New Brunswick History and Other Stuff

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Table of Contents, Rev. March 21, 2018

with 2 comments

The blog posts follow this Table of Contents, in the sequence shown.

To access a particular post, copy and paste the title, or a sufficient part of the title, to the search box to the right.

  1. Saint John, New Brunswick Churches in 1910 – Mar. 21, 2018
  2. Chief Making Among the Passamaquoddy Indians – Mar. 14, 2018
  3. Canoeing Down the Restigouche River in 1895 – Mar. 7, 2018
  4. Northern New Brunswick, Heaven on Earth – Feb. 28, 2018
  5. Indian Place Names From Around Passamaquoddy Bay – Feb. 21, 2018
  6. Alexander McNutt’s Accomplishments Went Well Beyond Maugerville – Feb. 14, 2018
  7. Albert County, New Brunswick, about 170 Years Ago – Feb. 7, 2018
  8. 1865: Rise in Support of this Mighty Project! The Confederation Debate – Jan. 31, 2018
  9. The Genesis of Prince Edward Island’s Distinctive Property Laws – Jan. 24, 2018
  10. Saint John’s ‘English Period’, 1758 to 1782 – Jan. 17, 2018
  11. Education in New Brunswick in 1837 – Jan. 10, 2018
  12. The Babcock Tragedy, a Story of Madness and Murder – Jan. 3, 2018
  13. Cape Breton, from about 1000 AD to the Mid-1600’s – Dec. 27, 2017
  14. Christmas as it was in Saint John, 1808 – Dec. 23, 2017
  15. The Saint John River, the Rhine of America – Dec. 20, 2017
  16. A Veiled Threat to Invade New Brunswick – Dec. 13, 2017
  17. A Few Weeks in 1755, the Expulsion of the Acadians Begins – Dec. 6, 2017
  18. The Magical Dancing Doll – Nov. 29, 2017
  19. Immigration to New Brunswick in 1832, and Lumber Mills – Nov. 22, 2017
  20. Harvey, New Brunswick, 1837 – Nov. 15, 2017
  21. On the Road to Responsible Government in New Brunswick – Nov. 8, 2017
  22. Through the Woods in the Dead of Winter; Fredericton to the Miramichi – Nov. 5, 2017
  23. Acadia in 1720, as Seen by Paul Mascerene – Oct. 25, 2017
  24. Nova Scotia’s Sham Government in 1720 – Oct. 18, 2017
  25. Three Short Wabanaki Thunder Stories – Oct. 11, 2017
  26. Stanley, N.B., Carved from the Wilderness – in a Hurry – Oct. 4, 2017
  27. Drunkenness Yearly More Common Amongst all Classes – Sept. 27, 2017
  28. John Cabot, London Superstar and Discoverer of Cape Breton – Sept. 20, 2017
  29. Nicolas Denys, the First Proprietor and Governor of all of the Gulf Coast of Acadia – Sept. 13, 2017
  30. Promoting New Brunswick in 1832 – Sept. 6, 2017
  31. A View of Acadian History, from 30,000 Feet – Aug. 30, 2017
  32. Nova Scotia During the Revolution, an American Perspective – Aug. 23, 2017
  33. The Many Trials of Richard Valpey of Yarmouth, and his Service to the American Cause During the Revolution – Aug. 16, 2017
  34. From Saint John to Annapolis Royal, Around the Bay of Fundy in 1787 – Aug. 9, 2017
  35. Nova Scotia in 1775: “Every Spot is Inhospitable and Frigid” – Aug. 2, 2017
  36. Notes About Edward Cornwallis, Who Has Been in the News Lately – July 26, 2017
  37. Starving, Fly-Bitten, and Lost in the Woods – July 19, 2017
  38. Saint John and Saint George, New Brunswick, in 1842 – July 12, 2017
  39. The Razing of Chignecto, and the Attack on Fort Nashwaak – July 5, 2017
  40. Captain Henry Mowat’s Account of the Battle on the Penobscot – June 28, 2017
  41. Voyage of the First Fleet of 1783, and the Settlement of Kingston by a Band of Loyalists – June 21, 2017
  42. 1,500 Dead in Saint John. The Cholera Epidemic of 1854 – June 14, 2017
  43. Fishing on the Nepisiquit River in the 1870’s – June 7, 2017
  44. The Clock at Fredericton City Hall – May 31, 2017
  45. Prohibition in Saint John in the 1920’s, an Exposé – May 24, 2017
  46. Boss Gibson’s First Railroad – May 17, 2017
  47. The New Brunswick Postal Service in 1856 – May 10, 2017
  48. Defending the ‘Worthless, Unsteady and Villainous’ Cutters of Wood – May 3, 2017
  49. Tossed by the Sea Into a Frozen Wilderness-1788 – Apr. 26, 2017
  50. The King of France Cannot Have Given You Our Land, Because it Was Not His – Apr. 19, 2017
  51. Bureaucracy and the Expulsion of the Acadians – Apr. 12, 2017
  52. From Pictou, Nova Scotia to Saint John, New Brunswick via Charlottetown and Shediac in 1867 – Apr. 5, 2017
  53. A Sunday EXTRA: No Meeting of Minds Between the Acadians and the British in 1717 – Apr. 2, 2017
  54. Grand Falls, New Brunswick in 1844 – A Vast Ocean of Trees – Mar. 29, 2017
  55. Shabby Streets, Decaying Houses, and Steep Plank Sidewalks. Saint John in 1874 – Mar. 22, 2017
  56. In the Beginning – Wabanaki Creation Stories – Mar. 15, 2017
  57. Pride versus Rascals and Villains in Saint John in 1791 – Mar. 8, 2017
  58. The Trent Affair – Mar. 1, 2017
  59. A Shocking Description of Anti-Confederates in Rural Nova Scotia in 1867 – Feb. 22, 2017
  60. Surveying Through the Wilderness in 1844 – Feb. 15, 2017
  61. At the Bend of the Petitcodiac in 1844: Moncton – Feb. 8, 2017
  62. Maria Rye and Her British Home Children – Feb. 1, 2017
  63. New Brunswick’s East Coast in 1832, Following the Miramichi Fire – Jan. 25, 2017
  64. Slavery in the Loyalist Era – Jan. 18, 2017
  65. Weather and the Seasons in Micmac Mythology – Jan. 11, 2017
  66. New Brunswick’s Roads in 1832: ‘Many paths are misnamed roads’. Jan. 7, 2017
  67. Nova Scotia and New England During the Revolution – Dec. 28, 2016
  68. A Holiday Special: Christmas as it Was in Saint John in 1808 – Dec. 23, 2016
  69. Expressions from Cuffer Down plus Signs and Omens – Dec. 21, 2016
  70. From Passamaquoddy to the Petitcodiac: What it Was Like in 1832 – Dec. 14, 2016
  71. Raymond Writes About the Lives and Customs of the Mi’kmaq and Maliseet People – Dec. 7, 2016
  72. The Governor’s House was an Outrage to Good Taste – Fredericton in 1832 – Nov. 30, 2016
  73. An Unparalleled and Abominable Deception – Nov. 23, 2016
  74. Not a Metropolis, but the Largest Town in the Province – Saint John in 1832 – Nov. 16, 2016
  75. Lumber Camp Life, and Game-Wardens Poaching Moose – Nov. 9, 2016
  76. Louisbourg: It Didn’t Have to Happen. It Just Didn’t Have to Happen – Nov. 2, 2016
  77. Let Us Consider the Lowly Seagull – Oct. 26, 2016
  78. 5 – David Kennedy Completes His Travels of 1876 in Halifax – Oct. 19, 2016
  79. 4 – David Kennedy’s Tour of Nova Scotia in 1876 – Oct. 12, 2016
  80. 3 – David Kennedy’s Tour of Newcastle, Chatham and Bathurst in 1876 – Oct. 5, 2016
  81. 2 – David Kennedy’s Visit to Saint John, New Brunswick in 1876 – Sept. 28, 2016
  82. 1 – David Kennedy’s Travels from Quebec City to New Brunswick in 1876 – Sept. 21, 2016 (This blog posting was lost on Sept. 28th. I decided not to re-post, since it would clutter my subscribers’ screens.)
  83. A Short History of Early English Nova Scotia – Sept. 14, 2016
  84. Fish Wardens Described as Useless Political Appointments – Sept. 7, 2016
  85. With Indian Guides in the Wilds of New Brunswick, 1862 – Aug. 31, 2016
  86. Blog past #300: Port Royal from 1604 to 1613. Of Heritage Value to all North Americans – Aug. 24, 2016
  87. Hunting Down the Last of the Old Growth Pine – Aug. 17, 2016
  88. Dr. James Robb – Aug. 10, 2016
  89. Peace Negotiations With Pierre Tomah on the Saint John River – Aug. 3, 2016
  90. Business Opportunities on Campobello Island – July 27, 2016
  91. A Pompous Captain on the Evils of Logging – July 20, 2016
  92. The Too-Easy Life of Nova Scotians Disproved – July 13, 2016
  93. Why Not to Marry a Nova Scotia Woman, and How to Make Maple Sugar – July 6, 2016
  94. The Bloody Assault on Fort Louisbourg in 1758 – June 29, 2016
  95. The Medical Men of Saint John in its First Half Century – June 22, 2016
  96. Henry Ketchum and the Chignecto Marine Transport Railway – June 15, 2016
  97. A War Journal from Majabidwaduce on the Penobscot – June 8, 2016
  98. Mi’kmaq Magic and Medicine – June 1, 2016
  99. Thomas Wood, and His Visit to the Saint John River in 1769 – May 25, 2016
  100. The Northern Colonies: Languishing in Mediocrity – ca 1804 – May 18, 2016
  101. Fredericton’s Victoria Cottage Hospital – May 11, 2016
  102. The Passamaquoddy Wampum Records – May 4, 2016
  103. Slog on, or Die – Apr. 27, 2016
  104. Changes Nova Scotia Underwent from Discovery to 1758 When the First General Assembly Met in Halifax – Apr. 20, 2016
  105. The Disastrous Winter on St. Croix Island, 1604-05, and Other Adventures – Apr. 13, 2016
  106. Missions to the Mi’kmaq and Maliseet in the Early 1800’s – Apr. 6, 2016
  107. It Sounded Like a Residential School Philosophy – Mar. 30, 2016
  108. The Acadian Fugitives – Mar. 23, 2016
  109. Giddy, Eccentric, and Discontented Characters, or Misguided Souls, or Turncoats? – Mar. 16, 2016
  110. Indian Routes of Travel in New Brunswick – Mar. 9, 2016
  111. Historic Sites from the English Period on the Saint John River – Mar. 2, 2016
  112. How to Hunt a Moose, a Goose, and a Caribou in New Brunswick in 1791 – Feb. 24, 2016
  113. William Hubbard Complains to Edward Winslow about the Congregationalists in Sheffield – Feb. 17, 2016
  114. Good Fences Make Good Neighbours – Feb. 10, 2016
  115. WE NEED THE ACADIANS TO REMAIN: Lieut Governor, 1715 – Feb. 2, 2015
  116. Guy Carleton on the Fur Trade in Canada, 1767 – Jan. 27, 2016
  117. A Letter on Irish Immigrants – Jan. 20, 2016
  118. The Wreck of the ‘Lord Ashburton’ – Jan. 13, 2016
  119. A Ghost at Noonday – Jan. 6, 2016
  120. Silas Rand on the Mi’kmaq People – Part 3: Will Not the Bright Sun and the Blue Heavens Testify Against Us? – Dec. 30, 2015
  121. Silas Rand on the Mi’kmaq People – Part 2: To Every Thing There is a Season – Dec. 23, 2015
  122. Silas Rand on the Mi’kmaq People – Part 1: All Men From One Blood – Dec. 16, 2015
  123. Limits to the Royal Bounty – Dec. 9, 2015
  124. Nova Scotia, a Receptacle for Superfluous People? – Dec. 1, 2015
  125. From New Ireland to New Brunswick – Nov. 25, 2015
  126. The Most Gentlemanlike Government on Earth – Nov. 18, 2015
  127. I Love You for Your Plainness – Nov. 11, 2015
  128. Ward Chipman Remembers the Final Evacuation of New York – Nov. 4, 2015
  129. A Reply to “Men of Honor and Probity Run Amok” – Oct. 28, 2015
  130. A Century of Educational Progress in New Brunswick from 1800 to 1900 – Oct. 21, 2015
  131. Notes About the Earliest Public Markets in Saint John, New Brunswick – Oct. 14, 2015
  132. The Provincial Dairy School at Sussex, New Brunswick, 1900 – Oct. 7, 2015
  133. An Account of Nova Scotia in 1743 – Sept. 30, 2015
  134. The Petition of the Infamous 55 – Sept. 23, 2015
  135. Francis Sharpe’s Woodstock Apples – Sept. 16, 2015
  136. The Expulsion of the Acadians, a Military Surgeon’s Diary – Sept. 9, 2015
  137. The New Brunswick Election of 1785 – Sept. 2, 2015
  138. The Many Fires in Saint John, 1784-1877 – Aug. 26, 2015
  139. A Proposal for an Attack on N0va Scotia – Aug. 19, 2015
  140. Fredericton’s Great Flood of 1936 – Aug. 12, 2015
  141. A Letter about the Acadians and the Expulsion – Aug. 5, 2015
  142. Saint John in 1834, Before it was Forever Changed by the Great Fire – July 29, 2015
  143. New Brunswick, No Country for a Mere Gentleman, 1834 – July 22, 2015
  144. Woodstock, the Only Village Between the Green River and Fredericton in 1834 – July 15, 2015
  145. On the Tamiscouta Prtage from Lake Tamiscouta to just above Grand Falls, 1834 – July 10, 2015
  146. Men of Honor and Probity Run Amok – July 1, 2015
  147. By Steamer to the So-Called City of Fredericton – June 24, 2014
  148. A Quiet and Business-Like Little City – June 17, 2015
  149. Rambles Among the Bluenoses in 1862 – June 10, 2015
  150. Edward John Russell, a New Brunswick Artist – June 3, 2015
  151. Provincial Lunatic Asylum, Report of the Medical Superintendent, 1875 – May 27, 2015
  152. The Saint John River and Port Royal in the Early 1600’s – May 20, 2015
  153. What Should We Think of Benedict Arnold? – May 13, 2015
  154. Diphtheria in New Brunswick in the Year 1889 – May 6, 2015
  155. The Official Account of the Destruction of Burnt Church – Apr. 29, 2015
  156. The Exchange Coffee House and Saint John’s First Club – Apr. 22, 2015
  157. The Wigwams and Dwellings of the Gaspesians – Apr. 15, 2015
  158. The Story of Brook Watson – Apr. 8, 2015
  159. Where Stood Fort LaTour? – Apr. 1, 2015
  160. Things This Morning Really Wear the Aspect of War – Mar. 25, 2015
  161. At Portland Point – Mar. 18, 2015
  162. Electrical Power From the Reversing Falls – Mar. 10, 2015
  163. Father Rale’s War – 1722-25; How it Ended – Mar. 4, 2015
  164. What Was the Big Deal About the Marco Polo? – Feb. 25, 2015
  165. Grand Manan to Petitcodiac, in 1786 – Feb. 18, 2015
  166. A Trip From St. John to Fredericton in 1870 – Feb. 11, 2015
  167. A Tour of St. John, N.B., in 1870 – Feb. 4, 2015
  168. Destruction by Fire of the First Cathedral in Chatham – Jan. 28, 2015
  169. Burgan the Burglar – Jan. 21, 2015
  170. Facts and Reasons Against Confederating With Canada – Jan. 14, 2015
  171. Discontent in Early Halifax in 1756 – Jan. 7, 2015
  172. A Trip on the ICR From Bathurst to Miramichi – Dec. 31, 2014
  173. Early Attempts to Introduce the Cultivation of Hemp in Eastern British America – Dec. 24, 2014
  174. Touring Campbellton and Dalhousie, Despite the Mosquitoes, 1876 – Dec. 19, 2014
  175. The Fire of 1837 in Saint John – Dec. 10, 2014
  176. The Cruise of the Rechab – Dec. 3, 2014
  177. A Night in the Deep – Nov. 26, 2014
  178. Robert Foulis (A Misplaced Genius) – Nov. 19, 2014
  179. The City Mills – Nov. 15, 2014
