 4, 2014
  113. Events Leading to the Caraquet Riots of 1875 – May 28, 2014
  114. A Dramatic Account of the Miramichi Fire – May 21, 2014
  115. Saint John in the Early 1840’s – May 18, 2014
  116. A Note to Subscribers, and a Memorandum for me – May 14, 2014
  117. The Myth that Kerosene was Invented in New Brunswick – May 7, 2014
  118. A Church with Military Boots and Fixed Bayonets – Apr. 30, 2014
  119. An Opening Salvo in an Ongoing Argument – Apr. 23, 2014
  120. May living worms his corpse devour – Apr. 16, 2014
  121. He don’t look any better than some of our own boys – Apr. 9, 2014
  122. The Disputed Territory Between New Brunswick and Maine – Apr. 2, 2014
  123. Navigation on the Saint John River – Mar. 26, 2014
  124. Shepody as a Hot Investment Opportunity, 1868 – Mar. 19, 2014
  125. To Her Majesty, RE: Reciprocity, 1853 – Mar. 12, 2014
  126. Diary on the Tobique, 1851 – Mar. 5, 2014
  127. Growing up in Fredericton in the 1820s and 1830s – Feb. 26, 2014
  128. Travels From Eastport, Maine, to Fredericton, 1851 – Feb. 19, 2014
  129. The Saint John General Public Hospital, 19th Century, Part 2 of 2 – Feb. 12, 2014
  130. The Saint John General Public Hospital, 19th Century, Part 1 of 2 – Feb. 5, 2014
  131. The Story of the Great Brothers – Jan. 29, 2014
  132. A Trek up the Tobique, and Onward to Bathurst – Jan. 22, 2014
  133. Summer Tourists. A Manual for New Brunswick Farmers – Jan. 19, 2014
  134. A Trek from Grand Falls to Campbellton, 1862 – Jan. 15, 2014
  135. A Trek From Taymouth to Boisetown, 1862 – Jan. 12, 2014
  136. Capt. William Owen’s Journal, Campobello, 1770-71 – Jan. 8, 2014
  137. The Founding of Campobello Island – Jan. 5, 2014
  138. New Brunswick Roads and Railways, 1855 – Jan. 1, 2014
  139. Grand Manan – Dec. 29, 2013
  140. The Shipyard Fire in Saint John, in 1841 – Dec. 26, 2013
  141. Christmas as it Was in Saint John, in 1808 – Dec. 22, 2013
  142. The Saint John Grammar School – Dec. 18, 2013
  143. William Wishart Blasts the New Brunswick Education System, 1845 – Dec. 15, 2013
  144. The Diary of Sarah Frost – Dec. 11, 2013
  145. Pŭlěs, Pŭlowěch′, and Beechkwěch (Pigeon, Partridge, and Nighthawk) – Dec. 10, 2014
  146. The Government of New Brunswick, 1837 – Dec. 4, 2013
  147. The Whales and the Robbers – Dec. 1, 2013
  148. The Ashburton Treaty – Nov. 27, 2013
  149. Glooscap and His Four Visitors – Nov. 24, 2013
  150. The Pioneers of Saint Stephen – Nov. 20, 2013
  151. The Adventures of Kâktoogwâsees; a Tale of Ancient Times – Nov. 17, 2013
  152. The Asylum at Saint John – Nov. 13, 2013
  153. The Liver-Colored Giants and Magicians – Nov. 10, 2013
  154. Smuggling Between Calais and St. Stephen – Nov. 6, 2013
  155. The Two Weasels – Nov. 3, 2013
  156. A note to subscribers – Oct. 30, 2013
  157. The European and North American Railway, 1862 – Oct. 30, 2013
  158. The Origin of the War Between the Mi’kmaq and the Kwěděches – Oct. 23, 2013
  159. Trouble on the Line: The Early Telegraph in New Brunswick – Oct. 16, 2013
  160. The Invisible Boy; Team′ and Oochigeaskw – Oct. 9, 2013
  161. Transportation to and from Fredericton, 1841 – Oct. 2, 2013
  162. The Boy That Was Transformed Into a Horse – Sept. 25, 2013
  163. McAdam: Notes From the Early Days – Sept. 18, 2013
  164. The Magical Food, Belt and Flute – Sept. 11, 2013
  165. European & North American Rly. Staff, 1861 – Sept. 4, 2013
  166. Glooscap and the Megumoowesoo: A Marriage Adventure – Aug. 28, 2013
  167. The Loss of the Royal Tar – Aug. 21, 2013
  168. Robbery and Murder Revenged, Plus a Grand Falls Story – Aug. 14, 2013
  169. The St. John River From Below Fredericton to the Reversing Falls – Aug. 7, 2013
  170. A Proposal for a Wooden Railway – July 31, 2013
  171. ‘On the Early History of New Brunswick’ – July 24, 2013
  172. The Maugerville Settlement, 1763-1824 – July 17, 2013
  173. 1930 Circus Train Wreck Near Moncton, N.B. – July 10, 2013
  174. Horses or Oxen? Pick one – July 3, 2013
  175. The St. John River; Andover to Fredericton – June 26, 2013
  176. Origins of Some Place Names on N.B.’s Eastern Shore – June 19, 2013
  177. The St. John River; Grand Falls to the Tobique – June 12, 2013
  178. Gabriel Acquin – June 5, 2013
  179. The Seigniories of New Brunsiwck – May 29, 2013
  180. An 1841 Trek up the Oromocto River – May 22, 2013
  181. Fredericton’s Exhibition Palace, and Bears in N.B. – May 15, 2013
  182. Murder on Diamond Square Road – May 8, 2013
  183. Acadian Historic Sites in New Brunswick – May 1, 2013
  184. John C. Tracy’s Book, Part 5 of 5 – Apr. 24, 2013
  185. John C. Tracy’s Book, Part 4 of 5 – Apr. 17, 2013
  186. John C. Tracy’s Book, Part 3 of 5 – Apr. 10, 2013
  187. John C. Tracy’s Book, Part 2 of 5 – Apr. 3, 2013
  188. John C. Tracy’s Book, Part 1 of 5 – Mar. 27, 2013
  189. A Retrospective Look at Saint John – Mar. 20, 2013
  190. The Wreck of the England – Mar. 13, 2013
  191. The First Decade of the 1800’s in St. John, N.B. – Mar. 6, 2013
  192. St. John’s Poorhouse and Workhouse – Feb. 27, 2013, Rev. Sept. 9, 2015
  193. New Brunswick Scenes From an Old Book – Feb. 20, 2013
  194. Nice Pictures From Another Old Book – Feb. 13, 2013
  195. Life in the Backwoods of New Brunswick, Part 2/2 – Feb. 6, 2013
  196. Life in the Backwoods of New Brunswick, 1845 – Jan. 30, 2013
  197. The Works of W.O. Raymond – Jan. 23, 2013
  198. The Year of the Fever – Jan. 16, 2013
  199. Hanged for the Theft of 25 Cents – Jan. 9, 2013
  200. Reversing Falls – Pictures – Jan. 2, 2013
  201. Christmas as it was in 1808 – Dec. 25, 2012
  202. Nice Pictures From an Old Book – Dec. 19, 2012
  203. The Saint John Bridge Collapse of 1837 – Dec. 12, 2012
  204. The First Road Bridge Across the Reversing Falls – Dec. 5, 2012
  205. The Mystery of the First Lizzie Morrow – Nov. 28, 2012
  206. The First Murder Trial on the River St. John – Nov. 21, 2012
  207. The March of the 104th Regiment in 1812 – Nov. 14, 2012
  208. Partridge Island – Nov. 7, 2012
  209. Fredericton’s First Bridge Across the Saint John River – Oct. 31, 2012
  210. 1816, The Year Without a Summer – Oct. 31, 2012
  211. Winslow to Wentworth, 1781 – Oct. 31, 2012
  212. Oops! An explanation – Oct. 31, 2012
  213. The Saxby Gale of 1869 – Oct. 31, 2012
  214. New Brunswick’s Third Town in 1838: Saint Andrews – Oct. 31, 2012
  215. Fredericton and York County in 1838 – Oct. 31, 2012
  216. The City and County of Saint John in 1838 – Sept. 26, 2012
  217. The St. Andrews and Quebec Railroad – Sept. 19, 2012
  218. The Studholm Report of Saint John River Pre-Loyalists in 1783 – Sept. 12, 2012
  219. Caleb Jones. Further RE: Ann, otherwise known as Nancy – Sept. 5, 2012
  220. The Wreck of the Martha – Aug. 29, 2012
  221. The Early Settlement of Maugerville and the Sheffield Parsonage Dispute – Aug. 22, 2012
  222. Lieutenant Governors of New Brunswick to Confederation, Part 2 of 2 – Aug. 15, 2012
  223. Lieutenant Governors of New Brunswick to Confederation, Part 1 of 2 – Aug. 8, 2012
  224. The Morrow House at French Lake, N.B. – New Information – Aug. 1, 2012
  225. Sound by Glen Glenn, Revision 1 – July 25, 2012
  226. Ann, otherwise known as Nancy – July 18, 2012
  227. The Fire of October 7, 1825 – Beyond the Miramichi – July 11, 2012
  228. Lemuel Allan Wilmot – July 4, 2012
  229. The Great Fire at Miramichi, October 7, 1825 – June 27, 2012
  230. Robert Rankin in New Brunswick – June 20, 2012
  231. Who Owned the Mill at Tracy, New Brunswick? – June 13, 2012
  232. Signatures of Sunbury County Ancestors – June 6, 2012
  233. Daniel Wood’s Log Cabin, and Little Field Barn at French Lake, New Brunswick – May 30, 2012
  234. Rusagonis and George Garraty – May 23, 2012
  235. Epitaph Transcriptions from a Collection – May 16, 2012
  236. Central New Brunswick Gravestones from a Genealogy – May 9, 2012
  237. Nashwaak River Pictures with Stewart Family Connections – May 2, 2012
  238. More Sunbury County Photographs from a Collection – Apr. 25, 2012
  239. An Indian Burial Ground at Oromocto; and Coal Mining on the Oromocto River – Apr. 22, 2012
  240. “Days of Old” by Katherine DeWitt and Norma Alexander – Apr. 18, 2012
  241. The Wood Cemetery at French Lake, New Brunswick – Apr. 11, 2012
  242. James Glenie in New Brunswick – Apr. 4, 2012
  243. Four Generations of the Stewart Family on the Nashwaak River – Mar. 28, 2012
  244. Three Generations of the Mersereau Family in New Brunswick – Mar. 21, 2012
  245. Three Generations of the Smith Family of Sunbury County, New Brunswick – Mar. 14, 2012
  246. Three Generations of the Wood Family of French Lake, New Brunswick – Mar. 7, 2012
  247. New Brunswick Education in 1883 – Feb. 29, 2012
  248. Riots and Demonstrations in Saint John – Feb. 20, 2012
  249. Making Better Butter – Feb. 18, 2012
  250. York County Place Names, 1896/1905 – Feb. 8, 2012
  251. Sunbury County Place Names, 1896/1905 – Feb. 1, 2012
  252. Stereoscopic slides from Fred Stewart, Part 3 of 3 – Jan. 25, 2012
  253. Stereoscopic slides from Fred Stewart, Part 2 of 3 – Jan. 18, 2012
  254. Stereoscopic slides from Fred Stewart, Part 1 of 3 – Jan. 11, 2012
  255. The Hon. Thomas Baillie: Gone, but not soon forgotten! – Jan. 5, 2012
  256. The Fort at Oromocto, 1780 – 1783 – Dec. 29, 2011
  257. The Great Fire in Fredericton, 1850 – Early Accounts – Dec. 15, 2011
  258. The Morrow House at French Lake, and More – Dec. 8, 2011
  259. The Old Woman House at French Lake, New Brunswick – Dec. 1, 2011
  260. Smith Family Photographs from a Collection, Sunbury County, N.B. – Nov. 25, 2011
  261. French Lake from Before we Remember – Nov. 20, 2011
  262. How Geary became known as Geary – Nov. 9, 2011
  263. Elizabeth (Smith) Secord; N.B.’s First Woman Registered Doctor – Nov. 4, 2011
  264. Phillips Family Photographs from a Collection, Rusagonis, N.B. – Nov. 2, 2011
  265. Mersereau Family Photographs from a Collection, Sunbury County, N.B. – Oct. 30, 2011
  266. Wood Family Photographs from a Collection, French Lake, N.B. – Oct. 25, 2011
  267. Jeremiah Tracy: Pioneer of the Village of Tracy, New Brunswick – Oct. 20, 2011
  268. Two Old Railroad-Inspired Songs – Oct. 16, 2011
  269. Ode to the Oromocto River – Oct. 10, 2011
  270. John Mersereau, Loyalist 2 – Oct. 4, 2011
  271. The Earliest American Railroads and Locomotives – Sept. 14, 2011
  272. The Mersereau Manufacturing Company of Brooklyn, New York, Notes – Sept. 3, 2011
  273. George Morrow of French Lake, New Brunswick – 1801-1868 – Aug. 26, 2011
  274. The Wood Family of French Lake, New Brunswick – Legends – Aug. 9, 2011
  275. The Baptist Church on the Oromocto River in New Brunswick – Aug. 7, 2011
  276. John Wood of French Lake, New Brunswick – 1788-1868 – Aug. 2, 2011
  277. Daniel Wood of French Lake, New Brunswick – 1764-1847 – Aug. 1, 2011
  278. Three Stewarts on the Nashwaak – July 24, 2011
  279. Bunker Genealogy – Five Bunkers – July 20, 2011
  280. Statistics From the 1851 and 1871 Sunbury County New Brunswick Census Reports – July 19, 2011
  281. Historical Development of the Beam Bending Equation M=fS – July 18, 2011
  282. Seth Noble, Maugerville and the American Revolution – July 16, 2011
  283. Columns, the Long and the Short of it – 1729-1900 – July 15, 2011
  284. The Great Saint John Steel Cantilever Bridge – July 13, 2011
  285. The Upper Oromocto River in 1847 – July 11, 2011
  286. Early Glimpses of the Rusagonis Baptist Church in New Brunswick – July 11, 2011
  287. Abraham Gesner’s 1847 Observations of Sport Hunting in New Brunswick – July 11, 2011
  288. It Sounds a bit Too Easy – July 10, 2011
  289. James Buncker – July 10, 2011
  290. Inconsistent Petitions; Changed Self-Interests – July 10, 2011
  291. Abner Mersereau and a Letter – July 9, 2011
  292. Early Glimpses of the Patterson Settlement Baptist Church in New Brunswick – July 9, 2011
  293. The Textile Mill at Geary, New Brunswick – July 8, 2011
  294. Letter of Mi’kmaq’ Chief Pemmeenauweet to Queen Victoria – 1841 – July 7, 2011
  295. New Brunswick in the 1840s – July 7, 2011


John Wood

Written by johnwood1946

July 20, 2016 at 8:59 AM

Posted in Uncategorized

A Pompous Captain on the Evils of Logging

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From the blog at

Logging with Oxen

Logging With Oxen

From the McCord Museum

This story is from the anonymous book Letters from Nova Scotia and New Brunswick Illustrative of Their Moral, Religious, and Physical Circumstances During the Years 1826, 1827, and 1828, Edinburgh, 1829. The letters are fictional, but honestly reflect some of the social issues of the day.

Here, an old retired Captain complains of the neglect of agriculture in favour of logging. The Captain was a cranky old man, but the subject, that agriculture was being neglected, was a popular one.

A Pompous Captain on the Evils of Logging

March 17, 1826

My Dear Sir,

In my last letter I wrote you of my visit to Dr. — of the —, and of our conversation till Captain — of the — entered the room. Permit me to introduce you to my friend the Captain. He is a stout muscular tall man, and though he has not seen fifty summers and winters, yet his head has many gray hairs, and his body bends considerably, the effect of twenty years of military labour. His aspect is stern, and his manners altogether are rough, but when he opens his lips to speak in a private company, his features seem to relax, and there is a kindness in his eyes, and a softness in his tones, which win and delight. Though fond of argument, though, like Goldsmith’s schoolmaster, even when vanquished he can argue still, though he debates just as I should believe he fights, with his whole might, and yields as reluctantly to the moral power of demonstration as the bravest soldier to the physical strength of his adversary, yet he can be “pleased with a rattle and tickled with a straw.” He delights in politics. His principles are ultra-tory, and I am positive that he would prefer, like Peter the Hermit, to marshal the nations to war against the political infidels of his times, as he designates the Whigs and radicals, to the noblest honours of the British army. We differ on almost all subjects, and therefore we have had many stormy disputes; but still I have whiled away many pleasant hours in his company, and I respect him.

“When saw you —,” he exclaimed as he entered the room. “Oh, Mr. —, I beg your pardon, how are you. Were you at the launch to-day” I replied in the negative. “Oh!” said he, “the timber trade is the ruin of this country. The soil, I say the soil is the basis of a nation’s wealth, and just as its capabilities are developed and improved, does it rise in importance.” “The trees,” said I, “are a mine of wealth. They fetch riches into the country.” “The trees,” he replied, may put a few pounds into the farmer’s pockets, but they, do not at all better the circumstances of these provinces.” (The Doctor begged to interrupt him for a moment to ask him to fill a glass which the servant bad just set down before him. “Oh, no. Not that cold stuff, Doctor. Have you got any warm water? I shall take a tumbler of rum toddy.”) “If the farmer produce a sufficiency for his own yearly consumption, and then cut down trees and manufactures them for the foreign market, that he may have the means of obtaining foreign articles, he does not benefit his property. He may, in this way, have plenty of luxuries. He may make himself rich, not because his grounds are a farthing more valuable than they were previously, but because he has got a liberal remuneration for his labour; because he has been a fortunate workman. In this way, indeed, (the doctor fell asleep,) he may be enabled to uphold a vast establishment, to furnish his premises with plenty of foreign furniture, and his table with plenty of foreign luxuries, yet his son, but for the money he has in his pockets, is as poor as his father was at the commencement of his, I mean to say that his exertions have not contributed to the benefit of his country, and that his landed property at his death is just what it was at his succession to it.” “But you must allow,” said I, “that the cutting down of the trees is a necessary preliminary to the cultivation of the soil.” “I admit it, Sir. But then the labour employed in manufacturing them into boards, and in conveying them to the wharves, is not necessary, and from this labour, not from the trees, for in themselves they are almost valueless, the profit arises.”

“And how do they employ the ready cash, which obtain from their labour?” “They have plenty of food to eat, but then they will not eat; and plenty of clothing to put on, but then they will not put it on.” “No, Sir. In their opinion the flour from the United States makes more excellent bread, than the wheat, or rye, or maize of Nova Scotia, and, therefore, they sell their own produce, and buy it. The poorest of the poor looks with contempt upon any bread, which is not wheaten, and will not eat it upon any account.”

“I will tell you another way in which the farmers employ the ready cash, which they make by the timber trade. By expensive entertainments. The winter may be said to be seven months long; and, during the whole of this time, they are at parties two or three times a week. Their daughters must be dressed in all the elegance of British or French manufacture, and, instead of attending to the duties of domestic economy, their days and nights must be employed in reading novels, butchering tunes upon the pianoforte, and playing cards.” The Doctor awoke out of his sleep and heard these last words; “I say, Captain,” he exclaimed, I will not permit any gentleman to speak so lightly of the ladies of Nova Scotia in my company.” The Captain smiled. “I admit, my dear Doctor, that I have small pretensions to determine concerning the employments of the fair, but I do not think that as rational creatures, their happiness can be permanently secured; or, that as famers daughters, their fathers’ estates can be benefited by a ceaseless routine of engagements, like those which I have mentioned.” “I maintain. Sir,” said the Doctor, “that the ladies of Nova Scotia are pretty, and ought to have amusement.” “Beauty is, indeed,” replied the Captain, “an useful property, my dear Doctor, but the most valuable part of the young farmers of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick will not be caught by it without other good qualities. The light and airy, girl,— the sport of the ballroom, (‘hear, hear,’ from Dr. —) will grow old in her maidenhood, while those who have sunk into littleness before her, are wives and mothers. The reason is obvious. The qualities which make a pleasant flirt are wholly different from those which make a good wife and mother of a family.” “Just,” said the Doctor, “as the qualities which make Irishmen good soldiers or sailors make them bad farmers.”

“Now, Gentlemen,” said the Captain, “I will tell you of another way by which the farmers are kept poor, in spite of the profits of the timber trade. The habits, which many months of idleness and enjoyments have formed, cannot be cast off like an old coat, like an old coat at the commencement of summer. It is more easy to mortgage their property for any surplus of their expenditure above their means, and to trust to the contingencies of coming years for its liquidation, than to work, and the temptation is frequently a sufficient one. Lawyer — told me last night, that farmers allowed their accounts frequently to swell in the merchants’ books, till they were obliged to grant a mortgage upon the lands for their payment of them. Instead of buying with ready money only; instead of going to Halifax for their supplies, they purchase in country stores perhaps at 100 or 160 per cent, above the town prices.”

“They seem to forget, perhaps not to feel, that every shilling which is added to the sum total of their account to the store-keeper, takes away something from their freedom. They must obey the mandate of their creditor; not their own wishes. It is a fact, Captain. I know it is a fact. Think of the perpetual war in Ireland betwixt the landlords and the priests—betwixt earth and heaven. It is an excellent illustration of the contest, which the consciences of the inhabitants of this country have constantly with the commands of their creditors;” “Talk not to me of Ireland, Doctor, I detest it.” “I am sorry, Captain, that I cannot quarrel with you upon that subject. For, though dear to me, as an Irishman; though my soul loves to linger at times over its hills of verdure, and its valleys of fruits; yet the fact of its overgrown population, with all its debasement; comes upon me perpetually, and almost makes me wish that I had not been a native of Erin. But, for men, like those in Nova Scotia, who have the means of making themselves independent, to idle away their time in slavery, bespeaks a spirit so low, so mean, so abject, as to excite something like a mixture of pity and disgust. To while away the hours in idle indulgencies, while their families are ruining their constitutions, and acquiring habits, sufficient to blast all their prospects of happiness in after years, as exceedingly foolish as —“ “As you?” said the Captain, “to dwell like a hog in this den, when you might have all the comforts of a gentleman.” “I trust, Captain, you do not mean to impeach my conduct as an officer and a gentleman, for if —. “ “What a notion, my dear Sir; I might with equal propriety call the snow black before your doors. But certainly —.” “Oh, I know what you are about to say—but I maintain that knowingly to allow one’s property to be wasted, and, consequently, one’s independence to be stolen away from him, is a proof of a degradation of mind, which fits its subject for the political atmosphere of Turkey or of Spain.” “Speak not, Sir,” said the Captain, “so lightly of the allies of Great Britain.”

I was afraid of a long and stormy discussion upon this subject, which the Doctor had inadvertently introduced; and, therefore made a movement indicative of my departure. The Captain rose also, and took up his hat; but just as he had groped his way nearly to the door, his foot came in contact with a heap of books, &c. &c. and he fell prostrate upon the floor. He rose immediately; but his look, when the Doctor asked him if he had received any injury, I cannot picture.

Written by johnwood1946

July 20, 2016 at 8:58 AM

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The Too-Easy Life of Nova Scotians Disproved

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From the blog at

Sally Port

Sally Port at Fort Anne, Annapolis Royal, N.S.

From Dalhousie University

As with last week’s blog, this story is from the anonymous book Letters from Nova Scotia and New Brunswick Illustrative of Their Moral, Religious, and Physical Circumstances During the Years 1826, 1827, and 1828, Edinburgh, 1829.

This fictional story (in the form of a letter) recounts events at a dance party Annapolis, Nova Scotia, in 1826. In it, an old Scottish veteran disrespects Nova Scotia men, and especially women, for their too-easy lives. The story then passes to an old lady, whose life has been anything but easy. The old veteran is on the ‘lees of his life,’ and both characters have faced difficulties enough.

The Too-Easy Life of Nova Scotians Disproved

May 2, 1826

My Dear Sir,

I have had the honour of attending one of the Annapolis assemblies. These are held in the mess-room in the barracks. The apartment is exceedingly low in the roof, but large, and admirably adapted for country dances. The whole arrangements are made by three gentlemen, of whom my friend the Doctor is one, who have been chosen to conduct them for the season by the subscribers. They do credit to their taste and assiduity.

The company consisted of twenty or thirty ladies and twelve or fourteen gentlemen, and as scarcely the half of these last condescended “to trip it on the light fantastic toe,” most of the first seemed to be without the pale of the night’s amusements, and at shivering on their seats along the wall. Six of the males were employed at card-tables, and one or two sat wholly aloof from all engagements whatsoever.

Few of the ladies were taught dancers, but still they appeared to me to trip it gracefully. “What a beautiful sight,” said I to a Scotch officer who happened at the moment to walk unto the room. “It is indeed. I did not think that there had been so many bonny lasses in Nova Scotia. But, my dear Sir, Scotland after all is the land of beauty. These girls may all be called pretty; but then they have not the red cheeks or the light step of the ‘land of cakes.’ That girl, (he pointed without observation except by myself to a young lady amongst the dancers,) might be considered exceedingly handsome, if she had not such a mass of flesh upon her bones.” “I see,” said I, “you are a true Scotchman; but do you not think they dance beautifully?” “Oh, if you make abatement for their heaviness, and their ignorance of the scientific part of the matter, I grant you that they perform admirably. But, after all, in strict propriety of language, there are only two dancers amongst the ladies, and one amongst the gentlemen, and these are not natives of Nova Scotia.” “I bow, Sir, with all humility to your judgment in these matters, for I myself am profoundly ignorant of them. The generality of the ladies, indeed, appear to be pale and corpulent. What can be the cause of it?” “Oh, it is obvious. They do not walk a tithe of our British ladies. Beauty, Sir, I admit, depends greatly upon the natural conformation of the features and the limbs. Art has its virtues also in this respect. But exercising the body in the open fields, and breathing wholesome air, are far the most efficient methods of improving the shape or the aspect. What makes our Scottish peasant girls so pretty but their active habits, and the ‘caller healthy breezes of Caledonia.’ But, Sir, the men of Nova Scotia have these defects still more conspicuously than the females. The militia, where is to be seen the strength of the nation, all from sixteen to forty-five, is a proof it. They are excellent, marksmen; but then they have not the symmetry or agility of the British yeomen. The reason is just because they do not half the work of the farmers and farmers’ sons in England and Scotland. The whole winter they while away in idleness, and a small quantity of labour in the summer months is sufficient to afford them the necessaries of life. In this country, where there are no direct taxes, all have their gigs or chairs, as they call them. If they have half a mile to travel, they must ride on horseback, or journey in carriages. But who is that young lady at the fire? She seems cold. She looks like a Scottish lassie, and, therefore, though in the yellow leaf, though I have seen sixty summers and winters, yet, on that account I must do myself the honour of asking her for the next set, if she be not engaged.” With this observation he left me.