  180. The Brothers d’Amours – Nov. 5, 2014
  181. John Allan’s Revolutionary Mission to the Saint John River – Oct. 29, 2014
  182. Relics of the Acadian Period – Oct. 22, 2014
  183. Some Odd Old Advertisements – Oct. 15, 2014
  184. The Miramichi Fire – Relief of the Sufferers – Oct. 8, 2014
  185. Jonathan Eddy’s Account of the Attack on Fort Cumberland, November, 1776 – Oct. 1, 2014
  186. Which of These Two is the Wisest and Happiest? – Sept. 24, 2014
  187. Fredericton Bridge, a Prophetic Writing – Sept. 17, 2014
  188. A Speech to Distinguished Persons of Stake and Consideration – Sept. 10, 2014
  189. Building an Education System From Almost Nothing – Sept. 3, 2014
  190. Cape Tormentine to the Baye des Chaleurs in the 1600’s – Aug. 27, 2014
  191. The Customs of the Mi’kmaq in the 1600’s and Before – Aug. 20, 2014
  192. Two Documents Relating to the Fenians in New Brunswick – Aug. 13, 2014
  193. The Lazaretto for Lepers in Tracadie, 1862 – Aug. 6, 2014
  194. Thoughts About the Augustine Mound at Metepenegiag Mi’kmaq Nation – July 30, 2014
  195. What am I Bid for This Pauper? – July 23, 2014
  196. Trouble at Madawaska, 1831 – July 16, 2014
  197. The Great Fire at Saint John, June 20, 1877 – July 9, 2014
  198. The Poor Fellows Shook as if They Would Fall to Pieces! – July 2, 2014
  199. How to Build a Logging Camp in Around 1850 – June 25, 2014
  200. Risen from the Ashes, Phoenix Square in Fredericton – June 18, 2014
  201. Rocks and Water, Magnificence and Squalor; St. John in 1876 – June 11, 2014
  202. Moncton as Seen by a Journalist in 1876 – June 4, 2014
  203. Events Leading to the Caraquet Riots of 1875 – May 28, 2014
  204. A Dramatic Account of the Miramichi Fire – May 21, 2014
  205. Saint John in the Early 1840’s – May 18, 2014
  206. The Myth that Kerosene was Invented in New Brunswick – May 7, 2014
  207. A Church with Military Boots and Fixed Bayonets – Apr. 30, 2014
  208. An Opening Salvo in an Ongoing Argument – Apr. 23, 2014
  209. May living worms his corpse devour – Apr. 16, 2014
  210. He don’t look any better than some of our own boys – Apr. 9, 2014
  211. The Disputed Territory Between New Brunswick and Maine – Apr. 2, 2014
  212. Navigation on the Saint John River – Mar. 26, 2014
  213. Shepody as a Hot Investment Opportunity, 1868 – Mar. 19, 2014
  214. To Her Majesty, RE: Reciprocity, 1853 – Mar. 12, 2014
  215. Diary on the Tobique, 1851 – Mar. 5, 2014
  216. Growing up in Fredericton in the 1820s and 1830s – Feb. 26, 2014
  217. Travels From Eastport, Maine, to Fredericton, 1851 – Feb. 19, 2014
  218. The Saint John General Public Hospital, 19th Century, Part 2 of 2 – Feb. 12, 2014
  219. The Saint John General Public Hospital, 19th Century, Part 1 of 2 – Feb. 5, 2014
  220. The Story of the Great Brothers – Jan. 29, 2014
  221. A Trek up the Tobique, and Onward to Bathurst – Jan. 22, 2014
  222. Summer Tourists. A Manual for New Brunswick Farmers – Jan. 19, 2014
  223. A Trek from Grand Falls to Campbellton, 1862 – Jan. 15, 2014
  224. A Trek From Taymouth to Boisetown, 1862 – Jan. 12, 2014
  225. Capt. William Owen’s Journal, Campobello, 1770-71 – Jan. 8, 2014
  226. The Founding of Campobello Island – Jan. 5, 2014
  227. New Brunswick Roads and Railways, 1855 – Jan. 1, 2014
  228. Grand Manan – Dec. 29, 2013
  229. The Shipyard Fire in Saint John, in 1841 – Dec. 26, 2013
  230. Christmas as it Was in Saint John, in 1808 – Dec. 22, 2013
  231. The Saint John Grammar School – Dec. 18, 2013
  232. William Wishart Blasts the New Brunswick Education System, 1845 – Dec. 15, 2013
  233. The Diary of Sarah Frost – Dec. 11, 2013
  234. Pŭlěs, Pŭlowěch′, and Beechkwěch (Pigeon, Partridge, and Nighthawk) – Dec. 10, 2014
  235. The Government of New Brunswick, 1837 – Dec. 4, 2013
  236. The Whales and the Robbers – Dec. 1, 2013
  237. The Ashburton Treaty – Nov. 27, 2013
  238. Glooscap and His Four Visitors – Nov. 24, 2013
  239. The Pioneers of Saint Stephen – Nov. 20, 2013
  240. The Adventures of Kâktoogwâsees; a Tale of Ancient Times – Nov. 17, 2013
  241. The Asylum at Saint John – Nov. 13, 2013
  242. The Liver-Colored Giants and Magicians – Nov. 10, 2013
  243. Smuggling Between Calais and St. Stephen – Nov. 6, 2013
  244. The Two Weasels – Nov. 3, 2013
  245. The European and North American Railway, 1862 – Oct. 30, 2013
  246. The Origin of the War Between the Mi’kmaq and the Kwěděches – Oct. 23, 2013
  247. Trouble on the Line: The Early Telegraph in New Brunswick – Oct. 16, 2013
  248. The Invisible Boy; Team′ and Oochigeaskw – Oct. 9, 2013
  249. Transportation to and from Fredericton, 1841 – Oct. 2, 2013
  250. The Boy That Was Transformed Into a Horse – Sept. 25, 2013
  251. McAdam: Notes From the Early Days – Sept. 18, 2013
  252. The Magical Food, Belt and Flute – Sept. 11, 2013
  253. European & North American Rly. Staff, 1861 – Sept. 4, 2013
  254. Glooscap and the Megumoowesoo: A Marriage Adventure – Aug. 28, 2013
  255. The Loss of the Royal Tar – Aug. 21, 2013
  256. Robbery and Murder Revenged, Plus a Grand Falls Story – Aug. 14, 2013
  257. The St. John River From Below Fredericton to the Reversing Falls – Aug. 7, 2013
  258. A Proposal for a Wooden Railway – July 31, 2013
  259. ‘On the Early History of New Brunswick’ – July 24, 2013
  260. The Maugerville Settlement, 1763-1824 – July 17, 2013
  261. 1930 Circus Train Wreck Near Moncton, N.B. – July 10, 2013
  262. Horses or Oxen? Pick one – July 3, 2013
  263. The St. John River; Andover to Fredericton – June 26, 2013
  264. Origins of Some Place Names on N.B.’s Eastern Shore – June 19, 2013
  265. The St. John River; Grand Falls to the Tobique – June 12, 2013
  266. Gabriel Acquin – June 5, 2013
  267. The Seigniories of New Brunsiwck – May 29, 2013
  268. An 1841 Trek up the Oromocto River – May 22, 2013
  269. Fredericton’s Exhibition Palace, and Bears in N.B. – May 15, 2013
  270. Murder on Diamond Square Road – May 8, 2013
  271. Acadian Historic Sites in New Brunswick – May 1, 2013
  272. John C. Tracy’s Book, Part 5 of 5 – Apr. 24, 2013
  273. John C. Tracy’s Book, Part 4 of 5 – Apr. 17, 2013
  274. John C. Tracy’s Book, Part 3 of 5 – Apr. 10, 2013
  275. John C. Tracy’s Book, Part 2 of 5 – Apr. 3, 2013
  276. John C. Tracy’s Book, Part 1 of 5 – Mar. 27, 2013
  277. A Retrospective Look at Saint John – Mar. 20, 2013
  278. The Wreck of the England – Mar. 13, 2013
  279. The First Decade of the 1800’s in St. John, N.B. – Mar. 6, 2013
  280. St. John’s Poorhouse and Workhouse – Feb. 27, 2013, Rev. Sept. 9, 2015
  281. New Brunswick Scenes From an Old Book – Feb. 20, 2013
  282. Nice Pictures From Another Old Book – Feb. 13, 2013
  283. Life in the Backwoods of New Brunswick, Part 2/2 – Feb. 6, 2013
  284. Life in the Backwoods of New Brunswick, 1845 – Jan. 30, 2013
  285. The Works of W.O. Raymond – Jan. 23, 2013
  286. The Year of the Fever – Jan. 16, 2013
  287. Hanged for the Theft of 25 Cents – Jan. 9, 2013
  288. Reversing Falls – Pictures – Jan. 2, 2013
  289. Christmas as it was in 1808 – Dec. 25, 2012
  290. Nice Pictures From an Old Book – Dec. 19, 2012
  291. The Saint John Bridge Collapse of 1837 – Dec. 12, 2012
  292. The First Road Bridge Across the Reversing Falls – Dec. 5, 2012
  293. The Mystery of the First Lizzie Morrow – Nov. 28, 2012
  294. The First Murder Trial on the River St. John – Nov. 21, 2012
  295. The March of the 104th Regiment in 1812 – Nov. 14, 2012
  296. Partridge Island – Nov. 7, 2012
  297. Fredericton’s First Bridge Across the Saint John River – Oct. 31, 2012
  298. 1816, The Year Without a Summer – Oct. 31, 2012
  299. Winslow to Wentworth, 1781 – Oct. 31, 2012
  300. The Saxby Gale of 1869 – Oct. 31, 2012
  301. New Brunswick’s Third Town in 1838: Saint Andrews – Oct. 31, 2012
  302. Fredericton and York County in 1838 – Oct. 31, 2012
  303. The City and County of Saint John in 1838 – Sept. 26, 2012
  304. The St. Andrews and Quebec Railroad – Sept. 19, 2012
  305. The Studholm Report of Saint John River Pre-Loyalists in 1783 – Sept. 12, 2012
  306. Caleb Jones. Further RE: Ann, otherwise known as Nancy – Sept. 5, 2012
  307. The Wreck of the Martha – Aug. 29, 2012
  308. The Early Settlement of Maugerville and the Sheffield Parsonage Dispute – Aug. 22, 2012
  309. Lieutenant Governors of New Brunswick to Confederation, Part 2 of 2 – Aug. 15, 2012
  310. Lieutenant Governors of New Brunswick to Confederation, Part 1 of 2 – Aug. 8, 2012
  311. The Morrow House at French Lake, N.B. – New Information – Aug. 1, 2012
  312. Sound by Glen Glenn, Revision 1 – July 25, 2012
  313. Ann, otherwise known as Nancy – July 18, 2012
  314. The Fire of October 7, 1825 – Beyond the Miramichi – July 11, 2012
  315. Lemuel Allan Wilmot – July 4, 2012
  316. The Great Fire at Miramichi, October 7, 1825 – June 27, 2012
  317. Robert Rankin in New Brunswick – June 20, 2012
  318. Who Owned the Mill at Tracy, New Brunswick? – June 13, 2012
  319. Signatures of Sunbury County Ancestors – June 6, 2012
  320. Daniel Wood’s Log Cabin, and Little Field Barn at French Lake, New Brunswick – May 30, 2012
  321. Rusagonis and George Garraty – May 23, 2012
  322. Epitaph Transcriptions from a Collection – May 16, 2012
  323. Central New Brunswick Gravestones from a Genealogy – May 9, 2012
  324. Nashwaak River Pictures with Stewart Family Connections – May 2, 2012
  325. More Sunbury County Photographs from a Collection – Apr. 25, 2012
  326. An Indian Burial Ground at Oromocto; and Coal Mining on the Oromocto River – Apr. 22, 2012
  327. “Days of Old” by Katherine DeWitt and Norma Alexander – Apr. 18, 2012
  328. The Wood Cemetery at French Lake, New Brunswick – Apr. 11, 2012
  329. James Glenie in New Brunswick – Apr. 4, 2012
  330. Four Generations of the Stewart Family on the Nashwaak River – Mar. 28, 2012
  331. Three Generations of the Mersereau Family in New Brunswick – Mar. 21, 2012
  332. Three Generations of the Smith Family of Sunbury County, New Brunswick – Mar. 14, 2012
  333. Three Generations of the Wood Family of French Lake, New Brunswick – Mar. 7, 2012
  334. New Brunswick Education in 1883 – Feb. 29, 2012
  335. Riots and Demonstrations in Saint John – Feb. 20, 2012
  336. Making Better Butter – Feb. 18, 2012
  337. York County Place Names, 1896/1905 – Feb. 8, 2012
  338. Sunbury County Place Names, 1896/1905 – Feb. 1, 2012
  339. Stereoscopic slides from Fred Stewart, Part 3 of 3 – Jan. 25, 2012
  340. Stereoscopic slides from Fred Stewart, Part 2 of 3 – Jan. 18, 2012
  341. Stereoscopic slides from Fred Stewart, Part 1 of 3 – Jan. 11, 2012
  342. The Hon. Thomas Baillie: Gone, but not soon forgotten! – Jan. 5, 2012
  343. The Fort at Oromocto, 1780 – 1783 – Dec. 29, 2011
  344. The Great Fire in Fredericton, 1850 – Early Accounts – Dec. 15, 2011
  345. The Morrow House at French Lake, and More – Dec. 8, 2011
  346. The Old Woman House at French Lake, New Brunswick – Dec. 1, 2011
  347. Smith Family Photographs from a Collection, Sunbury County, N.B. – Nov. 25, 2011
  348. French Lake from Before we Remember – Nov. 20, 2011
  349. How Geary became known as Geary – Nov. 9, 2011
  350. Elizabeth (Smith) Secord; N.B.’s First Woman Registered Doctor – Nov. 4, 2011
  351. Phillips Family Photographs from a Collection, Rusagonis, N.B. – Nov. 2, 2011
  352. Mersereau Family Photographs from a Collection, Sunbury County, N.B. – Oct. 30, 2011
  353. Wood Family Photographs from a Collection, French Lake, N.B. – Oct. 25, 2011
  354. Jeremiah Tracy: Pioneer of the Village of Tracy, New Brunswick – Oct. 20, 2011
  355. Two Old Railroad-Inspired Songs – Oct. 16, 2011
  356. Ode to the Oromocto River – Oct. 10, 2011
  357. John Mersereau, Loyalist 2 – Oct. 4, 2011
  358. The Earliest American Railroads and Locomotives – Sept. 14, 2011
  359. The Mersereau Manufacturing Company of Brooklyn, New York, Notes – Sept. 3, 2011
  360. George Morrow of French Lake, New Brunswick – 1801-1868 – Aug. 26, 2011
  361. The Wood Family of French Lake, New Brunswick – Legends – Aug. 9, 2011
  362. The Baptist Church on the Oromocto River in New Brunswick – Aug. 7, 2011
  363. John Wood of French Lake, New Brunswick – 1788-1868 – Aug. 2, 2011
  364. Daniel Wood of French Lake, New Brunswick – 1764-1847 – Aug. 1, 2011
  365. Three Stewarts on the Nashwaak – July 24, 2011
  366. Bunker Genealogy – Five Bunkers – July 20, 2011
  367. Statistics From the 1851 and 1871 Sunbury County New Brunswick Census Reports – July 19, 2011
  368. Historical Development of the Beam Bending Equation M=fS – July 18, 2011
  369. Seth Noble, Maugerville and the American Revolution – July 16, 2011
  370. Columns, the Long and the Short of it – 1729-1900 – July 15, 2011
  371. The Great Saint John Steel Cantilever Bridge – July 13, 2011
  372. The Upper Oromocto River in 1847 – July 11, 2011
  373. Early Glimpses of the Rusagonis Baptist Church in New Brunswick – July 11, 2011
  374. Abraham Gesner’s 1847 Observations of Sport Hunting in New Brunswick – July 11, 2011
  375. It Sounds a bit Too Easy – July 10, 2011
  376. James Buncker – July 10, 2011
  377. Inconsistent Petitions; Changed Self-Interests – July 10, 2011
  378. Abner Mersereau and a Letter – July 9, 2011
  379. Early Glimpses of the Patterson Settlement Baptist Church in New Brunswick – July 9, 2011
  380. The Textile Mill at Geary, New Brunswick – July 8, 2011
  381. Letter of Mi’kmaq’ Chief Pemmeenauweet to Queen Victoria – 1841 – July 7, 2011
  382. New Brunswick in the 1840s – July 7, 2011