“You do not dance, Ma’am,” said I, to an old lady who could scarcely walk for the burden of a load of years.” “No, Sir. I’m too old. Forty or fifty years ago, however, I was exceedingly fond of it. I recollect of a ball at -— before the American rebellion, where I was present, and danced with General —, who told me that I astonished him, as he had not previously believed that there had been so graceful a dancer in America. Indeed, General —, Sir, was a perfect gentleman, of the finest accomplishments, and of the nicest taste. He was of the old school. The manners of the times are totally different from those of my youth. There are not many such men as General — at present. The American rebellion banished them all from this side of the Atlantic, and the French one, I am told, has driven them out of Europe. Indeed, Sir, I can believe it. I have abundant proofs of it. The only polite men amongst us are the English officers, and even these are not what they were. The old ones, those who have been in the army twenty or thirty years, remind one of the days of General —, but the young ones are perfect boors, who have not the manners of genteel persons. Oh, Sir, the American rebellion was an awful event. It set the father against the son, and the son against the father.” “Civil wars, Ma’am,” said I, “are always attended with that result.” “You have never felt the ills of civil war. But I, Sir, I have been the victim of them. They deprived me of my father, and banished me from my country. Before the commencement of hostilities I had a happy home. I was my father’s only child. My mother was in her grave. I was the heir of a large property in —. I was betrothed to a young gentleman, to whom I had given all my young affections, and in whose society I expected to have whiled away years of happiness. But, Sir, the war broke out with all its fury, and my father, a violent loyalist fell at —. My lover, Sir, was in the army with my father, and survived the carnage of that disastrous day. The moment he ascertained the death of my parent, he left the camp. He presented himself in my father’s parlour next morning. Eagerly I asked him for news from the army. I saw the tear in his eyes. He spoke not a word. I began to suspect that he was the messenger of bad tidings. I was impatient to know the whole truth. My father, said I, how left you my father? Is he wounded? Is he dead?” “Your father, my dear —, is dead, I have the fondest hope, with the spirits of the just. I fainted.”

“I was an orphan, Sir, a friendless orphan. I had not time to lament over my father’s death. We were married, by special license, that afternoon. I attended my husband throughout the whole war. My father-in-law was a violent revolutionist, and disinherited his son. Therefore we accepted of the offer of this British government, and emigrated to Nova Scotia.” “Your life, Ma’am,” said I, “has been a most eventful one. Is your, husband dead?” “Yes. He died a few years ago. He could not bear to see, or hear of a Yankee till the day of his death.” “But, Ma’am, that sentiment was not a Christian one.” “Christian one, Sir! — My husband was as meek a man as any who lives. But, withal, he had strong feelings, and he expressed them in all their strength. Think of his sufferings; of his loss of property; of his banishment from his country, only because he was loyal to his king and to his lawful government, and then say if you believe that flesh and blood could have brooked such treatment patiently. I confess that I did sometimes think that he felt too keenly; but then if I mentioned this thought to him, he would stamp upon the floor, and mutter his curses deeply and fervently against all rebels, from the days of Cain, (whom he maintained always to have been the first of them, who had appeared on earth,) to those of General Washington.”

“But, Ma’am,” said I, “now that the American revolution or rebellion, or by whatsoever name you designate it, is a matter of history, I trust that you have kindly feelings towards the Yankees, as towards all the other members of the family of mankind.” “I think that I forgive them, and though I should not consent to dwell among them if I had fifty years of life before me, for they are a boorish and an ill bred people, yet, I should be glad to meet them all in heaven; and, if it were in my power to effect this object, I am positive that all of them, even the murderers of my father, should have settlements there.”

This old lady’s conversation delighted me greatly. Just as we finished our téte-a- téte, up came the veteran, whom I mentioned at the commencement of my letter, and exclaimed, “Oh, Mr —, while I have been dancing with the grand-daughter, you have been conversing with the grandmother.” “Oh. then,” said I, “your Scottish lassie, is Mrs. —‘s grand-daughter.” “So says Mr. —, But oh, how weary I am; my life appears to be on its lees. I have seen the last of my campaigns.

Written by johnwood1946

July 13, 2016 at 8:46 AM

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Why Not to Marry a Nova Scotia Woman, and How to Make Maple Sugar

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From the blog at

Maple Sugar Bushes

Maple Sugar Bushes, ca. 1922

From the McCord Museum

This story is from an anonymous book entitled Letters from Nova Scotia and New Brunswick Illustrative of Their Moral, Religious, and Physical Circumstances During the Years 1826, 1827, and 1828, Edinburgh, 1829. The deliberately pretentious title, and the author’s insistence that any suggestion that “the characters and conversations … are imaginary, is altogether superfluous” only confirm that they are entirely imaginary. His stories are not even letters, and are only written in that form.

This story honestly reflects how some people would have been living in those days and is, in addition, entertaining.

Why Not to Marry a Nova Scotia Woman, and How to Make Maple Sugar

Jan. 16, 1826

My Dear Sir,

I have been in the forest. Last New Year’s Day I took a solitary travel into the woods that I might make observations on the tenants of the desert. About one o’clock, p.m. I came to a hut, which pleased me with its aspect of neatness and comfort. The door was shut, but, on opening it, a splendid dinner presented itself to my eyes, together with six or eight persons standing around it. A man clothed in decent home-spun attire was asking a blessing upon the feast, and, but for his prayer for the stranger within his gates, I should have concluded myself wholly unnoticed.

I attempted to stammer out an apology for my intrusion, but was interrupted by the declaration of the farmer that he was exceedingly glad to see me, and that he would be happy if I would take a chair, and partake of his New Year’s Day dinner. Though I was cold and hungry, and, therefore, sufficiently disposed to comply with his request, yet I was desirous that the mistress of the mansion should second the motion of her husband, and, therefore, I began to bow myself out of the door. The lady, however, was polite enough to ask me to stay, and, with many thanks, I set myself down at the repast on the right of my hostess, “cheek by jowl” with a capital Nova Scotian fire.

In a few minutes I discovered that all the guests were of one family, except myself. After dinner we had plenty of rum and brandy, together with apples and raisins, by way of dessert. We talked of various matters. Ireland was mentioned. “You have been in Ireland,” said the farmer, addressing himself to me; I replied in the affirmative. “Well,” said he, wiping away a tear which strayed over his manly and weather-beaten cheek, “Ireland, after all, is a beautiful country, and I could wish to see its green hills again before I die, though all my relations are in their graves except my cousins at-—.” Then he told me the history of his life from the time of his departure from his native land. “I left Ireland,” said he, “in the spring of 18—, and, in four weeks landed at St. John’s, New Brunswick. I had paid my passage before my embarkation, and had still fifteen shillings in my pocket, when I set my feet upon the shores of North America. I could not afford to idle away my time in lodgings, and, therefore, I determined to go into the country, and look for work. Where to journey I knew not. A vessel lying at one of the wharves for Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia, attracted my observation. I made inquiries about the probability of getting work in that direction, and though the answers I obtained were sufficiently vague, yet as I had no better prospect elsewhere, I took my passage, and reduced my whole fortune to three shillings and sixpence. On board were two or three Nova Scotian farmers, who had been over at St. John’s to sell their produce. They saw that I was a stranger from the Emerald Isle, and discovered that I was in quest of employment.”

“Most providentially one of these gentlemen had a friend, who was in want of a farm servant, and to him he mentioned the subject. I was employed, and lived happily with my master, for the Americans are kind and indulgent to their servants. I could dig, but with the axe I was a child. My master commended my industry and sobriety, for I was always sober and industrious, laughed at my awkwardness with the axe and told me that I was a likely fellow, and would improve. I did improve. Sir, as my farm testifies, for I cut down all the trees which have been removed from it.”

“But though I was well clothed and well fed, I was not happy, for I had a wife and child in Ireland, and I wished to make them sharers of my prosperity. The only method to effect this object, for I was ignorant of all trades was to get a grant of forest land, build a hut, and begin the operations of a settler. I told my master my wishes. He is dead, Sir. He was a kind man. Fill your glass and we shall drink to his memory, if you have no objections. My master told me that he approved of my plan, and that he would assist me. He applied for me to the local government, and I got a grant of a hundred acres of land.”

“On the first tidings of my success, I bargained with the master of a vessel at St John’s to bring out my wife and child. They landed in the fall, and as I could not build my log hut till the spring, my master got me a small house for them. My wife died shortly after her arrival, and left me with this boy to fight my way through the difficulties which beset me.” He pointed to a fine robust young man of seventeen or eighteen years of age.

“I could not afford to hire a person to nurse him, and, therefore, myself was obliged to undertake the business. I dressed and undressed him, put him to bed, washed our clothes, and cooked our victuals. I had to chop on my farm, and many a time, with him upon my back, have I walked knee-deep in snow for five or six long miles to my day’s work. I wrapped him up, and laid him beneath the shelter of the trees, and many many nights have both of us slept there. Do you see that tree at the comer of the garden? That was the spot; that tree shall stand in its integrity, while I have life to protect it. I sit for two or three hours beneath it all the fine summer Sabbath afternoons.”

“I have succeeded, Sir. God has been kind to me.”

“Then,” said I, “your present wife is a native of Nova Scotia.”’ “Oh no, Sir,”’ he replied, “She is from Ireland. I met with her first at Annapolis Royal. She was on a visit to her aunt. I asked her, and she agreed to marry me. I could not afford to have a Nova Scotian wife. They cannot work out of doors, and then they dress so extravagantly, and all the winter must be at parties two or three times a week. Now Mary helps me to mow, and dig, &c. My neighbour, John, poor man, who is at present in prison for debt, might have been richer than I am, for he is a sober, industrious man, if he had not been unfortunate in his marriage.”

Mrs. —- entered the apartment, and I took up another subject of talk. “Two or three of my acquaintances,” said I, “have gone out to-day in quest of the mouse-deer. They were desirous I should accompany them, but I think I have more enjoyment where I am.” He bowed, and told me that, a few years ago, he had gone into the woods on one of these mouse-deer expeditions, but was so heartily sick of it, that he had vowed not to repeat it. “There was a party of six of us,” said he. “We equipped ourselves with ammunition, provision, &c. for two or three days. All of us wore snow shoes to prevent us from sinking amongst the snow, and, as I was wholly unaccustomed to them, they fatigued me exceedingly. Night overtook us, and glad I was to have that apology for finishing the day’s toils. We lighted a fire of faggots, ate our cold beef and bread, drank bur brandy, and then laid ourselves down to sleep with the heaven for our canopy, and the snow for our bed.”

“I should think,” said I, “that this sport requires a strong constitution.” “Oh yes!” he replied, “Most of those who have been engaged in it frequently betray the marks of premature decay.”

At this moment two or three large circular pieces of brown sugar, lying on a plate upon the table before us, attracted my observation. “Where, my friend, did you buy this sugar,” said I “Oh! That is our own manufacture from the raw produce of our own forests,” he replied. “Indeed, do you make sugar from the beet?” “Oh no! We eat all our beets in their raw state. That sugar is from the maple tree. I make a sufficient quantity of it for the supply of my family throughout the year. I keep a pound or two of West Indies sugar always in my house for the use of any friend like yourself from the old country, who may honour me with a visit, (I bowed most profoundly); but myself, my wife and family prefer the maple sugar. The end of March or beginning of April is the time for making it. Then the juices are ascending from the roots. We make an aperture towards the bottom of the tree, and put a thin board of cedar into the hole to convey the sap into a trough ready to receive it. After its extraction we boil it on a fire, and, as it loses by evaporation, we fill it up from another vessel on another fire, till this last boiler is empty. Then we boil the whole together for a few hours, till the sap mounts up to the top. Then we put a small quantity of fat pork into the boiler. We repeat this operation three times, and successively the pork rises up to the top. Then we strain the syrup into a pail, and allow it to remain in this state till the next day, when we put it on a slow fire, and boil it for an hour, and then pour it into earthen vessel to cool.” “Can you take sap from these trees yearly?” “Oh no. We cork up the holes, which we make for the extraction of the juices, the moment we have got what we deem a sufficient quantity, to prevent the trees from exhausting themselves. We have such an abundant supply of maples in our forests that we do not frequently repeat the operation of tapping, but I should think that it might be performed every seventh or eighth year without any material injury to the tree.”

I tasted the sugar, and found it to have a strong taste. Nobody can tell what a right method of preparation might have upon it. I have not the smallest doubt that any sum which might be expended in the necessary experiments, would be amply repaid by the profit of the manufacture.