John Wood


Written by johnwood1946

March 21, 2018 at 8:01 AM

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Saint John, New Brunswick Churches in 1910

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From the blog at

Saint John, New Brunswick Churches in 1910

Following is a catalogue of churches, and a synagogue in Saint John in 1910, taken from St. John, New Brunswick: What to See in the City and Vicinity and How to See It, compiled by the New Brunswick Tourist Association. The text comes from that publication, but I have substituted better photographs.


Church of England

Trinity Church — a beautiful stone edifice in the late early English Gothic style, is situated between Germain and Charlotte Streets, fronting on Germain. First founded of all Churches in the City, it traces its descent from the Loyalists, and has within its walls an interesting memento of its origin—the Royal Arms, which once adorned the old State House in Boston, and sat in mute judgment upon the famous Tea Debates. Few Tourists visit St. John without seeing this historic relic. Situated in the midst of the most prominent hotels, Trinity is thronged with summer visitors. The new organ, considered the finest in the Maritime Provinces, and the strong surplice choir, render the services bright and musical. Not new, but of lasting influence on the inhabitants of St. John are Trinity Chimes. They have struck the hours and played their tunes over our forefathers, and their sweet notes recall potent memories, and ever invite the thoughts of men to high and holy things.—Rev. R.A. Armstrong, M.A., Rector; Rev. J.W.B. Stewart, M.A., Curate.

Trinity Church

St. John’s Church, known as the Stone Church — was for many years the only Church structure not of wood in the City. It is finely situated, fronting the northern termination of Wellington Row and Germain Street. It was erected in 1824 as a Chapel of Ease to Trinity Church, and was served by the Rectors and Curates of that Church until 1853, when it became the Parish Church of the newly erected Parish of St. Mark. The Rev. George Mortimer Armstrong, the first Rector, held the position until October, 1887, and in 1888 the Rev. John de Soyres became the Rector, and remained in office until his death in February, 1905. The Rev. Gustave Adolf Kuhring, the present Rector, took charge in the month of June following. The large stone schoolhouse adjoining was completed in 1891. The view from the tower of this Church is one of the finest in the city. This is the oldest church standing in St. John, with the exception of St. George’s Church, on the West side of the harbor.—Rev. G. A. Kuhring, Rector.

Stone Church

St. James (Broad Street) — Rev. R.A. Cody, Rector.

St. Luke’s (Main Street) — Rev. R.P. McKim. Rector.

St. Paul’s (Valley) — Rev. E.B. Hooper, B.A., Rector.

St. Mary’s (Waterloo Street) — Ven. Archdeacon Raymond, M.A., LL.D., Rector.

St. George’s (West End) — Rev. W. H. Sampson, B. D., Rector.

Mission Church of St. John Baptist (Paradise Row) — Rev. D. Convers, Priest in charge. Holy Eucharist, 8; Mattins, 10: 15; High Celebration, 11; Choral Evensong, 7; Seats free. Phone M2181.

St. Jude’s (West End) — Rev. G.F. Scovil, M.A., Rector.

Church of England Institute, also S.P.C.K. Depository — 119 Germain Street, open 8 a.m. to 10 p.m.

Christian [Disciples of Christ]

Coburg Street — Rev, E.C. Ford.