Written by johnwood1946

July 6, 2016 at 9:02 AM

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The Bloody Assault on Fort Louisbourg in 1758

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The Bloody Assault on Fort Louisbourg in 1758

Louisbourg Quay

Louisbourg Quay, from

The French fortress of Louisbourg on Cape Breton was captured by New England forces in 1745, and an attempt by the French to recapture it failed. Strife between England and France (and much of Europe) continued, however, and all of these disputes were settled for a while by the Peace of Utrecht in 1748. By that Peace, England gained possession of Acadia, while the French regained possession of Cape Breton and therefore of the fort at Louisbourg. Meanwhile, the English established a military base at Halifax. The endless disputes between England and France continued at a reduced level.

English attempts to attract settlers to Nova Scotia had only limited success, and Halifax remained mostly a military establishment. New Englanders, it seems, were reluctant to move into such a wilderness without inducements and, besides, they were afraid of the Acadians and the Mi’kmaq. So, the English deported the Acadians in the ‘Expulsion’ and, in 1758, attacked the fort at Louisbourg again. The French population at the fortress and the town of Louisbourg was in excess of 4,000 at that time.

Following are extracts from the diary of a New England soldier who fought in the second siege of Louisbourg. This is taken from The Diary of Nathaniel Knap of Newbury in the Province of Massachusetts Bay in New England (Written at the Second Siege of Louisburg in 1758.), Boston, 1895. The diary was a long one, and these are only brief extracts. It is, furthermore, heavily edited. If you want to use the diary for study, then please consult the 1895 edition. A ‘snow’, by the way, is a square-rigged vessel with two masts.

The Diary of Nathaniel Knap

Monday, March ye 27, 1758 — Set out for Portsmouth New Hampshire from Newbury by water board Will Gerrish Schooner & got in at one o’clock afternoon. Lodged at Mr. Hoiets.

Tuesday, 28 — Work on bord of the Snow & Lodged on board.

Wednesday, 29 — Walked about streets went over to Kittery and got Straw.

Sunday, 2 — Went to Mr. Langden meeting all day.

Monday, 3 — Today sailed from Portsmoth 2 o’clock in ye snow Halifax Capt. Wells commander.

Tuesday, 4 — Today we met with a snow from Lisbon bound to Marblehead, Capt. John Lee commander. He gave an account that ye King of Prussia had a fight & took 50,000 Prisoners.

Wednesday, 5 — We made land at 4 o’clock Cape Sable & ye Sable Islands. Was sea sick.

Saturday, 8th — Made Lehave about 8 o’clock saw a ship 4 Leagues to leeward. At 12 o’clock she came up with us & took out cable to tow us in to Halifax. Toed us Between 7 & 8 knots. She went before us thick of snow & squally.

Sunday, 9 — The wind was right ahead. The ship toed us till noon today. Then they saw a topsail schooner so they cast us off & the transport which we was in company with us took us in tow.

Monday, 10 — The transport kept us in tow till 12 o’clock today then she cast us off. Then we made our way ourselves. We got in at 9 o’clock this evening and came to at ye mouth of ye harbour.

Tuesday, 11 — We hove up this Morning & came up to Dartmouth and came to anchor about noon. In ye afternoon we went ashore & viewed the place & houses.

Thursday, 13 —Ye sentries were still our guard. Was fired on by the Indians.

Saturday, 15 — Moved into the house that we had fitted in ye afternoon. There was a building burnt at ye City, it was a blacksmith’s shop and ye King’s boat-builder’s shed.

Wednesday, 19 — Knotted yarns to make ropes to rig the longboat. At night went to see a soldier whipped, He had 200 lashes.

Sunday, 14 — Was at work at home there was a highland minister preached & we all went to hear the sermon.

Monday, 15 — In the afternoon there was a highlander whipped 500 lashes & at night the man of war men set old blackdens(?) house on fire & burnt it down by ye Admirals order for selling rum.

Thursday, 25 — The land-army came out of ye transports & got into boats. A gun shot from ye shore & a gun was fired & they pulled into ye shore & drew up.

Wednesday, 31 — Large sea, fair weather. We were still to leeward of the fleet. One Elliot of Halifax came with us & was taken with ye Smallpox.

Thursday, June ye 1, 1758 — Spied a ship to windward & heard some guns. We made ye land.

Friday ye 2 — Fell in with some of the fleet. Thick & foggy we espied under ye land a brig & ye bumb(?) catch gave chase & drove her ashore She was a French brig.

Saterday, 3 — Saw ye brig in ye morning on fire. Caught fish. I lost one line.

Wednesday, 7 — Spoke with a frigate & she said ye fleet had got in & we was 15 leagues distance.

Thursday, 8 — Made the land & was to leeward of Cape Breton the wind was against us & pretty thick.

Saturday, 10 — Made ye land & took it to be to leward of Cape Breton. Then we spied some ships 2 men of war & three or four schooners & sloops & they bore away & we followed them & went into Gabroose(?). They told us ye Soldiers was landed on Thursday but we did not know particulars until we landed

Sunday, 11 — We all went ashore in ye forenoon when the army landed the boats got within 3 or 4 rods of shore before they saw any & then they rose up & fired a volley on them with cannon & small arms. Ye cannon loaded with small shot. The Regulars & Highlanders landed in ye front & the Rangers landed on the left up ye bay & they killed & wounded about a hundred. There was 2 or 3 boats sunk by the men being so eager & filling ye boats so full. Ye Rangers started them first. They ran & hollered & fire on behind them. They had 10 or 12 cannon, one 24 pounder which was one of the Tilbury Guns their breast work was from one end to the other, 4 miles. They had 2 mortars fixed & did heave some shells. In ye afternoon we built some camps to lie in & then we went almost over to ye city & saw some men. They had burnt all ye houses then the soldiers took 5 horses & brought them in.

Monday, 12 — The fog cleared away about noon & there was a great number sallied out the city. Ye fog cleared & they were discovered & took in to ye City again. Their is one deserter came in to day.

Tuesday, 13 — We went & made 2 bridges. The French came out ye city & ye Rangers & Highlanders went after them & they fought 2 hours. They brought 1 in that was wounded in ye afternoon. Several boats drove a Shore. We took ye light house last night.

Wednesday, 14 —Admiral Hardy hawl’d(?) close in to ye island battery & fired hot & ye French fired at us. Killed 1 Man.

Saturday, 17 — Was to work on the battery Some of our people took sick.

Sunday, 18 — Was building a house for our sick to live in that was taken there. Many more took sick to day.

Monday, 19 — I was taken in the morning with a violent pain in my head and held all day & night.

Tuesday, 20 — My pain held extreme bad. Lye very cold.

Wednesday, 21 — I took a vomit in morning & worked well. I broke out very thick with the smallpox. I lay in open tent in ye afternoon. Moved into a house that was built for ye sick had a cradle for Will Knap & myself 3 feet wide. Full of pain.

Thursday, 22 — Brake out more & more very restless & full of pain.

Friday, 23 — Kept breaking out was not so full of pain. Lie easy.

Saturday, 24 — The pock filled out quite full & was very easy.

Sunday, 25 — The pock was filled well. I was easy but very sore.

Monday, 26 — Ye pock began to turn & I was very sore & restless.

Tuesday, 27 — The pock kept turning & I grew very sore. Ye pock began to dry.

Wednesday, 28 the pock was full & dried away quite fast I felt well & very hungary. Took some salts.

Thursday, 29 — Felt very well & got up & sat all day in house.

Saturday, July 1 — I took physic and it worked very well.

Thursday, 6 — Took physic, worked well.

Saturday, 8 — Was very well. A man of war came in a 70 gun ship. At night the French came out upon our working party that was a trenching and they fought, killed, & took wounded near a hundred but we got the better of them we took one officer he was wounded.

Sunday, 9 — There was 2 prizes came in both brigs. The French beat a Parly(?) to bury their dead.

Monday, 10 — They were landing Cannon out of ye men of war.

Wednesday, 12 — Is very foul weather, our house was very leaky, was very uncomfortable. Last Monday there was a Carter going to ye lighthouse & just before night there was an Indian took him & carried him away & kept him till Wednesday. Towards night one of them went to a brook with him to drink & he gave them the slip & got clear. He was with a party of 200 French & Indians & they said there was a large party of French Indians further back. He said he understood by them that they would have killed him in about 2 hours.

Thursday, 13 — There was five Frenchmen Deserted from the island battery in a boat & they said we had dismounted 4 of their cannon & that they would deliver up ye city as soon as our ships does go in.

Friday, 14 — The French are very easy. Fired but a little.

Saturday, 15 — There was a French sergeant came out for a spy & our people took him & brought him in in ye afternoon.

Sunday, 16 — Our Rangers brought one Indian a prisoner that they took last night. There was a French frigate stole out of ye harbour & got out by all our ships. It was thought she had much riches on board. Early in ye morning Admiral Hardy with all his Ships that lie across ye harbour come to sail & went after her.

Monday, 17 — Last night our people took a trench close to ye wall with ye loss of five men & several wounded.

Tuesday, 18 — There was an officer of the train killed with a shell at his tent door. His name was Childs.

Wednesday, 19 — There was an officer & 8 men killed at Wolfs battery.

Thursday, 20 — In the afternoon went to lay a platform for a battery of 8 guns & there was killed 2 men & 4 wounded whilst we was there at night. There was several more killed & wounded, a large number.

Friday, 21 — General Wolfe hove a Shell on board one of ye men of war & blew her up & caught on fire & she caught 2 more on fire & they were burnt down by night there was but 2 ships left in ye harbour & there was 12 or 14 when we came in.

Saturday, 22 — The citadel & mass house were caught on fire by a shell & burnt to ye ground.

Sunday, 23 — Was a very hot & constant fire from us the French. kill several of our men today. Last night we hove near 200 shells

Monday, 24 — In the morning the other barrack caught fire & burned down. There was several deserters came in today the city looks very naked. There was a number of cartridges caught on fire in the trench which blew up & wounded a number of men.

Tuesday, 25 — A deserter came in today & gave an account that ye women & children are come out into the trench & Some gone to ye Black Rock. There is several came in to ye hospital that is wounded to day.

Wednesday, 26 — Last night there was a number of men of war. Men got boats and went and boarded the 2 ships that lie in ye harbour. One Ship they towed up ye harbour & ye other ship which was ye commodore’s caught aground so that they could not get her off & they caught her on fire & she burnt down in ye forenoon. There was a flag of truce came out & sat with our officers & about eight at night they agreed to our terms & at nine o’clock our people went in & took possession of ye town

Thursday, 27 — This morning there was three companies of Grenadiers drew up & went close to ye town & about Eleven of ye clock they marched in. Ye first company that went in. Is ye Royal Scots ye 2 is hopsons(?). Ye 3d was General Amherst at twelve o’clock ye English Colours were hoisted. The wagons came down to carry away ye baggage and all ye afternoon they were a hauling away guns & other stuff. The sentries set all around ye city that there should nothing be carried out but what was carried into the King’s store.

Friday, 28 — This day we were Opening more stores The French were cleaning & packing up their things that was allowed them to Carry off.

Saturday, 29 — This Day we buried John Meserve the Colonel’s son. He died last night. Admiral Hardy came to sail & went in with his squadron into the harbour of Cape Breton.

Sunday, 30 — Went to work at ye city getting down ye west gate & building a bridge at ye west gate. Yesterday I put a gun on board of one Mchard Sloop to carry home & I went round in ye city & there was hardly a house but what had a shot.

Tuesday, August ye 1 — General Wolfe went in to ye city & he was saluted with about 20 canon.

Saturday, 5 — This day one Johnson of the Royal Americans was caught in ye camps after he had stolen a watch & money & other things & after he saw that he was caught he wanted to clear himself & so came to where we lived with a file of men & took Humphry Atkinson & Benja Sweat & swore they were confederate with him. They were carried & tried by a court martial & found innocent & was kept till Sunday & then was clear. Johnson had sentenced past to be hanged till he was dead.

Tuesday, 8 — This day we set sail in ye morning for Spanish River. About 2 o’clock we came up with a sloop that was taken from Capt. Carrol of Boston last March & kept him prisoner till we took ye place. The Admiral gave him orders to take her wherever she was, and he came with us to find her & as soon as we came up with her he went on board & took possession & steered away for Louisbourg. This day Johnson was the thief was hanged

Wednesday, 16th — This Day we set sail for Louisbourg.

Sunday, 20th — This morning we got in to Louisbourg & came to about seven o’clock in ye morning & at noon we were Landed & our people were moved into the city.

Tuesday, 19 — This day mending the French hospital. The Frenchmen died very fast they die 8 or 10 in a day.

[I have not included the remainder of the diary here. It deals with routine work, both civil and military, and weather reports, and records of ships coming and going, and of his wish to be sent back home.]

Written by johnwood1946

June 29, 2016 at 8:25 AM

Posted in Uncategorized

The Medical Men of Saint John in its First Half Century

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From the blog at

The Medical Men of Saint John in its First Half Century

William Paine

William Paine, the first Doctor described in this blog post

From Harvard Loyalists in New Brunswick by Clifford K. Shipton, at

J.W. Lawrence wrote an article entitled The Medical Men of Saint John in its First Half Century and presented it before the New Brunswick Historical Society on May 26, 1885. Following is an edited version of that article. The principal objective of the editing was to reduce it in length, and this version is about 40% shorter than the original. Other editorial changes were minor.


The Medical Men of Saint John in its First Half Century

With the Loyalists who came from New York in 1783 were a number of medical men, among them Drs. Paine, Huggeford, Moore, Gamble, Prince, Earle, Emerson, Hammell, Dupnack, Clarke, Sharman, Lewis, Calef, Betts, Brown, Paddock and Smith — several of whom held commissions as surgeons in the war, in the Loyalist corps, and on the disbandment of their regiments at the peace were placed on half pay. A number located at St. John, others in the country, and some returned to their old homes. The one standing first with Governor Carleton and others in power in the newly established Province of New Brunswick was …

Dr, William Paine. Dr. Paine was born at Worcester, Mass., in 1750. One of his teachers before entering Harvard was John Adams, afterwards President of the United States, but at the time a student in the office of Attorney-General Putnam, the latter afterwards one of the first Bench of New Brunswick judges.

In 1774 Mr. Paine was in Scotland, and obtained from Marischal College, Aberdeen, Hon. M.D., followed by his appointment by the British Government as Apothecary to the British troops. In 1782 he was admitted a Licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians of London, and on returning to New York he was appointed by Sir Guy Carleton Physician to the Army. At the peace he went to Halifax, and was retired on half pay. While there he obtained from Governor Parr a grant of La Tete Island, in Passamaquoddy Buy, and went there to live. Writing from there in August, 1784, he says: “My situation I like very much; my lands are certainly well located, and if Mrs. Paine could content herself I should be well pleased. Her objection is that the children cannot be properly educated. The Island (now part of Charlotte County) will soon be a place of consequence, and ultimately the principal port in British North America. But to make my situation desirable requires capital. My Island must be stocked, boats must be employed in procuring lumber for the American and West India markets.”

In 1785 Dr. Paine removed to St. John, and at the incorporation of the city that year was appointed by Governor Carleton an alderman for Sidney Ward. In the fall he wrote that Mrs. Paine was quite contented with their situation, and he was busy canvassing for a friend for a seat in the House of Assembly for St. John, and he expected himself to be elected one of the members for Charlotte County. In this his expectations were realized, and also in the return of his friend for St. John. At the opening of the Legislature, in January, 1786, at St. John. Dr. Paine was appointed by the Governor Clerk of the House, at the same time retaining his seat as a member.

Prior to the first meeting of the House of Assembly, Dr. Paine and others, on December 13, 1785, presented a memorial to the Governor-in-Council, praying that a Charter of incorporation might be granted for the institution of a Provincial Academy of Arts and Sciences. The memorial pleads: “The situation in which the Loyalist adventurers here find themselves, many of whom on removing here, had sons whose time of life and former hopes call for an immediate attention to their education.” This was the initial step in the movement that led to the foundation what is now our Provincial University.

Dr. Paine was appointed, June 14, 1786, one of the Commissioners of the New England Company (so called) for educating and Christianising the Indians of New Brunswick.

In 1785, Sir John Wentworth, Surveyor-General of Woods and forests in the Province of Nova Scotia and other His Majesty’s Territories in America, appointed Dr. Paine Principal Deputy for New Brunswick. He was to “Survey, inspect, and examine the lands and timber growing, and carefully register such white pine trees as may be now or hereafter fit for the use of the Royal Navy.”

Consequent on the repeal of the Banishment Act by the United States in 1787, Dr. Paine returned to Massachusetts, after obtaining permission from the British Government. Under this sanction his half pay continued, and also his allegiance to the British Crown. On the breaking out of the War of 1812, the British Government called on Dr. Paine to report for duty, on which he resigned his commission and with it his half pay; this was followed by his becoming naturalized and thus a citizen of the United States.

In the summer of 1883, Mrs. Sturgis, a granddaughter of Dr. Paine, visited St. John. Standing with her alongside the Putnam tomb in the “Old Burial Ground,” she related to the writer an incident in the life of her great grandmother, the mother of Dr. Paine. Among the guests at a dinner party at Worcester, given by her husband shortly before the Revolutionary War, was John Adams. When the host gave the toast, “The King,” some Whigs at the dinner refused to drink it. Mr. Adams requested them to comply, saying, we shall have an opportunity to return the compliment. When asked to propose a toast, he gave “The Devil.” As the host was about to resent this indignity, Mrs. Paine turned the laugh on Mr. Adams, by saying to her husband, “My dear, as the gentleman has been so kind as to drink the health of the King, let us by no means refuse to drink to his friend.”

Dr. Paine resided at Worcester, in the old homestead, until his death in 1833, in his 84th year, one-half century after leaving New York at the time of the evacuation by the Loyalists. Among the gifts to the New Brunswick Historical Society is a fine engraving of Dr. Paine, taken in the morning of his manhood, presented May 1, 1884, by his grandson, George Sturgis Paine.

Dr. Peter Huggeford. This gentleman was a surgeon in the Loyal American Regiment, raised by Col. Beverley. Robinson, of New York. In it were two lieutenants long known at St. John: John Robinson, who died in 1828, being at the time mayor of the city, and John Ward, who at his death in 1846, at the age of 92, was the oldest half pay officer in the British service. Dr. Huggeford drew the lot at Parr Town opposite the Dufferin Hotel, on which the building occupied by Mr. John White now stands. The Rev. John Beardsley, who was chaplain in the same Loyalist Regiment, drew the lot adjoining. The daughter of Dr. Huggeford became the wife of Elias Hardy, second Common Clerk of St. John, and at the bar of New Brunswick without a peer. In 1800 Dr. Huggeford was residing at New York.

Dr. John Gamble. On his arrival at Parr Town Dr. Gamble drew lot 610 Princess Street, south side, through which lot, since the fire of 1877, Canterbury Street was opened. Princess Street, when laid out in 1783, was called Tyng Street, after Commissary William Tyng, who had been fortunate enough to secure ten town lots on the north side, extending from Germain to Prince William Street. For over fifty years that section of the street was known as Rocky Hill, and was considered of little value. The first loaded cart went up 29th July, 1830.

It is probable that, like Dr. Paine, that John Gamble returned to his old home in the United States.

Dr. John Hammell. This gentleman, during the Revolutionary War, was surgeon in the 4th Battalion of the New Jersey Volunteers, commanded by Lieut.-Col. Abraham Van Buskirk. He was one of the early practitioners at Pair Town; his lot was 1150 St. James Street, between Sidney and Carmarthen. He no doubt came to St. John with his regiment in the fall of 1783.

Things were in a transition state at the time, not only among the doctors, but also among the lawyers, for in August. 1787, William Wylly, Dr. Hammell’s attorney, was at the West Indies, with his family. Writing from there 12th September, 1787 to Ward Chipman, Esq., Recorder of St. John, he says: “No turtles of any size at present are to be got here, but are brought every day into Nausa, and I have given orders for two very handsome fellows to be put on board the vessel which touches there for you. I hope they will be delivered to you in high health, and well loaded with green fat and other nice bits sufficient for a Recorder’s feast for his Corporation. “

Dr. Samuel Moore. When John Mosley, a black man, who drew lot 1084, east Saint James Street (then called Stormont Street), was killed by a blow from a fork, which he received at the hands of his wife in the fall of 1784, the Hon. George Leonard, one of the Justices of the Peace, called on Dr. Moore to make a post mortem examination of the head of Mosley. This was accordingly done, and the doctor reported: “Sir—Agreeable to your request I examined the black man’s head. I am perfectly satisfied he was murdered. After examining where the fork perforated the temporal bone of the skull, I sawed off the arch of the head and found the ventricles of the brain everywhere impacted with matter. The symptoms before death were also very obvious. All the jury were spectators.”

In the report there is no intelligence as to whose skull Dr. Moore had been sawing, he says it was the “black man’s.” As to who the black man was he is silent, taking it for granted all interested knew. It is to the circumstance of being called on to make the post mortem examination that his name now appears among the physicians of New Brunswick in its first fifty years.

From the paper read before the New Brunswick Historical Society on November 25, 1874, on the “First Courts and Early Judges of New Brunswick,” the following is taken: “February 3, 1785, a true bill was found by the grand jury against Nancy Mosley for the murder of John Mosley, her husband. The same day the prisoner was arraigned and tried, Chief Justice Ludlow, with Judge Putnam, on the bench, when the jury brought in a verdict of manslaughter against the prisoner, Nancy Mosley. The day following she was brought into court and placed at the bar. She prayed the benefit of clergy, which being granted, she was sentenced to be branded in open court with the letter M in the brawn of the thumb, and discharged.”

Dr. John Calef. In the War Dr. John Calef was a Surgeon in a Provincial Regiment, and part of the time acted as Chaplain. He was with the army at Penobscot, where a post had been established under General McLean, at a place called Mega Bagaduce, now Castine. He has left us an excellent account of the siege of Penobscot by the Americans, and its gallant defence by the British, which is to be found in the library of Harvard College. Dr. Calef was in the legislature of Massachusetts about the date of the Revolution, and was one of the famous “Seven Hescinders.” At the funeral of George Whitefield he was one of the pall-bearers. It is said that he was sent to England about the close of the war by the Penobscot associated Loyalists, to endeavour to have the international boundary fixed at the Penobscot. He had been hopeful of success all along, when one morning, on entering the foreign offices his hopes were blasted by Lord North saying to him, “Doctor, doctor, we cannot make the Penobscot the boundary; the pressure is too strong.”

Dr. Calef was a man of learning and education. He came to St. John with his family, where he made his home until his removal to St Andrews. He was appointed Surgeon to the forces in New Brunswick.

In 1794 Dr. Calef was residing at St. John, where his house was a well-known landmark. His wife was a daughter of the Rev. Jedediah Rowley, of Massachusetts. Dr. Calef removed to St. Andrews, and died there in 1812, in his 88th year. A descendent in 1823, with others, purchased from Dr. Paine the island of La Tete, Charlotte County, since called Calef’s or Frye’s Island.

Dr. David Brown. From the roll of the New Brunswick Army Staff in 1785, it appears that Dr. Brown was Assistant Surgeon to Dr. Calef. For many years he was Hospital mate at St. John, a position under the British Government. What the special duties were is not now apparent, for every regiment had its surgeon and assistants, but he was probably Medical Superintendent of the Hospital.

In 1821 the troops of the line were stationed on Fort Howe, the Barracks there overlooking the Portland Police Station. For the first two or three years after the arrival of the Loyalists criminals were confined in the Block House on Fort Howe, and the first executions were on the hill, overlooking the present Railway Grounds, then known as “Gallows Hill.” The officers’ mess was on Paradise Row, afterwards known as the Portland Brewery. The Artillery or Ordnance department down to 1822, occupied Hare’s Wharf, with the rear of their Barracks on Smyth Street.

From the old newspapers we glean an interesting incident, however trivial it may seem to some of us today, for, on August 10, 1810, there was recorded for sale his “Piano Forte, with two complete sets of strings.” To be the owner of a piano in that day, was evidence of culture and comparative wealth.

Dr. Brown’s wife, Alicia McLean Brown, died on May 4th, 1809, at the age of 45 years and was buried in the Old Burial Ground. She had been a native of Mull, Scotland. Dr. Brown did not long survive his wife, for he died March 4, 1812, at the age of 60 years, having held the position of Hospital mate at St. John over 30 years. Although the marble slab on which the name of his wife is recorded had room for his name, no inscription records his death. His name is now recorded on the pages of the N.B. Historical Society. His residence at the corner of Germain and Duke Streets, was afterwards the residence for many years of Lauchlan Donaldson.

Dr. Nehemiah Clarke was a Surgeon in Lt.-Col. Emerick’s Chasseurs and Dragoons, a regiment in which Gabriel DeVeber was Major, and at the close of the war he came to St. John, where he drew a lot on the North Side of King Square. When sold, the property was described as a house and Lot consisting of two rooms and a kitchen on the ground floor, and one room above. The lot had a well of good water, and a cellar.

In place of returning to the States, Dr. Clarke removed to the County of York, opposite Fredericton. His daughter married Ross Currie, an Attorney at Law at Fredericton. Mr. Currie, in 1790, was drowned in the river opposite Government House. Another daughter married Capt. Eccles, a retired officer, by whom a monument was placed in the Fredericton Burial Ground, in memory of Dr. Clarke and Ross Currie. Dr. Clarke died in 1825, in the Parish of Douglas at the age of 86 years.

Dr. Joseph Clarke was a Physician of Stratford, Connecticut. When the war commenced he went to New York with his family. At the peace he came to Parr Town and drew the lot adjoining Nehemiah Clarke’s. He removed to Maugerville, where he died in 1813, aged 79 years.

There is a stone in the Old Burial Ground, St. John, in memory of Dr. Clarke’s son John, who died 10 June, 1828, aged 65 years.