Douglas Avenue — Rev. J. Chas. B. Appel.

First Church of Christ Scientist

First Church of Christ Scientist — Services Sunday, 11 a.m. Wednesday, 8 p.m. A Reading Room is connected with the Church, open daily, (Saturday and legal holidays excepted) from 3 until 5 p.m.


St. Andrew’s Church — situated on Germain Street, between Princess and Duke Streets, is the oldest Presbyterian Church in New Brunswick, being founded in 1784. The present beautiful Gothic building, with its imposing freestone front, was erected in 1877, at a cost of $75,000. It is generally regarded as one of the finest Presbyterian edifices in Canada. Besides the main auditorium, which seats a thousand, there are two large lecture rooms and numerous class rooms. The large pipe organ built by Hook & Hastings, is one of the most excellent in the city. The first settled pastor was Rev. George Burns, D.D., who was inducted in 1817. Rev. David Lang, M.A., B.D., is at present the pastor.

Saint Andrew’s Church

St. David’s Church — situated on Sydney Street, between Princess and Duke Streets, has the largest Presbyterian congregation in the City. The edifice is a large pressed brick structure, with stone trimmings, and seats 1,050 people. A large number of tourists worship in St. David’s during the summer, and strangers are always cordially welcomed. Rev. A.A. Graham, B.D., Minister.

Saint David’s Church

St. John (King Street East) — Rev. J.H.A. Anderson, Minister.

Calvin (Corner of Carleton Street and Wellington Row) — Rev. L.A. MacLean, Minister.

St. Stephen’s (City Road) — Rev. Gordon Dickie, Minister.

St. Matthew’s (Douglas Ave.) — Rev. J. James McCaskill, Minister.

Carleton — Rev. H. R. Read, B.D., Minister.

Fairville — Rev. W.M. Townsend, M.A., Minister.

United Baptist

Germain Street Baptist House of Worship — stands at the corner of Germain and Queen Streets, facing on Germain. It is a brick structure, with stone trimmings. Its interior is bright and pleasing, seating about 750. The present building was erected on the site of one destroyed by the great fire of 1877. The Germain Street Church is the oldest of the Baptist Churches in St. John, being founded in 1810. Other churches have gone out from it and are now worshipping in different parts of the city, Main Street Church, at North End, having a very large and still increasing membership. In this old mother Church, in earlier days, labored some of the Germain St. Baptist Church fathers of the Baptist denomination in the Maritime Provinces. Of these we mention Theodore Harding, Chas. Tupper, father of Sir Charles Tupper, and Samuel Robinson, all men of precious memory. Rev. W.W. McMasters, Pastor.

Original Germain Street Baptist Church, Following the 1877 Fire

Main Street —Rev. D. Hutchinson, Pastor.

Waterloo Street — Rev. F.H. Wentworth, Pastor.

Brussels Street

The Tabernacle — Rev. G.D. Milbury, M.A., B.D. Pastor.

Carleton (Charlotte Street) — Rev. M.E. Fletcher Pastor.

Victoria Street, N.E. — Rev. B.H. Nobles, Pastor.

Leinster Street — Rev. W. Camp, M.A., B.D., Pastor.

Fairville — Rev. F.E. Bishop, B.A., Pastor.

Carleton (Ludlow Street) — Rev. W.R. Robinson, M.A., B.D., Pastor.


Synagogue (Hazen Avenue) — Bernard L. Amdur, Rabbi, Louis Green, President. Services.— Friday, 8 p.m., summer; 7 p.m., winter. Saturday, 9 a.m. Lectures.— Friday night (English). Saturday morning (Hebrew). Progressive Orthodox. Semi-Reform Ritual. Hebrew School attached to Synagogue. Sunday School in English.

Shaarei Zedek Synagogue


Queen Square Church — is a very handsomely built Gothic structure of native stone. Visitors are much impressed by the beauty of its design and admirable acoustic properties. The congregation worshipping in this imposing edifice was organized on the first Sunday in October, 1791, and it is consequently the oldest congregation in St. John. Its membership at the present time being a particularly large and active one. Rev. Wilfred F. Gatez, Pastor.

Queen Square Methodist Church

Centenary Church — occupies a commanding site at the corner of Princess and Wentworth Streets, in an attractive residential portion of the City. This stately and impressive Gothic edifice is built of gray limestone, and is the largest, as well as one of the finest, churches in the City. Its Chapel, admirably adapted for all Sunday-school and congregational work, is one of the most beautiful on the continent. This Church is the home of a large and influential congregation. Rev. C.R. Flanders, D.D., Pastor.

Centenary Church

Exmouth (Exmouth Street)

Portland Street — Rev. H.D. Marr, Pastor.

Carleton — Rev. Jacob Heaney, B.A., Pastor.

Carmarthen Street — Rev. C.W. Squires, Pastor.

Zion — Rev. J. Crisp, Pastor.


Roman Catholic

The Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception — This exceptionally attractive building is situated on Waterloo Street, a few minutes’ walk from King Square in the centre of the City. Near the Cathedral is the residence of the Bishop of St. John.

Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception

Cathedral — Right Reverend T. Casey, D.D., Bishop of St. John. Reverend Fathers A.W. Meahan, D.S. O’Keefe, W. Duke and M. O’Brien. Sunday Services — Mass, 7, 9, 11 a.m. Vespers, 3.15 p.m.

St. John the Baptist (Broad Street) — Very Rev. W.F. Chapman, V.G., and Rev. J.W. Holland. Sunday Services — Mass, 8, 10 a.m. Vespers 7 p.m.

St. Peter’s — Rev. J.A. Duke, C. SS. R., and Reverend Fathers Borgmann, Maloney, Holland and P. O’ Regan. Sunday Services—Mass, 6, 7.30, 9, 10.30 a.m. Vespers, 7.30 p.m.

Holy Trinity (Canon Street) — Rev. J.J. Walsh. Sunday Services — Mass, 8, 10 a.m. Vespers, 7.15 p. m.

St. Rose, Fairville — Rev. C. Collins. Sunday Services — Mass, 8, 10 a.m. Vespers, 3.30 p.m.

Church of the Assumption, Carleton — Rev. J.J. O’Donovan. Sunday Services — Mass, 8, 10 a.m. Vespers, 7 p.m.


Union Street — Rev. Silas W. Anthony, Pastor.


Christadelphian Hall — 162 Union Street. Services at 11 a.m. and 7 p.m. All are welcome.

Written by johnwood1946

March 21, 2018 at 8:01 AM

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Chief-Making Among the Passamaquoddy Indians

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From the blog at

Several accounts are available of how the Passamaquoddy Indians, and related groups such as the Maliseets, went about choosing a new chief in days gone by. These accounts vary significantly, but the following one is from a good source and should be included in any comparative study. It is from Chief-Making Among the Passamaquoddy Indians, as published in the Journal of American Folklore by (Mrs.) W. Wallace Brown in 1892.

Big Chief Thunder, Maliseet, 1907

From the Abenaki/Wabanaki and Maliseet Culture and People website


Chief-Making Among the Passamaquoddy Indians

It has been said that it is difficult to induce individuals to abandon old customs and habits, and nearly impossible to prevent them from relapsing into these from time to time. Naturally, however, constant intercourse with white neighbors has had its influence over the Wabanaki, and has changed nearly all of their customs, as it has their costumes. The ceremony which has undergone the least change as observed among the Passamaquoddies is the Rite of Chief-making, as the election and inauguration of governor is called. The government is a tribal assembly, composed of chief, subordinate chief, Po-too-us-win, captains, and councillors. The latter are appointed by the chief from among the old men of the tribe. They do not make the laws, for the law is usage transmitted by tradition. They settle all matters of dispute by the decision of the majority, receiving the chief’s sanction. A new captain is chosen on the resignation of another, and is installed in office at the inauguration of the chief.

The name or duty of Po-too-us-win is not easily defined. He is the “keeper of the wampum,” he is the installing officer, he is the envoy extraordinary, sent with presents or wampum, on visits of importance to other tribes; the Po-too-us-win is really the mouthpiece through which the chief speaks.

Five days are usually devoted to the ceremony of chief-making, though the festivities often last for one or even two weeks.

The office of chief is never hereditary, and until recently it was only on the death of a chief that a new one was chosen. If there were two candidates, the matter was decided by the candidates joining hands over a mark drawn between them, their adherents forming two lines by each clasping his arms around the waist of the one in front of him. The party which succeeded in pulling the opposition candidate across the mark had the right to elect the chief. This method seems to have been unsatisfactory, for in later years they tried the expedient of each one placing his hat at the feet of the preferred candidate. This was brought into disrepute by the hats often numbering more than the heads. At the present time they vote by ballot and the election is held every four years. Of the five days devoted to chief-making the first is entirely given to electioneering and voting. On the second day a council is held by the newly elected officers and their friends. Funds are contributed to defray contingent expenses, and minor preparations made for the feast. The inauguration is held on the third day. Formerly it was customary to use the flesh of a moose or caribou, but on the occasion a description of which I subjoin, a young ox was killed, and the meat boiled in some large kettles over an open fire.

This meat is a very important factor in the rites and is called Ges-ā-ta-gā-ben. The heart and some of the entrails, along with savory herbs, were put in another kettle, and a soup made; no condiments were used in either case.

While the meat was cooking, the old men, the officers, and visiting officers went into a wigwam which is built for the purpose and proceeded with the rites which no women or young men are allowed to witness.

A stand held the tribal wampum, the silver gorgets, and the chief’s hat. The new chief was told where to sit, and, after a silence lasting several minutes, the Po-too-us-win arose, and advancing to the chief, gave the following salutation: “You are now a great man; you have been chosen to lead us. You must have the dignity becoming to a chief. You must look after the welfare of your people. You must not let one do another an injury. You are now a great man. Chief, I salute you;” at the same time placing the hat on the chief’s head.

Each of the captains then saluted him in much the same words. The Po-too-us-win hung a silver gorget on the chief’s neck, while outside of the wigwam the report of a gun announced to the tribe that the new chief was installed in office. After this the subordinate officers were installed and advised. Then the meat was brought in large wooden bowls, and placed near the centre of the wigwam; the Indians, sitting or kneeling about the bowls, ate the meat with their hands, and drank the soup from rudely shaped dishes made of birch-bark.

[The meat and soup left from this repast was apportioned out to each head of a family, who took the food to his own wigwam, where, with much reverence, it was eaten in silence by the women and children.]

The Po-too-us-win sang:

Chiefs, I greet you with a song; I greet you, captains; I greet you all,

at the same time shaking hands with each one in turn. He improvised a song in praise of the meat. This song is called Sāchem-sca-wint-wagen.

The captains also improvised songs to the meat. After this part of the ceremony, which is called Weck-we-bal-ten, meaning “the people’s supper to the officers,” they again arranged themselves in a circle around the room. A drum was beat with short, sharp taps, very slowly at first; each beat of the drum was accompanied by a “honk-honk-honk” from those in the circle. Then the door was burst open, and six women, chosen from among the visitors, entered dancing. As they passed before the chief, he threw a shawl over the head of the first one, the captains throwing shawls over the others. They danced three times around the room, still covered; then all present joined in the dance, the women leading. This is called Moee-mayic-hapjic, or “women thanking for the chief.” The shawls become the property of the women who dance, and are treasured as trophies. The old custom was to place masks over their faces. There are none of these masks in preservation, so they use shawls instead.

Until after the women’s dance, the rite was conducted with all the solemnity of mysticism. At that point, however, the doors were opened, the chief sang a long salutation, in which all were invited to join the dancing. These dances defy description, and they seem interminable, it is so difficult to see where one ends and the next begins. There are the tribal dances, the Micmac, the Mohawk, and the Snake dance. The Mohawk is more properly a war-dance; it is executed with much energy and is very fatiguing.

On the fourth day a secret council was called by the new officers; they held one long session, eating nothing until it was over. That day the supper was provided by the subordinate chief, and was nearly a repetition of the day before, including the same dances.