Dr. Ambrose Sharman. This gentleman served as Lieutenant in the Royal Fencible Americans during the Revolution, and in addition he held the position of Assistant Surgeon. He was stationed with the garrison at Fort Howe, commanded by Major Gilfred Studholme. One of his brother officers was Lieutenant Samuel Denny Street. Doctor Sharman is the first medical man of whom any record is preserved who practised his profession in St. John. Among the accounts kept by James White as Indian Agent on the St. John River, records of payments to Dr. Sharman for inoculations for his family (£9) and for medicine and services provided to Pierre Thomas and four other sick Indians (£5-16-8).

Soon after the peace Dr. Sharman moved up the river to Burton and settled near his friend and comrade in arms, Samuel Denny Street. He was practising there in 1791, and among his patrons was Col. Abraham DePeyster, then Sheriff of Sunbury.

Dr. Sharman died December 17, 1793, and letters of administration were obtained. A son of Mr. Street was named John Ambrose Sharman Street, in honor of his old friend. Mr. Street also brought up and educated three of the orphan children of Dr. Sharman.

Dr. Azor Betts was a New York physician, and strong in denouncing those opposed to King George III. In 1776 he was brought before the Committee of Safety for denouncing Congress and the Provincial Assembly as “A set of damned rascals, acting only to feather their nests and not to serve the country.” After three months’ confinement, the Committee of Safety released him, the doctor having acknowledged penitence, feeling discretion to be the better part of valor.

Dr. Betts was among the Loyalists at St. John, but at the urgent solicitation of the people moved to Kingston. In 1809 he died at Digby, Nova Scotia. His widow died shortly after at St. John. In the old grave yard a stone marks her grave. There were two sons resident in St. John, Hiram and James O. Betts. The former was the father of the late Capt. Betts, and the latter of Charles Betts, who for many years was crier of the courts, and in response to “God save the Queen,” cried, “Oh, yes! Oh, yes!! Oh, yes!!!”

Dr. Charles Earle, in the war was a Surgeon in the Second Battalion of the New Jersey Volunteers, commanded by Lieut.-Col. Morris, and afterwards, in the year 1793, Surgeon in the King’s New Brunswick Regiment. Dr. Earle removed to Fredericton, and fixed his residence at Mill Creek, below the town, and the limits of the capital city of the Province in olden days were commonly spoken of as “from Dr. Earle’s to Phillis’ Creek.”

Dr. Earle resided at Fredericton until his death, 23 January, 1814, in his 62nd year. He was universally esteemed. At his death he was Surgeon of the 104th New Brunswick Regiment.

A daughter of Dr. Earle married Lionel Anderson of the Engineer Department, St. John.

Dr. Thomas Emerson. Dr. Emerson had been attached to the Royal Fencible Americans during the war. At the formation of the King’s New Brunswick Regiment, he was appointed Surgeon’s mate, and afterwards held the same office in the 104th or New Brunswick Regiment. Among the Lieuts. were Barton Wallop and Andrew Rainsford. In the war of 1812 with the United States, the 104th made its great winter march through New Brunswick to Quebec.

While today little is known of the life of Dr. Emerson, three years ago everything connected with it could have been learned from his companion in the winter campaign of 1813.

That Dr. Emerson practised at St. John in 1806 is clear, for at the trial of John W. Smith, Schoolmaster and Lay Reader in the Carleton Church, it was largely on his evidence and Dr. Adino Paddock’s, that Smith was convicted, and ordered to stand one hour in the Pillory at the foot of King Street. The day was a field day to the School Boys, for the sight of a School Teacher holding a levee in that character was something novel; what added to their enjoyment was he ruled them by the rod and not by moral suasion. Attorney-General Bliss and Solicitor General Chipman had associated with them on the part of the Crown. Thomas Wetmore and Charles J. Peters. The evidence, covering many pages, is extant.

Dr. Adino Paddock. Dr. Paddock, whose name was a household word at St. John, in the first third of the century, was a son of Mayor Adino Paddock of Boston, best remembered from the trees he planted on Tremont Street, before the Revolution, known as the Paddock Elms.

At the evacuation of Boston in 1776, the family went to Halifax and from there to England, where young Adino studied medicine. He returned before the close of the War, having secured an appointment as surgeon in the King’s American Dragoons, of which Joshua Upham, afterwards one of New Brunswick’s first judges, was major.

In 1783, Dr. Paddock drew two lots in Carleton and one at Parr Town, and in 1786 he bought from Major Gilfred Studholme, the second lot on Prince William Street, south of Princess, 50 feet front and 200 deep, for five shillings. This is the lot on which the City Hall now stands. The building in which “The St. John Daily Telegraph” was printed at the time of the fire in 1877, stood on this lot and was built by Dr. Paddock, and there he resided for years. At the incorporation of the City, of St. John, Dr. Paddock was appointed Assistant Alderman of Guy’s Ward.

Doctor Adino Paddock’s death was felt to be a public loss. Among references contained in the papers of the day is the following: “Died — Suddenly, 21 October, 1817, at the residence of his son-in-law, Frederick P. Robinson, St. Marys, York, in the 58 year of his age, Adino Paddock, Esq., Surgeon to the Ordnance in this Province. One of the first Loyalists who came to this place in the year 1783, he has been a successful practitioner of Physic and Surgery from that time until last spring, when a paralytic stroke unexpectedly interrupted his useful labours. From this attack he appeared to have been rapidly recovering, when on the day above mentioned a second paralytic stroke at once deprived him of his faculties, and in six hours terminated his existence. Endeared to his numerous friends by his mild, cheerful disposition, and amiable manners, esteemed by the public for his skilful exertions in his profession, and beloved by the poor for his benevolent heart and readiness at all times to render them professional as well as other relief, his loss will be long and severely felt by all classes of the community. His children who sincerely loved him, and duly appreciated his worth, are by his death involved in the deepest affliction.”

Dr. Paddock’s practice was among the first families in St. John. The year after his death his heirs, in settlement of a medical bill against the estate of Hon. William Hazen for £144, received a block of land in the city, containing 5 acres and 3 roods, long known after as Paddock’s Field, bounded on the north by Coburg Street, and on the east by Cliff, on the south by Waterloo Street, and west by Peters, Paddock Street running through the centre. To the Paddock heirs it proved a nugget, such as does not often fall to anyone in the settlement of an old account.

In 1837 John Y. Thurgar, who had married a daughter of Dr. Paddock, built a residence at the corner of Coburg and Paddock streets. In doing so he set the house back from the street, and planted a number of trees. There were other daughters and three sons.

Dr. Nathan Smith. When the war commenced Dr. Smith was a physician at Rhode Island, and through it Surgeon in the First Battalion DeLancey’s Brigade, and at its close settled at St. John. The disbanded officers of the first and second battalions of DeLancey’s Brigade were assigned lands for settlement upon the St. John River, in what is now the Parish of Woodstock. Surgeon Smith received a grant of 550 acres just below the site of the old Indian village of Meductic, and another grant of 350 acres just above. There is nothing to show that Dr. Smith ever did anything to improve his estate, and it is probable he disposed of it for a very small consideration to those who became actual settlers. Today it would be a valuable property indeed.

In addition to his medical practice in St. John, he had an apothecary shop in Lower Cove.

Opposite his store and residence was a pond, where in summer the boys caught frogs, and in winter skated. It was called “Dr. Smith’s Pond.” At the election for the House of Assembly, in 1790, Dr. Smith was elected one of the City members. During the session of 1798, being at the time a widower, he wrote the following, possibly the only letter of its kind of the last century to be found in New Brunswick. It certainly is not of the kind members are supposed to write to their constituents while in attendance on their “Parliamentary duties.” [So says the author of this article. The letter was a reasonably restrained not-at-all steamy expression of affection. J.W.] Dr. Smith at this time was 61 years of age, and the Widow Martin 29 years younger.

Their marriage took place, and the year following a son was born, Thomas M. Smith, for many years Chief of the Fire Department, and father of George F. Smith. Dr. Smith resided at his old home in St. James Street, Lower Cove, until his death in December, 1818, in his 82nd year. Eight years later his widow, then in her 57th year, entered wedlock the third time; the happy groom was Waller Bates, Sheriff of Kings County, then in his 67th year.

On the death of the Sheriff in 1842, his widow returned to the old home at St. John, it having been left to her by her second husband, Dr. Smith, enjoying at the same time a pension as his widow. Her death took place in December, 1864, at the age of 95 years.

In 1883 George F. Smith, Esq., placed in the “Old Grave Yard” a fountain in memoriam of his grandfather, Dr. Nathan Smith, and also planted a tree on Queen Square on Arbor Day to his memory.

The old homestead, a modest one-story wooden building, was one of the city landmarks up to the great fire of 1877. From it the old door, with its antique knocker, both brought from New York in 1783, was saved by a grandson, William O. Stewart, and at the exhibition of 1883 was seen in the department of old relics in charge of the Historical Society.

Dr. William Howe Smith. This physician was a son of Dr. Nathan Smith, by his first wife. The mother of Nathan Smith DeMill, the Apostle of Temperance in New Brunswick, was a daughter. William Howe Smith was brought up to the Apothecary business, preparing prescriptions for the patients of his father, and selling Friar’s Balsam, Court Plaster, Daffey’s Elixer, etc. to the residents of Lower Cove. In due time he graduated as a physician, and after the death of his father removed the Drug Store to the Market Square. His wife was a daughter of Col. Miles, of Sunbury, who did not long survive his father as he died in 1822, at the age of 45 years, leaving a widow, four sons and two daughters.

The residence of Dr. Smith at this time was in Prince William Street, on the upper lot now occupied by W.H. Thorne & Co. It was a two story wooden building, and was destroyed in the first great fire in St. John, April 9, 1824, which burned 35 buildings, and extended to the water’s edge. The fire originated in a tobacco factory on Merritt’s wharf, the total loss was over $100,000.

At the time of Dr. Smith’s death, although his eldest son William O. Smith, was a lad of only eighteen, he successfully continued the business to his death in 1871, at the age of 67 years. Today the business of A. Chipman Smith & Co. is the oldest established business in New Brunswick, being in its second century. To the pestle and the mortar, this unique honor belongs.

Dr. Thomas Paddock was the second son of Dr. Adino Paddock; the elder son, also a disciple of the healing art, was in practice at Kingston. The brick building, now the Dufferin Hotel, was erected in 1821 by Dr. Thomas Paddock. Lot No. 500 on which it stands has always cut a central figure in St. John history. It was drawn by Samuel Mallard, and sold to Thomas Horsfield for £6-5-0. It had a frontage on the square of 40 feet, with 100 on Charlotte. Down to 1841 there was no street on its northern side, the rock being a continuation of the elevated ground on which the Dufferin flag staff stands, jutted out over 100 feet on the square. At its base was one of the public wells and pump. In 1798 Thomas Horsfield sold the lot for £5, to a company as a site for a windmill.

A few words may be said in this connection regarding the “Mechanics’ Association.” This, like many of the manufacturing and other associations of the present day, did not prove a commercial success. Its object was the grinding of corn. The story of its failure is contained, a notice dated March 1, 1800: “TO BE SOLD And immediate possession given. The City Windmill, with lot No. 500, on which it stands, with all its apparatus, consisting of part of two setts of Running Gear, single and double, with a pair of excellent Burr Stones, a Bolt, Reel and Chest, with almost every article necessary for either Wind or Water Mill. It will be sold either with or without its Gear, as may best suit the purchaser….”

The building was from this time used for the Poor House. In 1809, in prospect of a war between England and the United States, the Militia were called out for duty, and a battalion from Kings County occupied the Poor House for three months. This was called “The Wetmore War,” for it was on Mr. Wetmore’s representation (he being Colonel of St. John Militia) the Commander-in-Chief ordered preparations to be made. Happily for all, there was no war.

Before break of day, February 15, 1819, the Poor House was on fire, and the flames reached the highest building which had been erected for a windmill twenty-five years before. The immense quantity of burning shingles and flakes of fire that flew in all directions endangered the surrounding buildings, but by the alacrity of the citizens, aided by the military, they were preserved. The cause of this unfortunate accident and heavy loss, proceeded from the negligence of leaving a quantity of dry oakum too near a stove pipe which passed through the floor, into the upper part of the building. The next Poor House was the brick building long on the corner of Carmarthen and King Streets, above the present Police Court, overlooking the old burial ground.

Dr. Thomas Paddock resided in his fine brick residence with his stable on the lot in the rear facing the square to 1832, when consequent on poor health he removed to Portland, Maine, where he married in 1816 [sic.] Miss McLellan of that place, having sold his residence to Robert F. Hazen, with 3 lots adjoining on King Square for £2,200. In 1835 he returned to St. John and resumed practice to his death in 1838, in his 48th year, leaving two sons and three daughters, one of the latter is the wife of Rev. Canon DeVeber of St. John.

Dr. John Boyd. In 1812 Dr. Boyd was “Hospital mate” at Windsor, Nova Scotia, and shortly after removed to St. John, holding the same position as successor to the late Dr. Brown. The residence of Dr. Boyd was in Prince William Street, just south of the City Hall, the former dwelling of Dr. Adino Paddock.

Dr. Boyd had two sons Dr. John and James William Boyd, Attorney at Law, the latter died of the small pox at St, John in 1850, in his 50th year. His wife was a daughter of Attorney-General Peters. Dr. Boyd had several daughters, one married Chief Justice Jarvis of Prince Edward Island, a second Dr. Alex Boyd, a third William Jarvis, the father of Wm. M. Jarvis of St. John. Two unmarried daughters are now (1885) residing here, and at the tree planting in the Old Burial Ground, planted a family tree, assisted by their nephew Barclay Boyd, son of James William Boyd.

A tomb in the “Old Grave Yard” records the following: Dr. John Boyd died 27th December, 1818, aged 64 years; also, Jane Boyd died 1st February, 1841, aged 74 years.

Dr. John Head. This gentleman was the youngest son in a large family, which for many years occupied a foremost place in Halifax society. He was trained for his profession at Edinburgh Medical College, which has since then given to the British colonies so many men eminent in the medical profession. Dr. Head commenced practice in Fredericton in 1814, and the year following married a daughter of Attorney-General Wetmore. He afterwards practised at St. John with ability and success. He was a man possessed of a singularly attractive personality, and made many friends. The late Dr. Gove, of Andrews, who was a student in St. John when Dr. Head was in practice there, considered him a bright ornament to his profession. Dr. Head died very suddenly at his residence in Prince William Street, St. John, in March, 1823, aged 32 years. His widow survived him more than half a century, and lived with her son-in-law, the Rev. Canon Ketchum, D.D., at St. Andrews.

Dr. Leslie. In the year 1817, Dr. Leslie began practice at St. John, and on the death of Dr. Boyd, 1818, succeeded him as Hospital mate. He married a daughter of Rev. Dr. Millidge of Annapolis, whose wife was a daughter of James Simonds of Portland Point.

Doctor Leslie was the first to advocate the erection of a Seaman’s Hospital, and in the furtherance of this object wrote the following for the press: “Amidst the various measures in this province, promoted either by the public or private individuals, for the benefit of their fellow creatures, one of the most essential importance seems to have escaped their attention. In a city like this, where the population and shipping have of late years much increased, and consequently accidents and diseases become proportionably numerous, the utility of a Merchant Seaman’s Hospital must be obvious. Many are the disadvantages under which the sick labour when kept on board a ship, the hasty visits which of necessity they must receive when their medical attendant, from his numerous and sometimes urgent engagements on shore is unable to observe the symptoms and closely to watch the phenomena of their disease, and the noise, and access to spirituous liquors and irregularity in the quantity and quality of their food when living at a boarding house, are causes which greatly retard the progress of cure, and oftentimes render cases apparently slight in themselves of extremely doubtful issue.”

Before long a Merchant Seaman’s Hospital was opened with a board appointed by the government, but with which in no way was the name of Dr. Leslie associated. Not long after this his name disappears from the roll of St. John’s physicians.

Dr. Alexander Boyle.

In 1817, Dr. Boyle was on the Army Staff as Surgeon, Brig.-Gen. George Stracey Smyth, Commander-in-Chief, and Alexander Boyle, Surgeon and Hospital Mate.

Through the efforts of Dr. Boyle a Provincial Vaccine establishment was organized in 1818, under the patronage of Lieut.-Governor Smyth. The Central Station was at St. John. The directors were Hon. John Robinson, Hon. William Black, Rev. Robert Willis and Rev. George Burns. Vaccinating Surgeon. John Boyd, M.D.

The Kent Provincial Marine Hospital was opened at St. John in 1821. The Commissioners were Hon. William Black, Alex Boyle, M.D., Hon. Edward J. Jarvis, Zalmon Wheeler and Thomas Heaviside. The Surgeon and Physician was John Boyd, M.D. In the fall of 1884, the fine brick erection on St. James Street was opened, now under the control of the Dominion Government, with Dr. Botsfoid, Surgeon and Physician.

Dr. Boyle from the first had the confidence of Governor Smyth, whose residence was at St. John, corner of Dock and Union streets. Like the members of the Legislature, the Governor went to Fredericton during the session.

In 1823, in the last week of the session, the Governor took sick, and Dr. Boyle was summoned to attend; the illness was fatal, for he died 28 February, 1823. His last official act was the appointment of a commission authorizing Chief Justice Saunders, Judge Chipman and Judge Bliss, or any two of them, to close the Legislature then just finishing business, and his signature was attached to this document a few hours before he died. Hon. George Shore and Dr. Boyle, were appointed by General Smyth, his executors.

In 1818 Dr. Boyle married a daughter of Dr. Boyd, and up to 1822, was on the army staff. On April 30, 1822, he advertised his intention to continue his practice in Saint John. His residence at this time was the Disbrow Brick Building, Germain Street, head of Church Street. His practice in later years was chiefly as consulting physician with his brother practitioners. In manners Dr. Boyle was reserved and courtly. In walking he had a habit of throwing his head back as if gazing at the heavens. He was on army half pay to his death, which took place September 1st, 1858, at his residence St. James Street, near Heed’s Point.

Dr. John Boyd. Dr. Boyd was a graduate of Windsor College. N.S. In 1807 Andrew Cochran, Edward J. Jarvis, James Anthony Barclay, Hibbert Binney, Thomas Paddock and John Boyd were candidates for four vacant scholarships on the foundation: Cochran, Jarvis, Barclay and Boyd were elected. Dr. Boyd obtained the degree of M.D. from the Aberdeen Medical College. His father, dying a few months after his return to St. John, opened a fine field for practice. In 1821 he was appointed Surgeon to the Marine Hospital, a position he held to his death. In 1831 Dr. Boyd married a daughter of the late Henry Wright, Collector of Customs. For a number of years he was President of the Saint Andrew’s Society and of the Sacred Music Society. Dr. Boyd was of a kind and benevolent disposition, tall and of fine appearance. While the members of the medical profession generally keep a horse to visit their patients, Dr. Boyd never was the possessor of one. His residence, from his marriage to his death, was in the southern end of the stone building on Prince William Street, near Reed’s Point, known as the Wright building. In Trinity Church there is a stained glass window, on which is inscribed “John Boyd, M.D., born July 1, 1792, died 27 August 1857.”

Dr. Thomas Walker. Dr. Walker arrived from Scotland in 1819, and indicated his intention to practice in an advertisement of June 5 of that year. He resided at Stanton’s building, Dock Street, opposite the store of Hugh Johnston & Co. His advertisement indicated that he would also establish a drug shop as soon as his partner, Mr. Macara arrived with the necessary supplies.

After the close of the Peninsular War, in 1815, the tide of emigration from the mother country began. In one week of June, 1819, the time when Dr. Walker arrived, there landed at St. John from Dumfries 150 passengers; from Cardigan, Wales, 180; from Falmouth 17; from London 38; from Boss, Ireland, 110, and from Londonderry 1,312; in all, 1,807 from the four nationalities. The first medical gentleman at St. John who left the mother country to make it his home was Dr. Walker, and from the success which followed him in his profession, his choice was a wise one; and while it benefited himself, he was also a valuable accession to the roll of citizens. Before leaving Scotland the doctor married Miss Macara, a sister of his partner in the drug department.

In 1820 the drug store was on the Market Square, two doors south of the Coffee House. The building was a three story one, the two upper serving as the family residence.

In 1828 George Macara died, aged 27 years, and from that time the drug business was under the management of John M. Walker, the doctor’s eldest son, then not seventeen. In 1840 the establishment was removed to the north side of Market Square, to a building erected after the great fire of the summer of 1839. The family residence was then on Wellington Row. In those days there was more money in drugs and medicines than in medical practice.

For years Dr. Walker was an elder of St. Andrew’s Church, in his day, “The Kirk.” He was a Presbyterian of the stamp of John Knox. In stature he was small, well built, greatly enjoying a talk, especially on religious subjects, also a laugh and pinch of snuff, from his silver snuff box.

Dr. Walker was born in Perthshire, Scotland, and died at his residence, Wellington Row, in the fall of 1852, in his 70th year. Mrs. Walker survived him to 1858. She attained the age of three score and ten years. There were three sons, John M., Thomas and James, the latter alone married, and through him, the name will be perpetuated, for on the 6th October, 1882, an heir was born to the house and to the large fortune of John M. Walker.

Dr. Henry Cook. In 1823 Dr. Cook with his brother John, opened a drug store in the Barlow Building, King Street. Among their clerks were Samuel Gove, now in medical practice at St. Andrew’s, and after him Samuel Leonard Tilley. In 1835, Dr. Cook removed to Germain Street, between King and Church, conducting the drug business on a smaller scale, his clerk the year following going to the drug store of W.O. Smith, to complete his studies in pharmacy.

Dr. Cook married a daughter of Moses Vernon, then of St. George. Although enjoying a fair practice supplemented by the profits of a drug store he never accumulated wealth. Homeopathy or small doses were then unknown. His was the era of Epsom salts, the blue pill, castor oil, court plaster and bleeding.

At the time of Dr. Cook’s death, in 1845, at the age of 47 years he was associated in practice with Dr. Miller.

Dr. Samuel G. Hamilton. It was in 1823 Ireland’s first contribution to St. John’s medical staff was made by the arrival of Samuel G. Hamilton, and long was that year remembered, for the ship Marcus Hill, Thomas Bryson, master, with a large number of passengers from Londonderry, arrived on Sunday, July 6, with small pox on board. In place of stopping at the Island she sailed to a wharf before the health officers knew of her arrival.

The vessel, on its being discovered that sickness was on board, was ordered to the quarantine grounds. It was said a number of passengers had landed and were sent to the country. Notwithstanding the care now taken it was too late. In the “Star,” two months after, was the following editorial: “We regret to state that the small pox continues in various parts of our city. It is our melancholy task this day to record in our obituary list, the death of a very promising young man, who was carried off by this malignant disorder, in the short space of one week, leaving a widowed mother, and many affectionate friends to deplore the loss which society has sustained. We tremble to think of the extent to which this loathsome disease may spread its ravages.”

Elijah Miles Smith, son of Dr. William Howe Smith, also died, aged 23 years. The Provincial Vaccine Institution met and decided that vaccination was the best or only measure that could be taken.

At that time, the City had two Libraries, The St. John Society Library, formed in 1811, and the Eclectic, formed in 1821. The former was a joint stock concern, limited in subscribers, first to fifty and afterwards to one hundred.

The Eclectic was the more democratic in its caste, and open to all wishing to subscribe. It was managed by twenty-five young men. In its prospectus, it is stated, the object of its formation was, to put it in the power of every class in the community to acquire knowledge on every interesting subject. The year Dr. Hamilton cast in his lot with the citizens of St. John, the officers of The Eclectic Library were James Patterson, President, William B. Kinnear, Vice-President, John Boyd, M.D., Treasurer, T.B. Millidge, Secretary, Moses H. Perley, Assistant Secretary, and John Wesley McLeod, Librarian. In 1830, the St. John Society Library absorbed the Eclectic. In turn, the former disappeared, for in 1868, after a history of 57 years, its 6,343 volumes, many of them rare and valuable, were scattered by the hammer of the patriarch of the St. John auctioneers, W.D.W. Hubbard.

For years, Dr. Hamilton had a drug shop in the Coffee House, fronting Market Square, yet neither from it or his practice was he enabled to keep a horse or bank account. While he enjoyed a fair practice, it was largely among the poor. The doctor, like many of his countrymen, had a large heart, and as a consequence many debtors were on his books, and there were many whose names were never entered. In the last years of his life, Dr. Hamilton had his office and rooms in Cross Street (now Canterbury), where he died July 1, 1851, in his 54th year, leaving so little that no letters of administration were taken out. Dr. Hamilton was the only one of the medical men of the first half century of St. John who died unmarried.

Dr. Hunt. In 1823 Dr. Hunt, a graduate from an American college, came to St. John, anxious to take part in relieving the sufferer, as far as medical art and medicine could do it. His brother practitioners looked on him with distrust, for a diploma short of a medical college on the other side of the Atlantic wanted the genuine stamp. The consequence was, his practice was limited. Fortunately, the doctor had an artistic taste, and was a master of the pencil and the easel. He is best remembered by his views of St. John. Some of his sketches were taken from the tower of “Old Trinity.” The view of the northern section of St. John in George Stewart’s history of the fire of 1877 was from the studio of the doctor. His tastes were also literary and scientific, for he occasionally lectured; one theme was, “Geology.” In those days wealth was not gathered from the easel or platform and the consequence was, Dr. Hunt had a hard fight keeping the wolf from his door, and as his fellow practitioners had the monopoly of the healing business, the doctor gathered but little from his profession.

Dr. Robert Bayard. Among the old families of New York before the War the Bayards held a prominent place. The father of Dr. Bayard was Major Samuel Bayard of the King’s Orange Rangers. At the close of the war he settled at Wilmot, N.S., where the son was born. Major Bayard was appointed Lieutenant-Colonel of the Royal Nova Scotia Regiment, and at its disbandment in 1802 was placed on half pay. The Duke of Kent was on terms of close intimacy with him. For many years before the close of his life, John Wesley had not a warmer follower in Nova Scotia than Samuel V. Bayard. The first appearance of the name of Bayard in New Brunswick was Dr. Bayard’s announcement on November 27, 1823 that he was setting up a practice in Saint John on the north side of the Church, Germain Street.