The fifth was a general holiday. Complimentary speeches were made, flattering adieus were spoken by the guests, though some of them remained through the succeeding week. That night the women gave the eswe-mās-woc-hapijic, consisting of nuts, candy, fruit, tobacco, and pipes. Nearly all, men, women, and children, smoked during the dance, which was continued to a late hour. This ended the inauguration proper; but there are many customs pertaining to etiquette, relevant to the ceremony. After the adieus are spoken, it is customary for the tribe to get together in council, and there decide how much longer a time the guests must remain, and though the visitors are about to embark on their canoes, the captains are expected to forcibly detain them.

This is the occasion for more feasting, and usually the Wā-bāp (wampum) is read. Wampum reading is the reciting of records or of traditions which the Wā-bāp commemorates.

Written by johnwood1946

March 14, 2018 at 8:28 AM

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Canoeing Down the Restigouche River in 1895

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Canoeing Down the Restigouche River in 1895

An Overnight Camp on the Upsalquitch River, 1902

By William F. Ganong from the N.B. Museum via the McCord Museum

George Hay canoed the Restigouche River in 1895 in the company of William F. Ganong, in order to explore and to collect botanical specimens. He then wrote a paper about his findings and read it before the Natural History Society of New Brunswick in December of 1896. The paper was entitled The Restigouche, with Notes Especially on its Flora.

The following is a very condensed and edited version of George Hay’s paper. Almost all of his botanical observations have been deleted, for example.


Last summer, in 1895, in company with Dr. W.F. Ganong, I made a trip down the Restigouche in a canoe. On the morning of the 25th July, we started from St. Leonard’s Station, about thirteen miles above Grand Falls on the St. John, and made the portage through to the headwaters of the Restigouche, twenty-five miles away, arriving there about four o’clock that afternoon.

For the first twelve miles of our portage through from the St. John to the head waters of the Restigouche we had a good road. Our three portageurs drove ahead on a stout wagon drawn by two horses, with our canoe and baggage, while we brought up the rear in a light wagon. The remaining thirteen miles we made mostly on foot over a very rough road.

The morning was bright and beautiful, and for two or three miles we drove along the banks of the St. John until we came to the Grand River, up the ridge bordering on whose valley we were soon winding by hills that brought us gradually to the northern watershed of New Brunswick. The view from one of the highest of these hills is strikingly picturesque. Except the narrow settlement we were going through, all around was an unbroken wilderness. Along the Grand River Settlement there were three types of abodes. The first were those of the oldest settlers, with passably comfortable houses, a considerable acreage of land reclaimed from the forest, and with fields showing a more or less scientific attempt at cultivation. The second showed a link between the modern and the settler of bygone years. There was the frame house, and nearby the remains of the old log cabin now a picture of ruin and distress. The last was the frontier settlement, which we observed just before plunging into the forest. This hut is typical of a dozen that we saw in the last few miles. Not a vestige of a tree or shrub around, it was a bare and comfortless place.

We bade good-bye to civilization on that hot July day, and betook ourselves to the grateful shade of the forest. A great city is not the only place where we meet with extremes of wealth and poverty, of high life and low life. As we entered the woods and saw those aristocratic elms and maples and pines, we were impressed with their magnificence, and could not help thinking that if those poor settlers, when they carved homes for themselves in the wilderness had left standing one or two lordly forest trees, then the Giver of all blessings would look down upon such a habitation and pronounced it good.

This watershed, dividing the St. John from the Restigouche, is a gently undulating tableland, elevated about eight hundred or a thousand feet above the sea level and well-watered. Many of the streams trickle slowly through swamps and find their way either to the tributaries of the St. John or Restigouche. The soil is apparently of considerable depth, remarkably free from stones, and would form a rich agricultural district if rendered more accessible by a road or railway. But this grand primeval wilderness would then be blackened by forest fires, — the sure attendant of settlement. The shrill whistle of the locomotive would be daily heard in those solitudes whose silence is only occasionally broken by the gentle sounds of the canoe man’s paddle.

About four o’clock on the afternoon of July 25th, our ears were gladdened by the welcome sounds of rippling waters, and in a few minutes we stood on the bank of the Restigouche. Its clear waters now gliding swiftly over the pebbly bottom, now reposing in some quiet pool, gave the anglers an invitation to cast. We found the water very low — not deep enough in the shallow places to float a loaded canoe — and that meant work for the canoe men. We pitched our tent on that famous camping ground near the mouth of the Waagan, the resting place for many years of voyageurs like ourselves — a pretty bit of meadow but whose edges were blackened by the fires of too careless campers of other years. The camp of the absent warden was taken possession of, and before sundown we had everything in good shape for a comfortable night. But we had not reckoned on our hosts — the flies. They came in swarms — mosquitoes, black flies, sand flies, bite-em-no-see-ems and others of that vile horde. We used all the resources at our command — smudges, veils, ointments and the mildest adjectives, but they would not off. A smudge is effective but it is as likely to drive you as well as the flies out of the tent. Never sleep on a sand beach, but choose a place a trifle elevated and leafy, then you will probably sleep soundly.

The old route between the St. John and the Restigouche was by canoe up the Grand River and into one of its small tributaries, the Waagansis; thence by a carry of three miles into the Waagan, an affluent of the Restigouche, and down that stream to the spot where we made our first camp. But that is now practically impossible owing to the filling up of the slow-running Waagan, and the dense growth of bushes which almost conceals it.

I will give you an idea of the topographical features of this northern heritage of ours. I remind you that the chief watershed of New Brunswick extends from the extreme northwest limit of the province southeasterly to Baie Verte; that the eastern slope extending from this is drained by the Restigouche, Nepisiguit, Miramichi, and by a great number of smaller rivers. The southwestern slope is drained by the St. John and its tributaries, and by smaller rivers. Next to the St. John and Miramichi the Restigouche is the largest river in New Brunswick. It is 150 miles long and drains an area of 2,200 square miles. Its chief tributary from the south is the Upsalquitch, and three chief branches from the north are the Katawamkedgwick, the Patapedia, and the Metapedia, one of which at least is larger than the main stream; but the main stream is considered to have the right to the name because of its direct course from the watershed in northern New Brunswick to the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The wide divergence of the four tributaries from the main stream is the origin of the Indian name Restigouche (river of the five fingers). The Restigouche takes its rise in the northeast of the County of Madawaska, near Prospect Peak, and about twenty-five miles northwest of our camping ground at the month of the Waagan. Its waters are clear and cold, from the springs and lakes of the dense wilderness to the north. Its flow is strong and swift, broken by rapids on an average of every one hundred yards, but nowhere impassable for a canoe. In its course of 110 miles, from the Waagan to Tide Head, above Campbellton, there is a descent of from 400 to 600 feet. The Restigouche flows through a narrow valley, growing deeper as you descend the stream, flanked by hills rising very steep from the waters’ edge. In the loops formed by its winding course there may be seen, at intervals, stretches of meadow land and beautiful terraces from thirty to seventy feet above the river; but so suddenly does the stream change its course and rush to the opposite side again, that these meadows and terraces alternate from one side of the river to the other in quick succession. With patches of meadow and terrace, near each other, yet separated by the river, and with precipitous hills rising on all sides, the upper Restigouche can never be a country of farms.

About 12 o’clock on the day following our arrival at the Waagan our guides left for home and we began the descent of the river. The prospect before us of a fortnight in the wilderness, paddling our own canoe through those rapids of the curving gorges ahead. The success of our expedition and our own safety depend on the careful handling of our canoe. We lift it over shallows and guide it carefully through swirling eddies as the river rushes past some precipitous bluff. Then, as we shoot out of the rapids and glide slowly over some smoother current, we rest on our paddles and gaze for a moment on the wondrously beautiful scene around us. But it is only for a moment or two. The stream ahead of us is chafing over pebbles and rocks, and we must choose the course that promises the greatest safety and the least labor. But it is done safely; and the caution and unerring instincts of the steersman were rewarded by not even the approach to an accident during the whole descent of the river. Here and there, brooks and larger streams came dashing in, and the river grew more expansive and deeper, but more headstrong. Our course at first lay among gently elevated hills well back from the river, not more than fifty to one hundred feet in height, but the gorge deepened as we advanced and the hills grew into mountains until they attained in places an altitude of a thousand feet and upwards.

The trees along the Restigouche are largely evergreen, the white spruce being the most abundant. The black spruce is much rarer, while very few pines, and these only of one species, the white pine, are to be seen along the river. The cedar is quite common, and also the balsam fir, whose long, slender trunks often rise to the height of seventy or eighty feet, clothed with old man’s beard, are conspicuous. No tamaracks were seen until farther down. Of deciduous trees, the balsam poplar is the most abundant on the low grounds. Elms, black, white and yellow birches, the white and black ash, maple, especially the red maple, with alders are seen. Willows and sumacs are quite common.

The second day’s run brought us to the mouth of the Grounamitz (Little Forks) about fifteen miles below the mouth of the Waagan. This is the first large tributary of the Restigouche and flows in from the north. The scenery about the mouth is very wild and picturesque, the cliffs rising from the river to the height of over one hundred feet. A mile below the forks of the Gounamitz is Boston Brook, evidently a favored camping ground. Below Boston Brook the country changes from a hilly to a level country, but only for a mile or two, — a good site for a frontier settlement. A short distance further down, just below Jardine’s Brook, the Silurian ledges remind us of the upper St. John.

Our fourth camping ground was near the mouth of the Kedgewick which here comes in from the north and is the largest affluent of the Restigouche. There is a fine stretch of meadow land here and a good farm, the first met with on the river, owned by Mr. Mowatt. A little below the mouth of the Kedgewick on the right bank is the fishing lodge of Col. Rogers, of New York, who owns the famous fishing pool known as Jimmy’s Hole where the water is from thirty to forty feet deep, a steep wall of white rock rising from the eastern side. A little below on a picturesque little nook at a bend of the river we come upon the summer camp of Mr. Ayer, of Bangor, and two miles farther we reach Down’s Gulch, a fine camping ground. For the next ten miles we pass through some of the most striking and picturesque scenery on the Restigouche. The river makes sudden turns, and leaps tumultuously from rapid to rapid, vainly strikes against the base of a rocky eminence and recoils, seething and foaming. There seems scarcely room enough for the river in the narrow gorge through which it rushes. Salmon pools are frequent and very deep. The hills rise to the height of six hundred to eight hundred feet, and the presence of more deciduous trees, such as maples and birches renders the foliage less somber than farther up the river. Opposite the frequent bends in the river are numerous terraces, some of them, especially those at Red Bank and the mouth of the Patapedia, being of considerable extent and all very beautiful. Nearly all these terraces have fishing lodges owned by the Restigouche Salmon Club.

The Devil’s Half-Acre, as might be supposed, is one of the wildest and most rugged spots, and is a precipitous bluff, whose rocky base is surmounted by calcareous slates, rising from the river to a height of some three hundred feet. Nearly opposite the mouth of the Patapedia is a large farm owned by Mr. Wyer, and there is considerable interval land in the vicinity. Although the salmon season was about over there was one angler who was paying his second visit to the famous pool at the mouth of the Patapedia.

Our camping ground on the night of 31st July was Tom’s Island, which we reached just at dark; a clear, cold night with no flies! This island is situated at the mouth of Tom Ferguson’s Brook, and the isthmus connecting it with the right hand bank of the river is of limestone. The central portion of the island is about one hundred yards long and twenty wide in the broadest part, covered with alluvial soil, and bearing a dense vegetation, with a margin extending up river about four hundred yards of more stony material bearing shrubs and low herbs.

We camped over Sunday on a terrace overlooking the Chain of Rocks, having passed safely through Hero’s Rapids, the most dangerous on the river.

A short distance below the Chain of Rocks we heard the sharp click of a mowing machine, a sign that we were approaching the outer world again and beyond was a small settlement (Mann Settlement) with further incontestable evidence of civilization — a school house. A short distance below was Deeside, a settlement which contains a church. Soon we came to the mouth of the Upsalquitch with a fine club house, belonging to the Upsalquitch Salmon Club, fronting on the main river, and a little farther down a few yards below the mouth of the Upsalquitch is the fishing lodge of Dean Sage of Albany. Opposite the mouth of the Upsalquitch is the settlement of Runnymede.