Prior to this Dr. Bayard was in practice at New York, also Professor of Midwifery in the medical college. In St. John he at once took a front place in the profession. In the advancement of agriculture. Dr. Bayard derived great pleasure, through the press and platform. For controversial writing he had a liking, whether the subject was Polemic or Hygienic. When essential, could dip his pen in gall. In 1846 Judge Parker initiated a movement for a public hospital, as a memorial to the Loyalists. It was killed by the doctors quarrelling as to who should control its management. From the pen of Dr. Bayard it received its death blow. Had he supported it with half the zeal he opposed it, the movement would have culminated in success. In 1837 his eldest son, William, engaged in practice in St. John, receiving in 1839 from the Government the office of Coroner for St. John city and county, holding it over twenty years, when he resigned. Dr. Robert Bayard, not long after having associated with him in practice his son William, spent the summer months on his farm in the Annapolis Valley, and in the last years of his life, he resided on his farm on the Nerepis River, Welsford, and there died June 4th, 1868, at the age of 80 years. From 1823 to the present time, the name has held a front place in the profession at St. John.

Dr. Quinn. In 1825 Dr. Quinn landed at St. John, from Ireland. For years he was best remembered by his association with the “Lally” family; father, mother, son and daughter.

In 1826 Mr. Lally purchased from George A. Nagle, the property on Germain Street, opposite Trinity Church, known as the Mansion House at the great fire of 1877, and then the property of George V. Nowlin. At this time the Lallys resided on a farm in the vicinity of the city and sold milk. Lally having insured the property, the next step was to set it on fire. After making arrangements to make the work effective through a distribution of tar, Mrs. Lally applied the torch at several points. As the building was three stories and could be seen from the North Market Wharf, a watchman there observed flames coming out of the north end. He at once gave the alarm, and the fire was soon extinguished, followed by the arrest of Mrs. Lally, who was found on the premises. She was tried in the Old Court Room, Market Square, found guilty and sentenced to stand in the Pillory, one hour on King Square. It is at this stage Dr. Quinn appears upon the scene, for on his certificate as her medical adviser that Mrs. Lally’s health was such as to place her life in peril, should the sentence be carried out, the sentence was in consequence postponed, and in the end she was pardoned. Her husband no doubt must have been a party to the act. The family shortly after removed to the States, the daughter first jilting the doctor. The son attained distinction in the American Army in Mexico, and it has been said was with it in the Aroostook War, 1839. Not long after the departure of the Lallys, Dr. Quinn left New Brunswick. Where his after lot was cast is unknown.

Dr. George E. Baldwin was a son of Thomas Baldwin, the tax collector of St. John fifty years ago, who also was enrolling officer in the first Battalion City Militia, when the Lieut.-Col. was Charles Drury and Benjamin L. Peters, Major.

Dr. Baldwin took the initial steps in the healing art, in the drug store of Dr. Hamilton, a fellow-countryman of his father. In 1827 he opened his office as a practitioner of medicine at St. John, but thinking Fredericton would be a better field, he shortly after removed there, and in 1835 died, at the early age of 31 years, leaving a wife and three children.

Dr. Alexander Pidler. Dr. Pidler was the first English physician to take up permanent quarters at St. John, arriving in 1829 from Devonshire. He supplemented for a time his practice with teaching drawing and painting. He soon acquired a fair practice, chiefly among the working classes, often receiving his fee at each visit, avoiding thereby not only bookkeeping, but what is of more consequence, the making of bad debts, with which none are more familiar than physicians. He also speculated in real estate. The beautiful spot at the foot of the Reach, known as Harding’s, Point he bought and lived there for a time. The building on the corner of Peel and Union, now the residence of Dr. Preston, was built by Dr. Pidler and was his residence, with office adjoining. In the latter years of his life he withdrew from practice, residing at the end of King Street east, where he died at the age of 69 years, April 2, 1873. His widow, to whom he was married in England, long survived him. Dr. Pidler was of medium size, with one eye crossed.

Dr. George Harding was the eldest son of Alderman Thomas Harding, who died in 1854, at the age of 68 years. The alderman had a widowed sister, Mrs. Stenning, and having no children she educated two of her nephews, George and William S. Harding, for physicians. The property on the Marker Square, long known as the London House, belonged to her.

Dr. George Harding, was a graduate of a Scotch University, who married before his return to St. John. Shortly after his arrival in 1830, he was appointed to the charge of the quarantine, with residence in the summer months on Partridge Island; in the winter his home was in Carleton. In 1831 the cholera was at St. John, causing 47 deaths. In 1847, the year of the Irish famine, there were large arrivals at St. John, bringing with them ship fever from which many died. This year Dr. Collins, a young physician, went to the island to assist Dr. Harding, who was aided by Dr. William S. Harding: he was taken down with the fever and died. His funeral was attended by an immense concourse of people. Dr. Harding, Dr. John Paddock and Dr. William Bayard also took the fever, and the life of the latter for a time hung in the balance. An emigrants’ hospital, which stood alongside the Alms House at Courtenay Bay, was much used at this time. Many who died were buried just across the road. Dr. Harding died at Carleton, May, 1874, in his 64th year, having been health officer at the Island over 40 years.

Dr. William Livingston. This physician cast in his lot as a citizen in 1830, and like the Messrs. Boyd, Boyle, Walker and Cooke, was a native of Scotland. He opened a business establishment known as the “Apothecary Hall,” under the Courier Office, adjoining Market Square. The two names best known connected with this institution are those of John G. Sharp and P.D. McArthur, the latter now (1885) proprietor. In his profession, Dr. Livingston early took high rank. He found relief from practice in writing for the press. Politicians of forty years ago felt the point of his pen. It was a sharp one. While a dangerous foe he was a true friend. He was a Liberal of the advanced school, and among his friends was Hon. Joseph Howe.

In 1849, on the elevation of P.L. Hazen, one of the city members, to the Legislative Council, Dr. Livingston was a candidate. The other two were Barzillai Ansley and Charles Waiters. Mr. Ansley was elected. In 1840 Dr. Livingston married the widow of Stephen Thome, a member of the St. John bar. The doctor died at his residence, corner Duke and Charlotte Streets, January 1st, 1875, in his 72nd year. Of the medical men of St. John in its first fifty years he was the last survivor.

Dr. John Paddock. This gentleman was the youngest son of Dr. Adino Paddock, and of the medical men of the first half century the last to enter the profession in St. John. Consequent on his brother Thomas removing to Portland, Maine, in 1831, he fell into a fair share of his practice. In 1833 he married a sister of John V. Thurgar, his brother-in-law. Early in the fall of 1834 the Asiatic cholera made its second visit at St. John. On the 15th October Dr. Paddock acknowledged, through the press, the receipt of a letter, with no signature, enclosing a £5 bank note, with instruction: “For the poor cholera patients,” which charity he states “he will apply according to the benevolent intention of the donor.” The cholera disappeared shortly after. The deaths at this time were happily few.

When Dr. Patterson took charge of the Grammar School, December, 1818, among his scholars were John Paddock, John M. Robinson, J.W. Boyd, P.F. Hazen, R.L. Hazen, George Partelow, John Black and William Black.

In manners Dr. Paddock was kind and social. He early passed away, dying in 1853, at the age of 44 years, leaving a widow and one son, the latter today engaged in the drug business, the 4th generation inseparably connected with medicine in our city. When Dr. John Paddock died, there closed a continuous practice of father and two sons in St. John of seventy years.

On Arbor Day, October 4, 1883, Mr. M.V. Paddock planted in Queen Square an. Elm, a scion of the old Paddock Elms of Tremont Street, Boston, in memory of his great grandfather Adino Paddock.

Written by johnwood1946

June 22, 2016 at 8:47 AM

Posted in Uncategorized

Henry Ketchum and the Chignecto Marine Transport Railway

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From the blog at

Henry Ketchum and the Chignecto Marine Transport Railway


Henry George Clopper Ketchum

From U.N.B. Archives and Special Collections

Henry George Clopper Ketchum was born in Fredericton in 1839, on the eve of the most active time in the history of the world as far as advancements in engineering technologies were concerned. The ‘great blessing of steam’ was upon us. Structural design was to be transformed from a matter of guesswork to one of science. The world would shrink with the introduction of the telegraph, and change was everywhere. We do not know whether Ketchum recognized the extent of the coming changes, but he certainly rode the wave.

King’s College (the University of New Brunswick) did not award its first diploma in Civil Engineering until 1862, but lectures were being given before that, and Ketchum started attending these in 1854 at the age of 14 or 15. Some people say that the program required practical experience in industry and, between 1856 and 1860, we find Ketchum working as a telegrapher, and then as a surveyor and finally as an assistant construction engineer on the European and North American Railway between Saint John and Shediac. Then, in 1860, he was off to Brazil working as an agent and district engineer for James Fox & Sons in railroad construction. The Brazil construction included a 12-span bridge with 180 foot long iron columns known as the Megy Viaduct, and his work was well enough done to earn him a £500 bonus, still aged only about 21 years. Finally, at the age of about 23, he received the first diploma ever awarded in Civil Engineering by King’s College.

Ketchum then went to London, where he met prominent British engineers, and returned to Canada in 1965. He worked as a Resident Engineer for a contractor building railway from Moncton to Truro, before becoming Chief Engineer for the New Brunswick Railway. He was elected an Associate of the prestigious British Institute of Civil Engineers in 1866, and went into private practice in Fredericton in 1875. He became a full member of the ICE in 1878.

Ketchum wrote several letters to newspapers in 1875, promoting the idea of a ‘ship railway’ across the Isthmus of Chignecto between Fort Lawrence on the Bay of Fundy and Tidnish Cross Roads on the Northumberland Strait. His drawings and designs were destroyed in the Great Fire of 1877 in Saint John, but these were replaced.

A ship railway would carry ships across the Isthmus of Chignecto without building a canal, which had already been determined to be too expensive. A masonry-lined basin would be built at each terminus, with gates. The high tides on the Bay of Fundy side required that that basin be especially large, while the lower tides on the Tidnish side would permit a long approach channel and a somewhat smaller basin. A ship would sail into one of the basins and be lowered onto a steel cradle which, in turn, was supported on a steel grid. The cradle and ship would then be raised to the level of the track using 20 hydraulic jacks. The ship and cradle would be hauled on two parallel tracks by two heavy and powerful locomotives to cross the isthmus, a distance of 17 miles in 2½ hours.

Some statistics: Ships of up to 2,000 tons could be accommodated. The basin on the Bay of Fundy side would be about 490 feet long and 40 feet deep. The approach channel on the Tidnish side would be almost 3,000 feet long. The cradle was over 200 feet long and 40 feet wide, supported on 192 wheels. The two tracks, each with a locomotive, were 18 feet on center.


The Amherst Lifting Dock

From U.N.B. Archives and Special Collections

There was an intention to build the ship railway. It was not just a dream or a proposal, and the route of the railway was surveyed at Ketchum’s expense in 1881. The Chignecto Marine Transport Railway Company was incorporated in 1882, with as Ketchum Managing Director, other Directors being in England. Land for the project was donated by the County of Cumberland, Nova Scotia, in 1883, and Parliament agreed in 1885 to a medium to long-term subsidy provided the project was in operation within a specified period.

Construction began on the docks in 1887, before the financing was complete, and continued in earnest beginning in 1888. Two-thousand tons was a heavy load, especially in those days, and unsound ground was excavated and replaced over a marshy area on the Tidnish side, increasing the costs.

The contractor, John G. Meiggs & Co. collapsed in 1890 due to a bank failure in England, and Parliament agreed to a one-year extension of the deadline, to 1892. It was indicated in a newspaper that construction was still underway in 1890, but it stopped by 1891. The project was close to complete by that time. Sixteen of the 17 miles of roadbed had been completed, and track installed over 13 miles. The docks at both ends were complete, though the cradle and the steel grid and the hydraulics may have been incomplete.

The government deadline for the completion of the project expired in 1892, and another extension was requested. This was refused, and the job was incomplete, with $3.5-million having been spent, and another $1.5-million required to finish. The money was raised and a new contractor was named. Finances were still tight when, in September of 1896, Henry Ketchum died. Work never resumed.

The Chignecto Marine Transport Railway was a real project, not a pipe-dream, and it was almost completed. It qualified as ‘heavy engineering’ and required many design disciplines in order to be built. It would have been a credit to Ketchum and to the Maritime Provinces although it would have become antiquated as ships became larger and larger. The railway and its promoter are well deserving of a place in our history books.


Vessel on its Cradle, Ready to be Attached to the Engines

From U.N.B. Archives and Special Collections


  1. Canada’s Historic Places, Tidnish Bridge, at
  2. Canadian Consulting Engineer online magazine, Ship Railways, at
  3. Bowes, Edward Chapman, in Dictionary of Canadian Biography online, Ketchum, Henry George Clopper, at
  4. Online archives of the University of New Brunswick, Chignecto Ship Railway, at
  5. Online archives of the University of New Brunswick, Chronology, at
  6. Province of Nova Scotia online site Historic Chignecto Ship Railway Lands Purchased, at
  7. Wikipedia, Chignecto Ship Railway, at

Written by johnwood1946

June 15, 2016 at 8:39 AM

Posted in Uncategorized


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