But the last bend in the river brought into view a more imposing sight — the Squaw Cap Mountain and about two miles north of it and a little on our left, Slate Mountain. These twin peaks, the highest land along the Restigouche, rise to the height each of two thousand feet, or fully one thousand feet higher than the Sugar Loaf at Campbellton. It was half past two o’clock that day when we began the ascent of the Squaw Cap, and we were back again at half past seven — total distance ten miles, and some of that was hard climbing, but it was worth it.

On the southern side of Squaw Cap Mountain we obtained a fine view of that great central watershed of the Province from which some single peaks rise, two thousand to two thousand five hundred feet above the level of the sea. There is easily picked out an old friend of former years — Bald Mountain on the Tobique, a trifle higher than the elevation on which we are now perched, tired and panting. Away off to the southwest is the monarch of them all — Katahdin, in Maine, over five thousand feet high. From the north aide the view is scarcely less imposing.

What a tramp that was! How tired we were! But when we looked over the botanical treasures in the tin box, there was no weariness.

The river from the mouth of the Upsalquitch down is settled, and we soon come to the estuary, studded with islands. From Morissey’s Rock we took a parting view of the upper Restigouche, and a grand view it was.

Written by johnwood1946

March 7, 2018 at 8:27 AM

Posted in Uncategorized

Northern New Brunswick, Heaven on Earth

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From the blog at

The Intercolonial Railway published a book in 1892 entitled Forest, Stream and Seashore, which was a travelogue aimed at attracting tourists to the railway in those great days of steam. The book gave no indication of who actually wrote it. The following segment carried the heading ‘In Northern New Brunswick,’ but I have called it ‘Northern New Brunswick, Heaven on Earth’ because of the author’s over-the-top salesmanship in describing the attractions. We, of course, would agree with his assessment.

The Restigouche River at Campbellton, about 1908

From the McCord Museum


Northern New Brunswick, Heaven on Earth

Campbellton, on the south side of the Restigouche River, is the first place in New Brunswick seen by the traveler from Quebec. It is a town of some 4,000 people and is rapidly growing. It is a very convenient centre of operations for the fisherman and hunter of game, and though it has not catered to tourist travel by the erection of a summer resort hotel, it is really an attractive place in itself and its surroundings. Thus it has great possibilities. It is conveniently situated, because it is a central point on the line of the Intercolonial, neither too far south for the people who are above nor too far north for those who are below. It is 466 miles from Montreal, 303 miles from Quebec, 371 from Halifax, and 274 from St. John, and it lies amidst one of the finest regions for sport on the continent. The Restigouche and Metapedia, with their tributaries, afford only a part of the splendid fishing to be had, while the land to the west and north contains all manner of game to entice the sportsman to its forests. Besides, Campbellton is on the estuary of the Restigouche, emptying into the famous Baie de Chaleur, which is of itself worth coming from afar to sail upon, It is convenient as a cool, but not cold, summer resort, with every facility for salt-water bathing, salt-water fishing, and a good time generally. The situation is beautiful, because Campbellton lies at a point on a broad and beautiful river which unites with the waters of a Bay that has no rival in Canada. Beautiful because the mountains rise near and far, their cones pointing heavenward with a grandeur not to be described, while the varying shades are blended with a harmony which all may admire, but which can be appreciated only by the artist.

There is fine scenery in whatever direction one may go in this vicinity, and the principal roads are easy for either carriage or bicycle. There is a splendid view from the top of Morrissey Rock, but a still broader and grander outlook may be had by climbing the Sugar Loaf, a mountain some 950 feet high, close to the town. The view embraces mountain, valley, river and sea for many miles and is well worth the somewhat steep climb.

On the north side of the river, opposite the town, is Cross Point, the old Oiginagich, or Coiled Snake Point, of the Micmacs, where Woodanki, or Indian Town, dates its beginning far back among the centuries. There is now an Indian reserve of 840 acres, inhabited by 120 families, with a population of about 500. They have a neat village, a school taught by a native teacher and are a very orderly people. The mission is in charge of the Capuchin Fathers, who have had a monastery here since 1894. There had been a mission here, however, for more than two centuries before they took charge, the beginning of the work dating back to the early days of the Recollets in Canada.

Both boating and bathing may be enjoyed to any desired extent in the waters around Campbellton, and the fame of the Restigouche salmon and trout speaks as to the fishing. It was a Restigouche salmon that tipped the scale at fifty-four pounds, and numbers have been caught which were of the respectable weight of forty pounds each. Salmon fishing begins about the middle of May, and all the rivers abound with these great and glorious fish.

After the river is clear, in the early part of May, plenty of five and seven pound trout can he caught in the tide with bait. From the middle of May until July they will take either fly or bait, but for good fly-fishing take the month of July. Here are some of the favorite haunts: Escuminac, 9 miles distant; Little Nouvelle, 22; Little Cascapedia, about 45 or 50 by steamer; Parker Lake, 3; Head of Tide, 5; and Mission Lake, 3 miles from Cross Point, on the opposite side of the river. Guides are easily obtained and are reliable men.

As regards the lakes in the immediate vicinity at Campbellton, the man who seeks for trout will never he disappointed. The favorite resorts are Parker Lake and Inner Parker Lake, the former of which has a wide fame. It is not a large body of water, as lakes go in this country, but in its length of half a mile or so every square-yard would appear to contain a trout weighing from half a pound to two pounds. It is of no avail, however, to go there with fancy tackle and a book of assorted flies, for save at occasional times in the month of June the fish will not be tempted to rise to the surface. The favorite bait is the agile grasshopper, and it never fails to do its work. One of the many instances of successful fishing here, within the writer’s knowledge, is that of three men who in three hours filled a huge wooden bread tray and two large fishing baskets, and were  then obliged to leave a quantity of trout  because they had no way of carrying them home, even though the road to Campbellton was all downhill. Parker Lake is situated on the back side of Sugar Mountain, and the ascent to it is a trifle toilsome, but an hour or two around it will repay even a climb on foot. Good camping ground is found here, as indeed is almost invariably the case with the lakes in this part of America. The lake is on private property, but a gentleman will not find it difficult to obtain a permit to satisfy himself as to its resources. The station agent or any of the hotel keepers, can give him all the information he desires as to the fishing in any part of this country.

In the autumn and spring the wild geese hover around the shores of the Restigouche in immense flocks, while all the many species of duck known to this latitude are on the wing by thousands. Nor do the wild fowl look upon the mouth of the Restigouche as a mere way station in their journey. They linger there, and where there is open water they are prone to linger longer. The Baie de Chaleur and the rivers that empty into it have been their favorite haunts since a “time whereof the memory of man runneth not to the contrary.” A few years ago a man killed fourteen black duck at one shot, on the Little Muni River.

As a matter of course, partridge are plenty, and so are snipe, in their season. Plover are found at times, but not in large numbers.

Caribou are very abundant on both sides of the river. They occasionally show themselves around the barnyards of farmers in the smaller settlements. Even the boys go hunting in this part of the country, and a fine caribou was shot by the twelve-year-old son of Mr. Barbarie, the station agent, a short distance from Campbellton, during a recent winter.

Moose and deer are the reward of those who look for them around the Restigouche, and the restrictive laws of a few years ago have increased the numbers. Bears and loup-cervier are also easy game to find.

On the Restigouche

The Restigouche is part of the northern boundary of New Brunswick, and if its length of two hundred miles were in a straight line it would reach quite across the province. The line is only not straight, but makes some extraordinary bends between its source near Lake Metis and its mouth at Male de Chaleur. The distance between Metapedia and Patapediac, for instance, is 37 miles by the river, but only 21 miles in a direct line. It is but six and a half miles from Upalquitch to Brandy Brook by land, but it is not less than thirteen miles by the river. Even more remarkable is the bend at Cross Point, a few miles further up, where a walk of a few hundred feet across a strip of land will save a journey of about a mile by water. Yet the river is not really crooked; it simply has abrupt bends, with long stretches of straight distances between them. The occasional rapids are not dangerous, and a canoe voyage over the broad and beautiful stream is an experience which must be long and pleasantly remembered. The high and thickly wooded hills form steep banks in many places, and their rich verdure is reflected in the calm waters as in a mirror. Looking further into the clear depths the salmon may be seen moving lazily on the pebbled bottom, waiting only for the tempting fly to lure them to the surface. This is no uncommon sight on any part of the Restigouche. Even at the railway bridge as many as a hundred salmon have been seen swimming slowly around at one time, and it is probable that more or less of them could be seen almost any day in the season were the train to stop so that the passengers could have a look at the water. It is no idle boast to say that the Restigouche is the finest salmon river in the world.

Some may wonder at the Indian, with their descriptive nomenclature, did not bestow the title of River of Fish on this noble stream. That they failed to do so may be accounted for on two grounds: first, that salmon were then even more abundant in all the rivers than they are today; and next, because they had another and more significant title. The word Restigouche, which is a corruption of lust-a-gooch, has had various interpretations given it. Many have believed that it signifies river that divides like a hand, but the late Sam Suke was of the opinion that those words were the translation of Upsalquitch. Others have asserted, upon some unnamed authority, that Restigouche is Broad River, but the old missionary chronicles give the meaning as River of the Long War. This war is said to have had its origin in a quarrel between two boys over the possession of a white squirrel. The misunderstanding lasted forty years, by which time, presumably, the squirrel had ceased to be of commercial value to either of the claimants.

The aboriginal designation of all this region was Papechigunach, the place of spring amusements, which doubtless had reference to some great annual pow-wow in the times of peace. It is the place of the white man’s summer sport today.

The head waters of the river lie near Lake Metis in one direction and the tributaries of the St. John in another, and for much of its length it flows through a dense wilderness as yet un-desecrated by man. The country drained by it and its tributaries includes more than two thousand square miles in Quebec and New Brunswick, and is a land of mountains and valleys—the former rising grandly two thousand feet towards the clouds; the latter having forests in which solitude and silence reign. In these regions there are lakes where the beaver has no one to molest nor make it afraid; there are gorges whose rocks have never echoed the report of a gun; there are miles upon miles which have never been explored, and where the creatures of the forest roam as freely as they did a hundred years ago. One can retire into the heart of New Brunswick and reach rivers which lead to all points, such as Tobique and St. John, Nepisiguit, Miramichi and others of lesser note, as well as the rivers which run to the St. Lawrence.

The estuary of the Restigouche is a beautiful sheet of water, more like a lake than the outlet of a river. It extends from Dalhousie to where the tide and the fresh water meet, eight miles below Metapedia, and in some places is three miles wide. Ascending the river the first place of interest is the site of Petit Rochelle, three miles above Point Bourdo, destroyed by the British, under Captain Byron, in July, 1760. Byron, with a fleet of five vessels, attacked four French vessels which had run up the stream to this point. After five hours of fierce combat, two of the French frigates were sunk. The remaining two sought shelter under the stone battery at Indian Village, but in doing so one of them, Le Marquis de Marloize, went ashore, leaving Le Bienfaisant at fearful odds against the five vessels of the English. The captain was ordered to haul down his flag, but instead of obeying he went below, applied a light to the magazine and blew his vessel to atoms. Byron then went ashore with his men and burned the villages at Bourdo and Petit Rochelle, and only the ruins of what was then a place with a population of 300 families are to be seen at the present day.

Passing the mouth of the Metapedia, a distance of seven miles brings the voyageur to the mouth of the Upsalquitch, the river that divides like a hand. Here is seen Squaditch, or the Squaw Cap, a mountain 2,000 feet in height, and if one cares to ascend to Upsalquitch Lake he will find another conical cap which rises to the height of 2,186 feet. Should he continue his journey beyond the lake, he will reach the head waters of the Nepisiguit, by which he can reach Baie de Chaleur at Bathurst, or the head waters of the Tobique, by which he can descend the St. John to the Bay of Fundy.

About twenty-nine miles above the Upsalquitch is the Patapediac, by which the Metis and other rivers emptying into the Lower St. Lawrence may be reached. Then comes the Quatawamkedgwick, and a trip of about six miles up its waters will bring the angler to a spot famous for seven and eight pounds sea trout. This river leads to the headwaters of the Rimouski.

By following the Restigouche into the Wagansis, a portage of about three miles will bring one to the Grand River, a tributary of the St. John. The Temiscouata and Squatook Lakes may also be reached—indeed, the bypaths in the wilderness are innumerable, for streams run in all directions. All of any size are safe for canoe navigation, and all abound with the finest of fish.


One of the fairest spots on the line of the Intercolonial is found at the town of Dalhousie. Even when this place was not connected with the railway it attracted large numbers of visitors, and now that it is so easy of access it is one of the most popular of summer resorts. Its location at the mouth of the Restigouche, where the glorious Baie de Chaleur begins, would in any event make the site one of unusual beauty, but nature has done much for Dalhousie in giving it hills and heights which command a prospect of sea and land as far as the eye can reach. All varieties of scenery may here be found, from the gently murmuring groves to the rugged rocks of most fantastic form which in places skirt the shore. The harbor, with a depth of more than ten fathoms, and in places from fifteen to twenty fathoms, is an excellent one for all purposes. Protected by a natural breakwater of islands, it is perfectly safe for all kinds of boating, and is large enough to afford an abundance of room for recreation. Beyond it are the broad river Restigouche and the Baie de Chaleur. Fine beaches and water of moderate temperature tempt the bather. The sheltered position of the place gives it a freedom from raw winds, and fog, that terror of so many tourists, is never known around this shore. It is not only a spot where the strong and healthy may enjoy themselves, but it is one where the weak may become strong, and the invalid take a new lease of life.

The views in the vicinity are such as to charm every lover of the beautiful. To the north the bay at the mouth of the Restigouche is only about six miles wide so that Point Maguasha and the hills on the Gaspe side are seen to advantage. Nearer at hand, the varying shades of the summer foliage are seen in striking contrast with the bright red rock which here and there stands out in bold relief upon the hillside. To the southward and westward La Baie de Chaleur widens to the magnificent proportions which entitle it to the name of a sea, while as far as the eye can reach along its southern shore are seen the white houses and the tapering spires of the distant villages.

The visitor to Dalhousie need never lack for recreation, apart from the sailing, bathing and fishing. There is a fine beach for long walks, and there are good roads for carriage or cycle. They lead to many pleasant places, and one of these is Mount Dalhousie. From this mountain there is a fine view of the country, but notably attractive is that which embraces Campbellton and the Restigouche River. Boats and boatmen can be had at the beach at all times, and excursions may be made to various parts of the bay at a moderate cost. The favorite trips are to Carleton and Maguasha, on the Gaspe side, and Eel River and Charlo, on the New Brunswick shore. Dalhousie has several hotels which are in favor with the travelling public. It is the shire town of Restigouche County, has a population of about 2,700 and does a large business in the shipment of lumber by water to ports on the other side of the ocean.

Written by johnwood1946

February 28, 2018 at 8:01 AM

Posted in Uncategorized

Indian Place Names From Around Passamaquoddy Bay

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From the blog at

Albert S. Gatschet wrote an article entitled All Around the Bay of Passamaquoddy in 1897. It began with a short description of the Passamaquoddy area, but its main purpose was to present a list of Abenaki place names. I have edited the list as follows, hopefully to improve its readability.

The Abenakis include the Penobscot, Passamaquoddy, Mi’kmaq and Maliseet Native groups of southeastern Quebec, the Maritime Provinces and New England.

Native group at Tobique, ca 1904

From the N.B. Museum, via the McCord Museum

Indian Place Names From Around Passamaquoddy Bay

Bar Harbor, Mount Desert, and Mount Desert Island are all called in Indian Péssank or Péssan “at the clam-digging place or places,” from ess, “(clam) shell” with p- prefix, -an verbal ending.

Bay of Fundy, a storm-beaten corner of the Atlantic Ocean between Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, is to the Indians Wikwalwabegituk, “waves at the head of the bay,” –tuk referring to waters driven in waves or moved by the tide.

Bishop’s Point, on north head of Grand Manan Island, New Brunswick. Its Indian name, Budebé-nhigen, means “death-trap of whales,” from Budebé-n, “whale;” –higin, a suffix which stands for “tool” or “instrument.”

Campobello Island, New Brunswick, is called Kbagwfdek, from its position between Maine and New Brunswick, “floating between,” from éba, “between” and “gwiden,” floating. Another name is Edlitik, which seems to refer to the sudden deepening of the waters on the west side.

Cherry Island, a rocky formation just south of Indian Island, New Brunswick, is known to the Indian as Mἰsik nĕgúsis, “at the little island of trees.”  Mἰsi is “tree” or “trees;” misik, “where trees stand.” Nĕgú is an abbreviation for m’nfku, “island,” with –sis, a diminutive ending.

Cobscook Bay, a body of water lying west and southwest of Moose Island. It is the Indian term kápskuk; “at the waterfalls.” The tide, rising here to about twenty feet, enters into the sinuosities of the shore, and returns to the ocean to form rapids, riffles, or cascades (kápsku).

Deer Island, New Brunswick, a large isle at the southern extremity of Passamaquoddy Bay, is Edúki mn’iku, “of the deer the island.”

D’Orville’s Head, an eminence where the St. Croix River empties into Passamaquoddy Bay. Kwagustchus’k, “at the dirty mountain,” from Kwagwéyu, “dirty” and tehús, “mountain” with -k, a locative particle, and “at.” The name was corrupted into the more popular “Devil’s Head.”

Eastport, city and harbor, has the same Indian name, Muselénk, as Moose Island upon which it is built, A corruption from the hybrid compound Mús-ĕländ’k, its second half being a corruption of island, with the locative -k appended. The genuine Indian name for Moose Island is Mús m’níku. The Moose Islanders and Eastport people are called Musĕléniek.

Eel Brook, a small rivulet at the northern end of Grand Manan Island, is in Indian Katekádik, which stands for Kat-akádik, and signifies “where (-k) eels (kát) are plentiful (akádi).”

Gardner’s Lake, in Machias Township is called Némdamsw’ águm, the term némdam designating a species of fresh water fish rushing up brooks and channels, with ném, (upward) and águm (lake).

Grand Manan, New Brunswick, a large island with high shores, south of Passamaquoddy Bay, Menanúk of the Indians. The name probably signifies “at the island” in the Micmac dialect.

Herring Cove, a large sea-beach of the east side of Campobello Island, facing Fundy and Grand Manan, is called Pitchamkfak “at the long beach;” Pitchéyu, it is long, ámk, gravel, and -kie, beach, with the locative case -kfak.

Indian Island, New Brunswick, forms a narrow strip of one and a half mile length at the southwestern entrance to Passamaquoddy Bay, and was inhabited by these Indians before they crossed over to Lincoln’s Point and Pleasant Point, Maine. They call it Misik-nĕgús “at the tree island.” The name of Cherry Island is a diminutive of this.

Kendall’s Head, a bold headland in northern part of Moose Island, facing Deer Island, New Brunswick, upon the “western passage” of the St. Croix River, is called by the Indians Wabfgenĕk, “at the white bone,” or Wabfgén, “white bone,” from the white color of the rock ledge on its top. Wábi, white; -gen or –ken, bone; -k at.

Kunaskwámkuk, often abbreviated Kunaskwámk, is a comprehensive name given to the town of St. Andrews, New Brunswick, to the heights above and north of it, where the Algonquin hotel is erected, and to the coast between St. Andrews and Joe’s Point. The name signifies “at the gravel beach of the pointed top.” Kuná, “point,” refers to a sandbar projecting into the bay; kunaskwá, “pointed top or extremity;” áimk, “travel,” and “gravelly beachm” with -nk, a locative ending;, at, on, upon.

Lubec, a village south of Eastport, at the narrows between Campobello and the mainland is called Kehamkfak, “at the beach forming the narrows.” Kebé-ik means “at the narrows,” and is the same word as the Cree and Montagnais.-kfak is the locative case of kie, “at the beach or beaches.”

Machias and East Machias, two towns on the southern trend of the Maine coast, which were settled from Scarborough, in Maine, represent the term metchiéss, partridge.

Meddybemps Village and Meddybemps Lake, drained by Dennys River, Dennysville Township, are called after a fresh-water fish mĕdebéss’m or the hanpout.

Moose Island, (see Eastport)

Moosehead Lake, in the interior of Maine, is called in Passamaquoddy Ktchi-ságuk, “at the wide outlet.” A literal translation of the English name would be Musátp ágĕmuk; mús, “moose deer;” átp suffix referring to “head;” ágĕmuk, “at the lake.” Chesuncook is in Penobscot dialect the name of a lake to the northeast of Moosehead Lake, and signifies “at the big outlet,” Ktchi-sánkuk.

Mount Katahdin, though its name is worded in the Penobscot dialect, may be mentioned here as signifying “large mountain.” The syllable kt- is equivalent to ktchf; “large, great, big;” and ad’ne, ad’na, is “mountain.” The Penobscot Indians pronounce it Ktăʹd’n (a short); the Passamaquoddies, Ktād’n (a long).

Norumbega is the alleged name of a river and some ancient villages or Indian “cities” in Maine, spelled in many different ways, but never located with any degree of certainty. The name does not stand for any Indian settlement, but is a term of the Abnáki languages, which in Penobscot sounds nalambfgi, in Passamaquoddy nalabégik—both referring to the “still, quiet” (nala-) stretch of a river between two riffles, rapids, or cascades; -bégik, for nipégik, meaning “at the water.” On the larger rivers in Maine ten to twenty of these “still water stretches” may occur on each. Hence the impossibility of determining the sites meant by the old authors speaking of these localities. Narantsuak, now Norridgewok, on middle Penobscot River, has the same meaning.

Oak bay, a large inlet of St. Croix River, east of the city of Calais, is named Wekwáyik—“at the head of the bay.”

Passamaquoddy Bay, according to its orthography now current, means the bay where pollock is numerous or plentiful. The English spelling of the name is not quite correct, for the Indians pronounce it Peskĕdĕmakádi pekudebégek. Peskĕdem is the pollock-fish or “skipper,” “jumper;” called so from its habit of skipping above the surface of the water and falling into it again. -kadi, -akadi is a suffix, marking plenty or abundance. (cf. the name Acadia, derived from this ending.) There are several places on the shores of this bay especially favorable for catching this food-fish, like East Quoddy Head, etc. Quoddy, the abbreviated name now given to a hotel in Eastport, should be spelt: Kadi or Akádi, for there is no w-sound in this Indian term, and it would be better to write the name of the bay, if scientific accuracy is desired, “Peskedemakadi Bay.”

Pembroke Lake, a long water sheet, stretching from northwest to southeast, is in Indian imnakwan águm, or “the lake where sweet tree sap is obtained.” Mákwan, or “sweet,” stands for the liquid sugar running from the sugar maple. Agum means “lake.”

Pleasant Point, Indian village on the western shore of St. Croix River, is called Sibá-ik, Sibáyik, “at the water-passage, on the thoroughfare for ships or canoes,” which refers to the sites just south of the “point.”

Princeton, a village on the Kennebasis River, south shore (an affluent of the St. Croix River from the west), is called Mdakmfguk, “on the rising soil;” from mdá, “high, rising,” and kmfgu, an abbreviation of ktakmfgu, “land, soil, territory.”

Red Beach, on west shore of lower St. Croix River, above Robbinston, is named Mekwamkés’k, “at the small red beach;” from mékw(a), “red” and ámk, “beach;” –es, diminutive ending, “small, little,” and ‘k, -ûk, locative case suffix, “at, on.”

Schoodic or Skudik, “at the clearings,” is a topographic term given to the Schoodic or Grand Lake on the headwaters of the St. Croix River; also to the St. Croix River itself, and to the town of Calais. That these terms were created by the burning down of the timber appears from the term itself, for sk wút, skút means fire, and the name really means “at the fire.” Another Skúdik lake lies

St. Croix River, in Indian Skúdik sfp, “the river of clearings;” from the clearings on its shores or on the Skúdik lake, where the river takes its origin.

St. George and St. George River, emptying into the northeast end of Passamaquoddy Bay, are just as well known by their Indian name, Megigadéwik, “many eels having,” from mégi, many, gat or kat, eel, -wi, adjectival ending and -k, locative case suffix.

St. John River, running near the western border of New Brunswick and its large tributary, the Aroostook, are both called in Penobscot and in Passamaquoddy, Ulastúk, “good river,” meaning river of easy navigation, without cascades, falls, or rapids; from úla, wúli, good; -tuk, tidal river and waters driven in waves.

Written by johnwood1946

February 21, 2018 at 8:04 AM

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Alexander McNutt’s Accomplishments Went Well Beyond Maugerville

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From the blog at

Alexander McNutt’s Accomplishments Went Well Beyond Maugerville

The Rich Annapolis Valley

From the online ‘Nova Scotia Travel Guide’

Alexander McNutt was the promoter who enticed the first English settlers to Maugerville in 1763. However, his place in Nova Scotia’s history is much greater than that, as revealed in W.O. Raymond’s Colonel Alexander McNutt and the Pre-Loyalist Settlements of Nova Scotia, as read before the Royal Society of Canada in 1911. That paper was very long and this is a shorter history based upon that source.

Nova Scotia, including New Brunswick, was French territory until the Peace of Utrecht in 1713, whereupon the English took control of the peninsula of Nova Scotia. The English were uncertain whether it was worthwhile to colonize this outback territory, but they decided that it was strategically important to defend against the French. It was 1749 before the capital was moved from Annapolis to Halifax and during that 36 years almost nothing was done to take more meaningful control. It would have been impossible to colonize Nova Scotia, because New Englanders were afraid of the Acadians and the Mi’kmaq and the French who still controlled Cape Breton.

The expulsion of the Acadians began in 1755, and the second of two sieges of Louisbourg on Cape Breton was completed in 1758. These developments made Nova Scotia more attractive for colonization. The territory remained strategic, and the settling of Nova Scotia by the English spanned only that time between the taking of Louisbourg in 1758 and the coming of the Loyalists in 1783.

Governor Lawrence was under direct orders from the Lords of Trade to attract settlers to Nova Scotia and, in 1758, he issued a Proclamation inviting prospective settlers to file proposals for taking up lands recently vacated by the French. This generated interest, but New Englanders wanted to know more about the form of government in Nova Scotia and assurances that it was tolerant to religious dissent. Governor Lawrence therefore issued a second Proclamation in January of 1759 clarifying these matters.

Alexander McNutt

Alexander McNutt inherited his name from the McNaughts and MacNaughts of Scotland. His father and several uncles moved to Ireland late in the 1600’s, however, and it is there that their name became McNutt. Alexander was born in Ireland, where he received a good education. The family moved to Virginia some time in the mid-1700’s.

Alexander McNutt was a favourite with some well-placed people, including the Virginia Governor, and took part in military operations against the Indians. On one of these missions, he reported back to the Governor on the success, or lack thereof, of more senior officers. He was in perhaps twenty other military operations between England and France, and was always a volunteer and never an enlisted man. By 1760 he was raising men to relieve troops at Louisbourg. The Governor was pleased enough to give him letters of recommendation when he travelled to England, where he met with the Lords of Trade and the King appointed him an honorary Colonel. McNutt was a rising star with a magnetic personality.

Raymond notes that, throughout his life, McNutt “delighted in the promotion of great schemes, and while in his lifetime he accomplished much, it is but fair to add that his ultimate achievements were insignificant compared with his plans, perhaps we should say, his dreams. He was rather impatient of control and, while his cheerful optimism was contagious, his schemes were not always well considered and the results in several instances proved disappointing.” J.B. Brebner, in his, Neutral Yankees of Nova Scotia was more pointed in his remarks, calling McNutt a “high pressure promoter, … persuasive, …distinctly untrustworthy, … (and) a fertile liar”.

McNutt was one of those who asked for more information further to Lawrence’s first Proclamation and, with his brother William, toured Minas Basin in 1759.

The Lords of Trade had insisted that Nova Scotia be colonized but, with the military campaign against Quebec in progress, they changed their minds and wanted these efforts to be delayed. Lawrence’s plans were already underway, however, and he finally received authority to continue. The first group of prospective settlers from Connecticut and Rhode Island sent a scouting party to assess the land in early 1759, and McNutt later claimed that he was instrumental in sending this group or, at least, in many similar promotions. There were certainly other agents involved and a couple of months later five of these came to Halifax to finalize their arrangements.

The settling of Nova Scotia began immediately and was very successful. A 100,000 acre township was laid out in the Canard area of Minas Basin for 200 families from Connecticut and Rhode Island at a cost to the government of £1,500 to cover transport and support. These costs alarmed the authorities, but Lawrence was able to convince the changeable Lords of Trade that they were necessary if people were to be attracted to such a wilderness. Costs kept climbing and, by 1760, £5,475 had been spent. Lieut. Governor Belcher succeeded Governor Lawrence, and the Lords of Trade instructed him to control costs better than his predecessor. Belcher insisted, however, that Lawrence had been correct. Expressions of interest, and inspections of the land, government expenses, and actual settlement continued at a rapid pace throughout 1759, mostly on the old Acadian marsh lands of the Minas area. Settlements were made at Horton, Cornwallis Falmouth and Onslow. Large grants were also made at Annapolis Royal. By September of 1759, Lawrence was able to state that there were 12,750 families who had either relocated to Nova Scotia or were expected to do so. By then, there were settlements at Horton, Cornwallis, Falmouth, Onslow, Granville, Annapolis, Cumberland, Amherst, Sackville, Tinmouth, Liverpool, Barrington, and Yarmouth. McNutt was becoming active as a land promoter during this period, but it was an exaggeration for him to claim a principal role in these early successes.

Settlers continued to arrive at a rapid pace with some of them being poor and requiring support while others were of more independent means.

Alexander McNutt was quick to claim responsibility for the settlement of Nova Scotia, while some of those who did not admire his zeal did not agree. It is clear that he made major contributions to the peopling of Nova Scotia, however precise or imprecise his descriptions of them might have been. He also claimed to have enticed 1,000 families to relocate to Nova Scotia during 1760. This was more correct than his claims about successes in 1759, but, in truth, half of the 1,000 families never carried through with that intention.

McNutt had what would have been considered at the time as a republican tendencies. He always advocated for the election of representatives to an Assembly, and for freedom of conscience for all Protestants, and for land rights that went beyond the practices of the day, and so forth.

McNutt complained that the Belcher government had placed road blocks in the way of his colonization efforts. In their reply they pointed out that McNutt had not been present in early 1759 when several other immigration agents made agreements with Nova Scotia. They went on to say, as quoted by Raymond, that when McNutt arrived in August he was granted “one Township at Port Roseway and six Townships in the District of Cobequid, and on the Shubennaccada River, with leave to settle Families on Thirty-five Rights in the Township of Granville. In consequence, in the Spring following he produced a List of Six Hundred subscribers, being persons of the Colonies who had engaged with Him to settle those Lands, but of those six Hundred Subscribers, Fifty Families only came into the Province….” Many of the lands assigned to McNutt were never actually settled. McNutt retorted that military conscription in New England had interfered with his work, but that he had nonetheless settled 850 subscribers from New England and from Ireland where he was also seeking colonists.

There came a point when the most eligible immigrants from New England were a poorer sort who needed financial support in order to move. McNutt’s proposal to transport immigrants from Ireland at his own expense was therefore viewed by the Lords of Trade as superior to paying the expenses of these New Englanders. McNutt travelled to London in 1761 with this proposal for Irish emigration, with the support of Governor Belcher and the Lords of Trade. As encouragement, he was promised 100 acres of land for every 500 acres settled by him at his expense.

By later in 1761, McNutt had boarded 300 persons en route to Nova Scotia with others to follow in the spring. He projected that thousands would follow later. Belcher was overjoyed with this progress and the Irish immigrants were settled in Cobequid.

McNutt and Belcher had a falling-out by 1762, with Belcher claiming that McNutt was acting rashly and beyond the terms of their agreement, while McNutt claimed that Belcher was an obstructionist who had lied to the Irish immigrants about him. McNutt further claimed that officials in Halifax were more interested in reserving land for themselves than in accommodating the Irish. On this point, Belcher wanted to limit the grants of land to Irish newcomers to five or six acres only, prompting the conclusion that he envisaged large grants to established Nova Scotians who would use the Irish as tenants.

In the meantime, McNutt’s friends in Council supported his complaints against Belcher and the other members of the same Council, while McNutt was away in London spreading his complaints there.

In England, McNutt proposed that he be allowed to transport seven or eight thousand Irish Protestants to Nova Scotia, where he wanted a grant of a city-sized parcel near Roseway to accommodate them. He also asked for grants of two thousand acres for himself for the mining of potash. The Lords of Trade were reluctant to export so many Irish Protestants to North America and agreed only that the Irish that were already there, plus those with whom McNutt had contracted to transport, should be granted lands on the same terms as those who had come before them. Belcher was so ordered but, as it turned out, it was already too late in the year (1762) to arrange a mass-transport. In the meantime, the British Ministry again became concerned with the loss of so many Protestant subjects from Ireland and ordered that land grants to Irishmen in Nova Scotia should be limited to those who had lived in the colonies for at least five years.

McNutt had lost in his arguments for large scale emigration from Ireland at a cost to him of around £16,000, for which the Lords of Trade were willing to compensate him. He was a man of action who never paid much attention to paperwork, and could not substantiate his claim. They therefore decided to compensate him with land in Nova Scotia instead.

McNutt was never discouraged, and turned his attention to peopling the Saint John River, particularly the Maugerville area. The story of the settlement of Maugerville is told elsewhere in this blog at . It is sufficient here to note that the Maugerville settlers arrived without the authorities in Halifax knowing about it, and they were very angry with McNutt. It was only with reluctance that the New Englanders were allowed to stay at their own risk while their final disposition was being decided. Other details of how they were allowed to remain in this “extreme part and frontier of Nova Scotia two hundred miles from the nearest settlement” may be found in the other blog post.

McNutt had agents working for him in ten American colonies while he was in England between 1762 and 1765. By this time, he claimed to have sent 2,000 families to Nova Scotia with another 16,000 being interested in joining them. He had been active in America and Ireland and had even proposed to move French Protestants to South Carolina. For his efforts, he was offered an estate in Nova Scotia.

By 1765, the new Governor, Montague Wilmot, had thousands of applicants for grants. Many of them never arrived, but the total number demonstrates the great interest which had been generated. Included in the land reservations was1.6-million acres on the Saint John River, which was later taken away from McNutt for non-compliance with conditions. The applications involved other Agents, but many of them originated with McNutt. Millions of acres of land were reserved, including for McNutt himself.

Meanwhile, McNutt argued for more liberal terms in the granting of land, and accused the authorities of favoring their friends. He again raised the specter that those in power wanted to make large grants to people who would keep tenants who could  not “properly be called by any other name than slaves.” He did not have much success with these arguments.

McNutt insisted that each township peopled by him be allowed two representatives to the Assembly. Of the authorities’ reaction to this Raymond notes “The Colonel’s proposals would, if granted, be prejudicial to the peace and good government of the province, particularly that of allowing two representatives in General Assembly to every township he might settle, more especially should those he might in future introduce be of the same troublesome disposition with some he had already brought, the Government having experienced more difficulty in keeping peace and good order in the two little Towns of Truro and Londonderry, settled by Colonel McNutt’s followers, than with all the other Settlements in the whole Province.”

Frustrated in some of his projects, McNutt retired to Port Roseway in about 1766, but the terms of that grant were also not met, and the township was sold in 1775. Three years later Port Roseway was raided by privateers and McNutt’s home was sacked. He was not viewed as a reliable British subject, due to his republican tendencies; but he was also never fully accepted as an American Patriot since he had remained silent during the Revolution. McNutt relocated to Massachusetts and later to Virginia, a most diminished figure.

Written by johnwood1946

February 14, 2018 at 8:12 AM

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